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    The Biotope Observation and Artificial Culture of Dunaliella saline in Zabuye Salt Lake of Tibet
    He Chao-xing;Wu Yu-shu and Zheng Mian-ping
    Chinese Bulletin of Botany    1997, 14 (01): 48-51.  
    Abstract957)      PDF (171KB)(520)       Save
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    Movement of four breeding waterbirds at Qinghai Lake, China
    Guogang Zhang, Dongping Liu, Hongxing Jiang, Yunqiu Hou, Ming Dai, Guozhong Chu, Zhi Xing
    Biodiv Sci    2008, 16 (3): 279-287.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07225
    Abstract3690)   HTML4)    PDF (214KB)(4945)       Save

    The movements of four species of breeding waterbirds were studied using color marking, radio-tracking, and satellite-tracking at Qinghai Lake between April and September, 2006. Forty five bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) were captured with foot traps, including six individuals tagged with radio transmitters in April and another six birds with satellite transmitters in July. A total of 104 brown-headed gulls (Larus brunnicephalus) were captured with hand nets, and six of these were radio-tagged in April. Fifty one great black-headed gulls (L. ichthyaetus) were captured with foot traps, including two birds that were radio-tagged in April. Seventy five great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) were captured using the spotlight method, including six birds radio-tagged in May and June, and four individuals tagged with satellite transmitters in August. Data showed three distinct movement routes for the bar-headed goose, one for the brown-headed gull, four for the great black-headed gull, and two for the great cormorant. Furthermore, one of these routes was shared by all four waterbird species—from Luci Island and Egg Island to Quanwan along the shore near the Buhahekou and Tiebuqiahekou. These areas are also important as foraging and resting sites for many other waterbird species during migration periods.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
      
    Population diversity and phylogeny of halophiles in the Qinghai Lake
    Derui Zhu, Jian Liu, Rui Han, Guoping Shen, Fang Yang, Qifu Long, Deli Liu
    Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (4): 495-504.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10224
    Abstract3060)   HTML11)    PDF (718KB)(4203)       Save

    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland saline lake in China, but the diversity of halophiles within the lake remains unknown. We isolated 35 bacterial strains from different water samples in Qinghai Lake using an Oesterhelt-Stoeckenius medium (OSM). The majority of halophiles in this lake were moderate halophiles (grew at 0.4 to 3.5 M NaCl), accounting for about 62.9% (22 strains) of total bacteria, followed by the slight halophiles (22.9%, 8 strains) which could grow at 0 to 1.0 M NaCl, whereas the halotolerant (grew at 0 to more than 1.0 M NaCl) and nonhalophile (grew at 0 to 1.0 M NaCl) represented 11.4% (4 strains) and 2.9% (1 strain) of total bacteria, respectively. We investigated and analyzed the population diversity and evolutionary relationship based on the 16S rDNA sequences. A total of 35 bacterial strains were sequenced, and homology analysis showed that a majority was affiliated with γ-Proteobacteria and Bacilli, which accounted for 68.6% (24 strains) and 17.1% (6 strains) of total bacteria, respectively, whereas Actinobacteridae (3 strains), α-Proteobacteria (1 strain) and Eurotiomycetidae (1 strain) represented a small portion of total bacteria. Based on phylogenetics, 35 strains belonged to 14 different genera. Ten strains of Halomonas in the Oceanospirillales were the most dominant species, whereas 4 strains of Marinomonas represented a minor species component. Overall, Halomonas was the dominant group of moderate halophile, which can likely be attributed to its ability to adapt to relatively low salinity environments.

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    Cited: CSCD(15)
      
    Application for identification of small mammals by DNA barcoding in Haidong area, Qinghai Province, China
    Ying Ma, Hailong Li, Liang Lu, Qiyong Liu
    Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (2): 193-198.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.06188
    Abstract2751)   HTML5)    PDF (378KB)(2672)       Save

    Because of the shortcomings of morphological classification, we studied the feasibility of DNA barcoding in the identification of small mammals. Small mammals belonging to 3 orders, 6 families and 14 genera were collected from the Haidong region in Qinghai Province. We analyzed COI gene sequences from 110 small mammal samples and the results showed that the average intraspecific genetic distance was small than 3%, average interspecific distance ranged from 5% to 10% and intergenus distance 12-19%. The average interspecific genetic distance was significantly greater than the intraspecific genetic distance. A Neighbor-Joining tree showed that samples of the same species formed monophyletic groups with high support value. The NJ tree implied that 6 individuals were misidentified in the field. Our results suggest that the DNA barcoding can increase identification accuracy relative to using morphology alone, and also that the mitochondrial COI gene is an efficacious candidate for DNA barcoding.

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    Cited: CSCD(21)
      
    Floral traits, pollinator assemblages, and phenotypic selection at different flowering time for Trollius ranunculoides
    Lele Liu, Zuojun Liu, Guozhen Du, Zhigang Zhao
    Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (3): 317-323.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.07084
    Abstract2911)   HTML4)    PDF (351KB)(3687)       Save

    We measured floral traits of Trollius ranunculoides at different flowering time, observed the taxa of pollinators and pollinator visiting frequencies, and collected the seeds in the end of growing season to estimate pollinator preferences and the overall phenotypic selection gradient. We estimated phenotypic selection on floral traits at different flowering time using female fitness (seed number). We found significant differences of floral traits among different flowering time, with the corresponding preference, taxa, and visiting frequencies of pollinators also different. During early flowering time, visiting frequencies of bees were higher, flower calxy and petal size were wider, and total stalk length was shorter on flowers that bees preferred; however, there was no significant flower preference by different fly species. Furthermore, our estimates of phenotypic selection through female fitness differed at variable flowering time. The results of our study indicate that divergent flowering time and corresponding variation in pollinators might lead to different phenotypes, ultimately resulting in the divergence of floral traits. However, pollinator preference was dissimilar from phenotypic selection estimated by female fitness due to reasons not sufficiently evaluated in this study.

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
      
    Distribution of terrestrial national nature reserves in relation to human activities and natural environments in China
    Guanghua Zhao,Yu Tian,Zhiyao Tang,Junsheng Li,Hui Zeng
    Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (6): 658-665.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08048
    Abstract2735)   HTML52)    PDF (463KB)(2919)       Save

    To protect its huge biodiversity, China has established 2,640 nature reserves, including 318 terrestrial national nature reserves, covering ~15% of its landmass. It is necessary to characterize the geographical distribution of these nature reserves along natural and socio-economic gradients before evaluating their effectiveness in conserving China’s biodiversity. We did this using geographic information system (GIS) analysis. The results show that, the coverage of nature reserves is unbalanced across China. In total, there are 2,150 counties (91% of the total) with <10% coverage of nature reserves, of which 150 have <6% coverage and 1,726 (73%) have no nature reserves at all. A higher coverage of nature reserves tends to occur in regions of higher elevation, lower temperature, less precipitation, and less vegetation productivity. Nature reserves tend to be established therefore at high and cold locations in poor remote areas where human activities (including farming) are greatly reduced. In contrast, in warm humid and productive areas for farming and horticulture, nature reserve coverage is relatively low.

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    Cited: CSCD(32)
      
    Habitat suitability assessment of Przewalski’s gazelle in the Hudong- Ketu area, Qinghai, China
    Xiulei Wang, Diqiang Li, Bo Wu, Hongxiao Yang
    Biodiv Sci    DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050014
    Abstract3903)      PDF (294KB)(3335)       Save
      
    Monitoring mammals and birds with camera traps at different altitudes of Medog, Tibet
    Jianpu Wu, Hong Luo, Xuelin Zhu, Bingzhang Li, Wulin Liu, Ping Ci
    Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (3): 351-354.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015106
    Abstract1660)   HTML18)    PDF (454KB)(1905)       English Version    Save
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    Cited: CSCD(9)
      
    Effects of the yellow barbs of the staminodes on reproductive success of Delphinium caeruleum (Ranunculaceae)
    Chan Zhang, Shaoqin Zha, Yongping Yang, Yuanwen Duan
    Biodiv Sci    2012, 20 (3): 348-353.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.06035
    Abstract3610)   HTML9)    PDF (400KB)(3087)       Save

    Nectar guides are special floral structures that are assumed to attract and/or direct pollinators towards a concealed nectar reward. Nectar guides are commonly found in many angiosperm plants, especially entomophilous flowers, but their functional significance and impacts on the reproductive success of plants are poorly understood. For example, Delphinium caeruleum of the family Ranunculaceae possesses two barbate staminodes, between which is the nectar entrance. To test the effects of these barbs on male and female fitness, we experimentally investigated the effects of barb removal on seed production and pollen exportation of D. caeruleum at the Haibei Station of Qinghai Province. Our results showed that flowers of D. caeruleum were dichogamous and herkogamous, which prevented autonomous selfing in this species. The mating system of D. caeruleum belongs to obligate xenogamy and thus pollinators are necessary for the successful pollination. Compared to control flowers, the number of pollen grains exported was reduced significantly after removing the barbs, but fruit set and seed number was not affected. Our primary results indicate that the barbs on the staminode act as nectar guides, which improve the male fitness of D. caeruleum, but have little effect on female fitness. Our results suggest that selection through male fitness might have played an important role in the floral evolution of D. caeruleum at our study site. These results need to be further investigated at a larger number of sites to evaluate selection mechanisms on floral traits of D. caeruleum.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
      
    A study on the resources and distribution of rare wild animals in Tibet
    Wang Jianlin
    Biodiv Sci    1997, 05 (4): 271-275.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1997046
    Abstract3860)      PDF (151KB)(3840)       Save
    125 species of rare wild animals were found in Tibet, belonging to 16 orders, 29 families and 86 genera. Of them, there were 52 species of mammals, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families and 34 genera; 69 species of birds, belonging to 8 orders, 13 families and 49 genera, and 4 species of other animals. This paper introduced some important species of the rare wild animals in Tibet.
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    Genetic diversity of Tacca integrifolia (Taccaceae) in the Brahmaputra valley, Tibet
    Ling Zhang, Qingjun Li, Dezhu Li
    Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (1): 65-72.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050206
    Abstract5979)      PDF (268KB)(4304)       Save
    Tacca integrifolia is a tropical herb with a core distribution in southeast Asia and disjunct populations in the Brahmaputra valley in China. Significant morphological differences exist between the two regions. Genetic variation within and among four populations, three from the Brahmaputra valley, and one from Malaysia, was assessed using 19 Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers. The Malaysian population was more than 2,000 km from the other populations. A total of 165 discernible loci were obtained, of which 111 were polymorphic (67.68%). Genetic diversity was relatively high at the species level (PPB = 67.68%, HT =0.185, and Hsp = 0.292), but was low within populations (PPB = 12.81%, HE = 0.065 and Hpop = 0.044). Extremely high levels of population genetic differentiation were detected based on Nei’s genetic diversity analysis (GST = 0.777) and AMOVA analysis (FST =0.9206). Genetic differentiation among the three Brahmaputra populations (0.28%) and within these populations (7.94%) was low (P < 0.001). Restricted gene flow (Nm = 0.1435) among populations may result from self-pollination, inefficient seed dispersal, populationisolation, and habitat fragmentation. The extremely low genetic diversity in Brahmaputra populations was probably due to the unique landforms and vicariance of the Brahmaputra valley.
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
      
    Geographic patterns and environmental correlates of terrestrial mammal species richness in China
    Xin Lin, Zhiheng Wang, Zhiyao Tang, Shuqing Zhao, Jingyun Fang
    Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (6): 652-663.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09065
    Abstract4262)   HTML33)    PDF (624KB)(4541)       Save

    Understanding macro-scale spatial patterns in species diversity and their underlying mechanisms is central to macroecology and biogeography. In this study, we explored geographic patterns of species richness and their environmental determinants for overall terrestrial mammals and each major mammalian order in China, using datasets of species distribution, climate, topography and vegetation. Species richness of terrestrial mammals exhibited significant latitudinal gradients, decreasing from south to north. High species richness generally occurred in tropical and subtropical mountains, whereas low species richness was found in the eastern plains, the arid areas of northwest regions, and central areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Geographic patterns of species richness varied among mammalian orders. The best model, which included a remote sensing-based vegetation index (NDVI), number of ecosystems, and annual range of temperature, accounted for 66.2% of variation in overall mammal species richness, with NDVI being the most important determinant. This suggests that patterns of mammal richness in China are governed by the integrated effects of different environmental predictors, with vegetation productivity playing a major role. The best models for various orders of mammals identified different combinations of determinants, possibly reflecting differences in evolutionary history and physiological tolerances.

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    Cited: CSCD(31)
      
    The relationship between species richness and productivity in four typical grasslands of northern China
    Wenhong Ma, Jingyun Fang
    Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (1): 21-28.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050146
    Abstract4509)      PDF (189KB)(3624)       Save
    The relationship between plant species diversity and primary productivity has long been a hot topic in biodiversity research. We examined the relationship between species richness and productivity in four typical grasslands of northern China at different spatial scales. At the community scale, a positive correlation was found for six of seven communities, and a unimodal pattern was found only for one community (Stipa glareosa community). At large scale (vegetation type or landscape/region), a significant positive relationship was found. Species richness ranged from 4 to 35 species, and community above-ground productivity from 13 to 368 g·m–2·yr–1. The highest species richness and above-ground productivity were found in the alpine meadow community, followed by meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe.
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    Cited: CSCD(27)
      
    Bird diversity spatial distribution patterns and hotspots in Maixiu Area of Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve, Qinghai Province
    Jianchao Liang, Zhifeng Ding, Chunlan Zhang, Huijian Hu, Hairui Duo, Hong Tang
    Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (3): 294-303.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016252
    Abstract1806)   HTML25)    PDF (1239KB)(2127)       English Version    Save

    Assessing and determining patterns and hotspots of biodiversity are the foundation of biodiversity conservation planning. Situated in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and being the source of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lancang rivers, the Sanjiangyuan region is considered to be one of the most abundant and concentrated areas of plateau species worldwide. We conducted bird censuses in the Maixiu Area of Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve in March, May and August of 2014. We examined the spatial patterns and identified bird community hotspots, and the conservation gaps of current zoning. Our results showed that: (1) there were 89 bird species in the Maixiu Area belonging to 10 orders, 29 families and 57 genera, among which 12 species belonged to the List of Key Protected Wild Animals of China and 11 species were listed in appendices I and II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); (2) there were differences in bird community composition among habitat types and along an elevational gradient, and bird diversity in low altitude, forest habitats was higher than that found in high altitude, meadow habitats; (3) bird diversity decreased from forest to glaciers and snowberg, and from northeast to northwest and southeast; hotspots of endangered birds were concentrated in southwestern alpine meadows, which differed from the hotspots of the overall bird community; and (4) the core zone of the reserve matched the hotspots of overall birds well, but failed to match the hotspots of endangered birds, which might be not conducive to their protection. Our results may help to make more effective decisions for biodiversity conservation in this region.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)
      
    Large-scale patterns in species diversity of fishes in the Yangtze River Basin
    Xiaodong Yu, Tianhong Luo, Hongzhang Zhou
    Biodiv Sci    2005, 13 (6): 473-495.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050121
    Abstract6196)      PDF (531KB)(7008)       Save
    We synthesized the information on fish diversity in the Yangtze River Basin, documenting 378 species/subspecies that had been recorded and described from the basin, belonging to 14 orders, 32 families and 144 genera. Of these, 338 species/subspecies are freshwater fishes, of which 269 species/subspecies are from the Cypriniformes. Of the total, 11 species are migratory fishes, and 29 are species of brackish water of the estuary. A total of 162 species/subspecies are endemic to the river and 69 are threatened. We divided the Yangtze River Basin into 19 sub-basins. Except for the two sub-basins of the headwaters and the upper and middle reaches of Jinshajiang River, the other 17 sub-basins showed similar values in species richness and G-F diversity indices, although the values were higher in the upper reaches than in the middle and lower reaches. However, the proportion of endemic species decreased gradually from the headwater to the estuary of the basin in parallel with the gradient of elevation. Jaccard similarity analysis showed that the 19 sub-basins were clustered into three groups: (1) the headwaters and the upper and middle reaches of Jinshajiang River, located in the eastern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and Hengduan Mountains; (2) the other sub-basins of the upper reaches, located in Western Sichuan Plateau, Yungui Plateau, Sichuan Basin, and Qinling-Daba Mountains; (3) the middle and lower reaches, belonging to the Huaiyang Mountains, Jiangnan Hills and the plain along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. This grouping reflects the environmental characteristics of the basins and the three large topographic plat-forms of the Chinese mainland.
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    Cited: CSCD(41)
      
    Allozyme variation in Sophora moorcroftiana , an endemic species of Tibet, China
    ZHAO A-Man, LIU Zhi-Min, KANG Xiang-Yang, ZHOU Shi-Liang
    Biodiv Sci    2003, 11 (2): 91-99.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2003013
    Abstract3996)      PDF (480KB)(3068)       Save
    The genetic diversity of ten populations of Sophora moorcroftiana in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, Tibet, China was assessed using allozyme analysis by horizontal sliceable starch gel electrophoresis. Twenty four loci (46 alleles) of 13 enzyme systems demonstrate low levels of genetic variation within populations, with the value of Pp=25.0%~37.5%,Ap=1.3~1.7 and Hep=0.112~0.169. At the species level, the genetic diversity of S. moocroftiana (Ps=37.5%, As=1.9, Hes=0.171) was lower than the mean value of angiosperms of long lived woody species (Ps=59.5%,As=2.10,Hes=0.183). Wright′s F statistics analysis indicated that FIS, a measure of the deviation from random mating within the 10 populations, was -0.0071, suggesting deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and a slight heteroygote excess in some populations. The higher level of differentiation (FST=0.1748) among populations than those of other long lived woody plants may result from habitat fragmentation and low levels of gene flow (Nm=1.1802) caused by environmental deterioration and human disturbance, including over felling and over-grazing. It was worth noting that populations H2 (Xietongmen), H31 (Jiangdang1), H32 (Jiangdang2), and H5 (Langsailing) harbored the majority of alleles and had high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting that these populations in particular should be conserved in situ.
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    Cited: CSCD(16)
      
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in arid zones in northwestern China
    Chunhua Ji, Shubin Zhang, Jingping Gai, Dengsha Bai, Xiaolin Li, Gu Feng
    Biodiv Sci    2007, 15 (1): 77-83.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.060119
    Abstract4497)      PDF (231KB)(4374)       Save
    In order to understand the distribution pattern of the resources of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in arid zones in northwestern China, we investigated AM fungal diversity in five vegetation types: desert, grassland, forest, meadow, and oasis farmland. Forty AM fungal species belonging to six genera were identified from the rhizospheres of 60 plant species. Of these fungi, 35 were identified to species and five were identified to genus. Glomus claroideum was the dominant species throughout the sampling area, but the occurrence and distribution pattern of AM fungi in the five vegetation types were quite different. Entrophospora was only observed in desert while Paraglomus was found in oasis farmland and desert, Archaeospora existed in grassland, desert and oasis farmland, and Scutellospora existed in meadow, forest and grassland. The biodiversity index in oasis farmland and meadow were higher than other vegetation types, indicating soil moisture may be the most important factor affecting the distribution of AM fungi in arid zones.
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    Cited: CSCD(19)
      
    Butterfly diversity in different habitat types at the Huzhu Northern Mountain National Forest Park, Qinghai
    Zhenning Chen, Yang Zeng, Min Bao, Jixiong Ma, Jun Ke
    Biodiv Sci    2006, 14 (6): 517-524.   DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050244
    Abstract4173)      PDF (299KB)(5274)       Save
    In order to probe into the dynamics of butterfly species and quantities in different habitats at high elevation, from 1993 to 1997, we surveyed butterfly diversity in four habitat types at the Huzhu Northern Mountain National Forest Park, Qinghai. We selected a plain among valleys, a temperate steppe, a mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest, and an alpine shrub meadow as our study sites. We trapped 4,745 butterflies, belonging to eight families, 57 genera and 86 species. The genera with the most abundant species included Colias (6 species), Pieris (5 species), Aporia (4 species), Pontia (3 species), and Melitaea (3 species). The most individual number occurred in the families Pieridae and Lycaenidae. In terms of butterfly species composition and quantities, significant differences existed among different habitats. The number of butterfly species was the largest in the mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest, while the individual number peaked in the plain among valleys. The species diversity of butterflies was highest in the mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the lowest in alpine shrub meadow, while the evenness index was highest in mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest and lowest in the plain among valleys. Dominance was the highest in the alpine shrub meadow. The mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest had the most endemic genera/species (20 genera, 24 species), followed by the alpine shrub meadow (8 genera, 8 species), the plain among valleys (6 genera, 7 species), and the temperate steppe (5 genera, 6 species). The similarity coefficients of butterfly species among different habitats ranged from 0 to 0.4259. Using cluster analysis to identify the species composition of butterflies, we discovered that the plain among valleys had the highest similarity with the temper-ate steppe, and secondarily with the mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest, and third with the alpine shrub meadow. In order to protect the butterfly diversity of this area, we suggest establishing a natural protected zone to better balance tourism and biodiversity protection.
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    Cited: CSCD(12)
      
    The status of animal resources and the strategies for sustainable development in western China
    Liu Naifa, Chen Qiang
    Biodiv Sci    1997, 05 (3): 190-196.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1997031
    Abstract3381)      PDF (238KB)(2436)       Save
    The western China includes Shaanxi,  Ningxia,  Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjing, Xizang and western part of Nei Monggol Autonomous Region. It makes up 46.5% of Chinese territory. The population in this region amounts to 8.33% of all the nation. There are rich animal resources in western China with great spatial heterogeneity in environment. There are 1273 species of terrestrial vertebrates, occupying 52.73% of 2414 species in China. Among them 81 species are amphibian, accounting for 28.52% of that in China, 119 species are reptiles, making up 34.69% of reptiles in China, 781 species are birds, amounting to 62.38% of birds in China and 292 species are mammal, accounting for 53.66% of mammal in China. 259 species, 20.55% of 1273 species , are only distributed in western China. Almost all large ungulates in China are encountered in western China. In western China 174 terrestrial vertebrate species, amounting to 52.25% of 333 species in whole China, are protected by law and 54 species of birds and beasts are endemic species. The animal resources in western China possess high values in economy, scientific researches and have significant ecological benefits. Because of environment destroying and excessive hunting, it has been known that  Equus przewalskii, Saiga tatarica, Panthera tigris and Paradoxornis przewalskii were extinguished in western China. Nipponia nippon has become an extremely endangered species,  Ailuropoda melanoleuca  and Procapra przewalskii  have been on the edge of extreme endangerment. The population density of some economic animals  decreased in western China, for example, Moschus sifanicus and M. berezovskii dropped by 8.97% and 8.44% on average respectively every year (n=12) in Gansu. Cervus elaphus, C.albiostris, Bos grunniens, Asinus spp. Procapra picticaudata, Pseudois nayaur and Gazellia subgutturosa are being hunted by gold diggers in Gansu and Qinhai. On the other hand, population density of some rare animals increased steadily in recent years as a result of protection. For example,Ovis ammon  and Camelus ferus increased by 10.06% and 10.89% respectively on average every year in Gansu.Six strategies for sustainable development of animal resource were suggested  in this paper: (1) strengthen organization and management of reserves; (2) establish protecting fund in each province and autonomous region; (3) protect the habitats of animals; (4) encourage to raise economic animals. (5) conserve rare species through in-situ and ex-situ conservation; (6) artificially enlarge distribution range of rare and economic animals.
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    Cited: CSCD(1)
      
    The butterfly diversity of different habitat types in Qilian, Qinghai Province
    CHEN Zhen-Ning, ZENG Yang
    Biodiv Sci    2001, 09 (2): 109-114.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2001017
    Abstract3401)      PDF (233KB)(3096)       Save
    The faunal composition of butterflies in different habitat types in the Qilian area of Qinghai Province , northwest China , was surveyed f rom 1997 to 1999. Five habitat types were classified based on altitude , climate , soil and vegetation differences : hilly cultivated land , mountain steppe , forest steppe , alpine shrub meadow and bare rock. Of the total collection of 4 ,367 specimens , 53 species of 35 genera in six families were identified. Species richness , species composition similarity (J accard index) and species diversity index ( Shannon-Wiener index , H′) were calculated for the five habitat types. The species richness increased in the following sequence : bare rock (6 spp. ) , mountain steppe (13 spp. ) , forest steppe (14 spp. ) , alpine shrub meadow (22 spp. ) and hilly cultivated land (23 spp. ) . In cont rast , the species diversity increased in a different sequence : bare rock ( H′= 1.4629) , forest steppe ( H′= 2.2398) , mountain steppe ( H′= 2.2676) , hilly cultivated land ( H′= 2.7071) and alpine shrub meadow ( H′= 2.7734) . The butterfly species composition between forest steppe and hilly cultivated land had the highest similarity (J accard index = 0.3704) , with the second highest similarity between mountain steppe and alpine shrub meadow (J accard index = 0.2500) , and the lowest similarity between bare rock and other habitat types.
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    Cited: CSCD(36)
      
    Herpetofauna of Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve in Tibet, China
    Hujun Pan,Daode Yang,Haihua Qin,Liang Zhang,Ke Jiang,Huijian Hu
    Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (5): 610-615.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.06045
    Abstract2713)   HTML14)    PDF (509KB)(2262)       Save

    The Qomolangma National Nature Reserve (QNNR) in Tibet, China, is the highest nature reserve in the world and is characterized by a wide range in altitude. The QNNR was established to protect its vegetation, unique alpine ecosystem, and overall abundant biodiversity. Amphibians and reptiles are important components of its biodiversity, but are poorly understood. Thus, we surveyed amphibians and reptiles in the QNNR on 5 occasions between October 2010 and October 2012. This survey revealed 9 amphibian species, which belong to 6 genera, 3 families, and 1 order. All of these species belong to the Oriental Realm. We also recorded 11 reptile species belonging to 10 genera, 4 families, and 1 order. Among these species, 8 belong to the Oriental Realm and 3 to the Palearctic Realm. According to our records, the herptofauna of the QNNR is characterized by both endemic amphibian and reptile species with 2 endemic species and 6 quasi-endemic species in China. The estimated species richness of amphibians and reptiles in the reserve is likely to increase with further survey, especially along the southern slope of the Himalayas. A sharp dividing line between the Palearctic region and Oriental region in the QNNR occurs between 3,600-3,800 m a.s.l. with no transition zone.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
      
    A review of microbial diversity in polar terrestrial environments
    Weidong Kong
    Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (4): 456-467.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.12043
    Abstract2630)   HTML9)    PDF (269KB)(3760)       Save

    Polar regions refer to the areas at high latitudes and altitudes, that are characterized by low temperature and limited nutrients, and are very vulnerable and sensitive to global climate change. They include the Antarctic, the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau, which is recognized as “the third pole”. The harsh polar environments are inhabited by abundant microbes that shape and maintain ecosystems by driving biogeochemical cycles. This article herein reviews microbial diversity in these polar terrestrial environments, including soils, lakes and glaciers in the Antarctic, the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau. In the three poles, five major groups of microbes have been detected, e.g. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cynobacteria, and Firmicutes. These microbes are salt- and cold-tolerant. Research in polar microbial ecology in China is currently lagging behind developed countries. Priorities should be given to long-term observations on the Tibetan Plateau, which is easily approached. This will facilitate microbial ecology research and expand our understanding of microbial processes and their ecological roles in extreme environments.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
      
    Community structure of alpine sparse vegetation and effects of micro-topography in Pushila, Everest-Choyu region, Tibet, China
    FANG Jing-Yun, KANZAKI Mamoru, WANG Xiang-Ping, YODA Kyoji, SUN Shi-Zhou, SHIMOTA Katsuhiko
    Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (1): 190-199.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004023
    Abstract4039)      PDF (289KB)(3314)       Save
    A total of 13 plots were set along a transect from the altitude of 5176 m to 5390 m in Pushila, Everest-Choyu region, Tibet, to investigate community structure of alpine sparse vegetation and effects of micro-topography. A total of 80 higher plant species, belonging to 47 genera, were identified. The most prevalent species were Kobresia pygmaea, Lagotis humilis, Potentilla cuneata, Pedicularis oederi var. sinensis, Potentilla polyschista, and Arenaria densissima. Several genera were highly species rich, such as Saxifraga, Saussurea, Kobresia, Potentilla, Gentiana, and Draba. As altitude decreased, richness of both species and genera tended to increase. Vegetation coverage was found to be a good indicator for habitat conditions. Cluster analysis supported this finding. With increasing vegetation coverage, transformed species richness (TSR) and transformed genus richness (TGR) increased, while Shannon-Wiener index decreased. Four habitat types that reflected a good correlation between community structure and micro-topography were identified based on CCA analysis using species matrix and five variables (altitude, slope, aspect, soil depth, and vegetation coverage).
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    Cited: CSCD(17)
      
    Plant species richness of alpine grasslands in relation to environmental factors and biomass on the Tibetan Plateau
    YANG Yuan-He, RAO Sheng, HU Hui-Feng, CHEN An-Ping, JI Cheng-Jun, ZHU Biao, ZUO Wen-Yun, LI Xuan-Ran, SHEN Hai-Hua, WANG Zhi-Heng, TANG Yan-Hong, FANG Jing-Yun
    Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (1): 200-205.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004024
    Abstract4773)      PDF (279KB)(4110)       Save
    Patterns of biodiversity along environmental gradients is one of the basic issues in biodiversity research. Furthermore, the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass is one of the most controversial subjects in ecology. In this paper, we studied the patterns of species richness along environmental gradients and the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass in two major ecosystem types on the Tibetan Plateau, alpine meadow and alpine steppe. The results are summarized as follows: (1) 267 species were recorded in 250 plots of 50 sites, 179 of which occurred in alpine meadows and 135 in alpine steppe. The number of species ranged from 3 to 32 in alpine meadow, while it ranged from 2 to 18 in alpine steppe. (2) Species richness increased with latitude and longitude, and decreased with altitude. A stepwise regression analysis of species richness and environmental factors showed that the species richness was significantly correlated with growing season precipitation and warmth index. (3) Species richness was positively correlated with aboveground biomass.
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    Cited: CSCD(105)
      
    Community structure and vascular plant species composition of primary spruce forest near timberline in the eastern Tibetan Plateau
    Xin Liu, Weikai Bao
    Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (1): 34-40.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.07098
    Abstract3918)   HTML4)    PDF (513KB)(2855)       Save

    Spruce forest is a typical alpine forest type near timberline in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. However, little is known about this ecosystem. In the present study we investigated community structure and vascular plant composition of such forests in northern Zamtang County, Sichuan Province, China. We sampled six plots (40 m×50 m) in primary forests in a range of 3,700-3,800 m elevation. For all trees ≥ 3 m in height in each plot, height and diameter at 50 cm height were measured. A total of 180 subplots (1 m×1 m), 30 for each plot, were sampled to estimate the coverage of shrubs, herbs and bryophytes, and species composition of shrubs and herbs. Four sub-layers could be recognized within the canopy, suggesting that the forest is uneven-aged and multi-storied. Structure analysis of tree height and diameter showed that the arborous layer was stable and maintained a certain regenerative ability. Shrubs showed a patchy spatial pattern with simple structure and low richness. Compared to low coverage (15.4±20.9%) of shrubs, coverage of herbs and bryophytes (49.4±21.9% and 36.6±21.2%, respectively) were higher, forming obvious herb and bryophyte layers. A total of 124 vascular species (109 herbs and 15 shrubs) were recorded in all six plots, belonging to 68 genera and 30 families. Temperate areal-type genera and hemicryptophyte species were dominant. We concluded that the forest was a moss-spruce forest type. Although the species composition and richness were quite similar to other forests in Tibetan Plateau, community structure differed significantly. Our results provide insights into management and biodiversity conservation in forests near the timberline in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
      
    Effects of farming practices in Tibet on wintering Black necked Crane ( Grus nigricollis ) diet and food availability
    Mary Anne Bishop, Li FengShan
    Biodiv Sci    2002, 10 (4): 393-398.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002054
    Abstract3713)      PDF (245KB)(2736)       Save
    We studied the availability of cereal grains as food resources for win tering Black-necked Cranes in south-central Tibet Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China during January 1996. Barley, spring wheat, and winter wheat were the three major crops. Fecal samples revealed that Black necked cranes fed extensively on waste cereal grain, especially wheat. Winter wheat seedlings comprised only a minor portion of the crane diet. Post-harvest farming practices including plowing and livestock grazing influenced surface residue cover (seeds, leaves, stems, or roots) and waste cereal grain (kernels, spikelets, or chaffy bracts) available for cranes. Plowing buried most crop residue. In unplowed fields, proportion of waste grain residue cover was similar in harvested barley and harvested wheat fields. Harvested wheat produced the greatest density of surface waste grain. We recommend providing unplowed, harvested wheat and harvested barley fields near rivers and cultivating winter wheat closer to primary roads in order to maximize grain availability and minimize potential disturbance to wintering Black necked Cranes.
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    Cited: CSCD(16)
      
    Minimum plot size for estimating plant biodiversity of the alpine grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    Shikui Dong,Lin Tang,Xuexia Wang,Yinghui Liu,Shiliang Liu,Quanru Liu,Yu Wu,Yuanyuan Li,Xukun Su,Chen Zhao
    Biodiv Sci    2013, 21 (6): 651-657.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.07095
    Abstract2271)   HTML9)    PDF (263KB)(2713)       Save

    To determine the appropriate plot size for estimating plant diversity of different types of alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), i.e. alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert, seven models were applied in the examination of species-area relationships. Depending on the optimal species-area relationship curves, the minimum sizes of sampling plot for each type of grassland under healthy and degraded conditions were obtained. The findings were as follows: (1) Non-saturation curve models were most suitable for describing species-area relationships of alpine grasslands on the QTP; (2) For all three types of alpine grassland, the minimum plot size for healthy grasslands was larger than that for degraded ones; (3) Minimum plot sizes for estimating plant diversity were 108 m2 and 82 m2, respectively, for healthy and degraded alpine meadow, 130 m2 and 81 m2, respectively, for healthy and degraded alpine steppe, and 60 m2 and 41 m2, respectively, for healthy and degraded alpine desert.

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    Cited: CSCD(14)
      
    Fauna and distribution of Testacea (Protozoa) from Arctic, Antarctic and Tibet
    Jun Yang, Humphrey G. Smith, David M. Wilkinson
    Biodiv Sci    2010, 18 (4): 373-382.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.373
    Abstract3685)   HTML3)    PDF (417KB)(2914)       Save

    Testacea (or testate amoebae, thecamoebians) are free-living amoeboid protozoa inhabiting a shell or test and they play an important role in material cycle and energy flow in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The fauna of Testacea was analyzed from three polar regions of the Earth (Arctic, Antarctic and Tibet). In total, 315 species from 62 genera were recorded in the polar regions, i.e. 232 species (51 genera) in the Arctic, 131 species (30 genera) in the Antarctic, and 173 species (42 genera) in Tibet. In each polar region, the most diverse genera were Arcella, Centropyxis,Difflugia, Euglypha, Nebela; they accounted for 51.3%, 63.4% and 60.1% of the total species number in the Arctic, Antarctic and Tibet, respectively. Seventy-three species (23.2% of all species) and twenty-four genera (38.7% of all genera) were common to the three polar regions. One hundred and sixty-seven species (53.0% of species) were found only in one of the polar regions. Both Assulina muscorum and Centropyxis aerophila were widely distributed with the highest frequency (90%) in 40 subregions from the Arctic, Antarctic and Tibet. Cluster analysis revealed that the highest species-level similarity of Testacea was between the Arctic and Tibet (56.3%). Further, species similarity was the highest between the Arctic and Tibet based on Arcellinida species data, but the lowest based on filose Testacea species. Distinct differences in Testacea fauna indicate that some species are not ubiquitously distributed in spite of better passive long-distance dispersal than macro-organisms. Geographic distributional patterns of Testacea diversity are closely related to body size, habitat type and historical events, and our perception of these patterns are strongly influenced by taxonomic resolution (morphological criteria), sampling effort and spatial scales. We propose that study of genetic diversity among and within common Testacea morphospecies in relation to ecological and historical factors will elucidate geographic distributional patterns within this interesting group.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
      
    Reproductive biology of an endemic orchid Cypripedium smithii in China and reproductive isolation between C. smithii and C. tibeticum
    Peng Li, Yibo Luo
    Biodiv Sci    2009, 17 (4): 406-413.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09046
    Abstract4070)   HTML7)    PDF (531KB)(3563)       Save

    Pollinator specificity has traditionally been considered as the main mechanism of reproductive isolation in orchids. Cypripedium smithii and C. tibeticum are two closely related species with similar characters and sympatric distributions. With the knowledge of reproductive biology of C. tibeticum, we studied the reproductive biology of C. smithii and compared the morphological characters between C. tibeticum and C. smithii. The results showed that a series of intermediate types occurred between typical C. smithiiand typical C. tibeticum, indicating that no distinct taxonomic boundary existed between C. tibeticum and C. smithii. Pollination experiment showed that both C. smithii and C. tibeticum were pollinated by bumble queens. The hand-pollination experiments indicated that C. tibeticum and C. smithii were cross-fertilized, so that they could hybridize in the natural conditions and produced transitional types. It is better to combine them as one identical species rather than separate them as two distinct species.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
      
    A study on species and vertical distribution of butterfles in Altai Montains Xinjiang, China
    LU Xue-Nong, DUAN Xiao-Dong, WANG Wen-Guang, LI Wei, SHI Hai-Tao, GOU Bao-Hua
    Biodiv Sci    1999, 07 (1): 8-14.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1999002
    Abstract3473)      PDF (191KB)(2545)       Save
    This paper reported 106 species of butterflies blonging to 52 genera , seven families collected in south slope of Altai Mountains in northwest Xinjiang , China. Of which , the family Papilionidae has 1 species/ 1 genus , Parnassiidae 6/ 1 , Pieridae 22/ 8 genera , Satyidae 23/ 16 , Nymphalidae 32/ 16 , Lycaenidae 15/ 12 and Hesperiidae 10/ 7. According to their distribution characteristics , four vertical zones were divided : (1) half2desert in low relief terrain ; (2) mountain bush2herb zone ; (3) mountain prairie2timber zone ; (4) subalpine steppe2 meadow steppe2alpine vegetation with cushion plants.
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
      
    Distribution patterns of rodent diversity in arid regions of West China
    ZHOU Li-Zhi, MA Yong
    Biodiv Sci    2002, 10 (1): 44-48.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002007
    Abstract4029)      PDF (182KB)(3238)       Save
    The arid regions of China include Mongolian- Xinjiang warm-temperate arid region and Qinghai-Xizang frigid arid region, located in western China, host 120 species of small mammals including Largomorpha and Rodentia. We collected all of the available distributional data for these species in these regions. Based on GIS models of species range which were predicted by a wildlife-habitat model, we researched the distribution patterns of rodent diversity there. A total of 766 equal-area quadrangle grids that each had an area of 6,470 square kilometers were used as geographic units to collect distributional data of the species, supported by MapInfo Professional Version 4.0. Based on these grid data we obtained the number of genera and families, and calculated the small mammal species diversity of genera and families by Shannon-Winner index and G-F index. In order to explain the species differentiation tendency of small mammals, we introduced number ratios of species to genera and of genera to families as differentiation indices. The results indicate that more genera occurred in mountains around the Junggar Basin, Qilian Mountains, Helan Mountains and the west slopes of Da Hinggan Mountains, where species richness was higher, as might be explained by an edge effect. In contrast, richness was least on the Ordos Plateau and Zhangbei Plateau. There were more families on the south slopes of the Altay Mountains, Tianshan Mountains of Ili and East Qilian Mountains, but fewer on the Ordos Plateau and Zhangbei Plateau. High species diversity often occurred in ecotones such as those among or between frigid desert and warm-temperate desert, desert and mountains, plateaus and basins, desert and steppes, and mountains and steppes. In the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, number ratios of genera to families were much lower than in the Mongolian-Xinjiang region. In contrast,, there were higher ratios of species to genera in the former region. The G-F index was higher in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, where a great species differentiation was implied. Since small mammals can be used as indicators of biodiversity, the distributional patterns of their species diversity could be helpful for assessment of biodiversity in arid regions of West China.
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    Cited: CSCD(15)
      
    Is nocturnal rhythm of Asian badger (Meles leucurus) caused by human activity? A case study in the eastern area of Qinghai Lake
    Feng Li, Zhigang Jiang
    Biodiv Sci    2014, 22 (6): 758-763.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14182
    Abstract2133)   HTML17)    PDF (763KB)(1837)       Save

    The Qinghai Lake area is the known highest place with Asian badger (Meles leucurus) distribution in the world. In order to test the hypothesis that human interference caused the nocturnal activity rhythm of badgers, we used infrared cameras in complementary of telemetry of radio collared two badgers to record activity rhythm of badgers at the entrances of their setts in the eastern shore of Qinghai Lake. We also estimated the population density and recorded the behaviors expressed by the badgers with infrared cameras and other conventional field investigations. The results showed: (1) through infrared camera records and sett density estimation, the average badger densities in this area were 1.2 ± 0.6 badgers/km2 and being influenced by food abundance. (2) the most common behavior expressed by badgers at sett entrances was vigilance behavior when badger emerged from the setts, followed by the play behavior when badgers returned to setts. (3) badgers mainly emerged from the setts between 20:00-23:00 and returned to the sett between 4:00-7:00 in the following morning. Their activity peak focused between 23:00-4:00. Human activity had no influence on the nocturnal activity rhythm of badgers.

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    Cited: Baidu(2)
      
    GIS analysis of the spatial relationship between plateau pika burrow distribution and vegetation distributional patterns
    Bo Ma, Xiaoming Wang, Xiaoqing Liu, Zhenghuan Wang
    Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (1): 71-78.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08080
    Abstract3965)   HTML6)    PDF (454KB)(3614)       Save

    The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a keystone species in alpine meadow ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, ecological studies of the relationship between plateau pika habitat use and the stability of alpine meadows are important. However, little information is available about large-scale spatial relationships between plateau pika habitat use and vegetation distribution. Therefore, we studied this topic using Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses. The number and position of active plateau pika burrows were sampled along seven line transects totaling 2,423 sampling units, 19 km in length, in a 44 km2 study area in Yunbo Gou, Shiqu County, Sichuan Province during September 2008. Historically, domestic livestock grazing and other human activities were rare in this area. A no-grazing policy has been in effect since 2006, thereby removing livestock competition in the study area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values within the study area were extracted from a CBERS-02 remote sensing image taken September 18th, 2008. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area was established based on a digitized topographical map of Shiqu County, and slope values within the study area were subsequently extracted using the DEM. NDVI and slope values were compared with the number of plateau pika burrows in each sampling unit. A Bonferroni z test revealed that numbers of pika burrows were lower than expected in units with low NDVI values (NDVI of 0.1-0.3), not different than expected in middle NDVI groups (0.3-0.4), and higher than expected in high NDVI groups (0.4-0.6). A linear regression model found a significant positive correlation between NDVI value and pika burrow count (y = 16.50 x + 0.87; R2 = 0.78, P < 0.001). In contrast, no linear relationship was detected between slope and pika burrow number (linear regression, R2= 0.04, P = 0.441). This study showed that plateau pikas use areas with higher vegetation coverage more than areas with lower vegetation coverage in the absence of livestock competition. Our results lend some support to the conclusion that the pika’s natural use of vegetation does not accelerate the destruction of the alpine meadow vegetation in this region.

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    Cited: Baidu(2) CSCD(18)
      
    Altitudinal pattern of flora on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga
    SHEN Ze-Hao, LIU Zeng-Li, WU Jie
    Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (1): 89-98.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004011
    Abstract4350)      PDF (377KB)(4055)       Save
    To explore the altitudinal differentiation of flora of Mt. Gongga and its relationship with those of surrounding areas, we investigated eight vertical vegetation zones on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, and analyzed the altitudinal distribution, the floristic components at the level of family, genus and species, and the contrast between different vegetation zones. Major results are as follows: (1) temperate flora primarily dominates the vegetation along the altitudinal gradient, but tropical and temperate components are equally abundant at the arid valley bottom area. The composition and altitudinal distribution of the tropical elements indicate the remnant effects of the Paleotropical and PaleoMediterranean flora; (2) East Asia and East Asia-North America arealtypes have the greatest influence on the forest flora in the middle part of Mt. Gongga, which are chiefly ancient temperate components; (3) North Temperate arealtype is the main body of the flora of Mt. Gongga, and comprises the bulk of the advanced and endemic components in the flora since the rise of the Tibet Plateau. It represents the young components of the flora, and (4) a wide range of Chinese endemic species comprise about 40%-65% of the flora of different vertical vegetation zones, increasing in dominance at higher elevations. At middle elevations, the flora of Mt. Gongga most closely relate to the flora of central China; at the alpine zone, the connection between Mt. Gongga and Tibet Plateau and East Himalayan Mountains takes precedence. The biogeographical significance of Gongga Mountain and the properties of the flora endemism at Mt. Gongga and Hengduan Mountain Range are discussed.
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    Cited: CSCD(26)
      
    The effects of differences in functional group diversity and composition on plant community productivity in four types of alpine meadow communities
    WANG Chang-Ting, LONG Rui-Jun, DING Lu-Ming
    Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (4): 403-409.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004049
    Abstract3787)      PDF (264KB)(3226)       Save
    The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function is one of the core problem of biodiversity research, and productivity is an important modality of ecosystem function. The species diversity of natural communities is often strongly related to their productivity. The grassland is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and plays a significant role in the biodiversity and ecosystem function. Understanding of how to use natural vegetation to restore deteriorated grasslands is critical for protection of grassland ecosystems. Moreover, the relationship between species richness and productivity relies on scales. At some scales, productivity affects diversity, and at other scales, species diversity also affects productivity. Thus, it is necessary to know the relationship between plant functional diversity and productivity in different grassland types. In 2003 the differences in plant functional diversity, functional composition and productivity in different grassland types of alpine meadow were analyzed. Humans are modifying both the identities and the numbers of species in ecosystems. However, the impacts of such changes on ecosystem processes are still controversial. The effects of functional diversity and composition on plant community productivity were analyzed in four types of alpine meadows. The research results show:(1) the effects of the legume functional group on productivity was greater than other functional groups in Kobresia humlis meadow and Potentilla froticosa shrub. (2) Although the biomass of forbs, C3 plants and sedge functional groups account for higher proportion of community productivity in Kobresia pygmaca meadow and K. tibetica swamp meadow, differences were not significantly different, indicating that the factors influencing community productivity were not only species diversity, but also the identity of species present and environmental resources. These factors were in turn mainly affected by species diversity and evenness among functional groups. That is, differences in functional group composition have a larger effect on ecosystem processes than functional group richness alone. (3) A significant correlation was found between the coverage per functional group and the primary productivity of communities in the four types of alpine meadows. (4) Changes in productivity with number of species per functional group showed a unimodal pattern, such that the maximum community productivity occured at an intermediate level of number of species per functional group.
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    Cited: CSCD(62)
      
    Population ecology and endangered categories evaluation of the Black-necked crane (Grus nigricollus)
    Li Laixin
    Biodiv Sci    1997, 05 (2): 84-89.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1997014
    Abstract3512)      PDF (165KB)(3338)       Save
    According to field investigation,the population of the black-necked crane (Grus nigricollus )is determined of 5000~6000 individuals distributed mainly through Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau.Its extent of occurrence is more than 22×105 Km2 and area of occupancy is more than 5400 Km2.Breeding area has been found in northern and west Tibet Plateau and wintering area in the middle valley of Tsangpo,parts of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and southern slope of Himalaya.The migratory routes are over the southeast Tibet Plateau.In wintering area,the Black-necked crane acts with family,same species group and mixed species group such as Common crane (Grus grus) and Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus).In breeding area,the Black-necked crane are separated  into no-breeding group and breeding pairs.Territory occupied by breeding pair may be a key to breeding successfully.This species is evaluated as a vulnerable (VU) species according to the endangred categories of IUCN (1994).
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    Cited: CSCD(2)
      
    The distribution and conservation of Sclater′s monal in Yunnan, China
    HAN Lian-Xian, HUANG Shi-Lin, LUO Xu, YANG Hong-Jun
    Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (5): 523-527.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004065
    Abstract4075)      PDF (244KB)(3873)       Save
    Sclater′s monal (Lophophorus sclateri) is an endangered species in the Galliformes, with restricted distribution in Tibet and Yunnan. In Yunnan, the bird formerly has only been recorded at three sites. A survey on the distribution and habitat of this species was undertaken from October 1999 to August 2003, resulting in confirmation of the present occurrence of the species in eleven localities in seven counties in Yunnan, together with an additional possible three localities to be further confirmed. Sclater′s monals were most frequently observed in three types of habitats: alpine meadow, alpine-subalpine bamboo, and subalpine coniferous forestry. Threats to the survival of this pheasant arise from the low carrying capacity of the habitat, low growth rate of the population, human disturbance, and low public awareness. Based on this study, we recommend pilot programmes of captive breeding, regulation of poaching, and encouragement of basic biological research for effective protection.
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    Cited: CSCD(5)
      
    Grouping behavior of the Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata) in Hoh Xil region, China
    LIAN Xin-Ming, SU Jian-Ping, ZHANG Tong-Zuo, CAO Yi-Fan
    Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (5): 488-493.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004060
    Abstract4107)      PDF (489KB)(2871)       Save
    The Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata) is an endangered species inhabiting theQinghai-Tibetan Plateau. From October 2002 to December 2003, we observed 924 groups (3643 individuals) of Tibetan gazelles in Hoh Xil region. These groups could be classified into five types.Female groups (525) were the major type, accounting for 56.8%. Solitary gazelle (a special group type), male groups, mother-calf groups and mixed groups made up 26.1%, 11.0%, 3.0% and 3.0%, respectively. Group size ranged from one to 17 individuals. Groups of 2-10 individuals, solitary gazelle groups and larger groups (>10 individuals) accounted for 70.0%, 26.1% and 3.9%, respectively. 72.9% of gazelles were observed in group with sizes of 2-8 individuals, while 20.5% were observed in group sizes > 8 and 6.6% were solitary. A chi-square test showed that the frequencies of individuals in different group sizes were significantly different (P<0.001). Group sizes varied significantly among different group types (Kruskal-Wallis H test,P<0.001). There were significantly more males (68.1%) than females (P<0.001) in solitary groups. To sum up, female group was the main group type of Tibetan gazelles, and the optimal group size was 2-8 individuals.
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    Cited: CSCD(8)
      
    Impacts of grassland fencing on plant communities and conservation of a rare gazelle, the Przewalski's gazelle
    LIU Bing-Wa, JIANG Zhi-Gang
    Biodiv Sci    2002, 10 (3): 326-331.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002045
    Abstract3780)      PDF (226KB)(3507)       Save
    The impacts of grassland fencing on rangeland plant communities during the plant-growing season were studied in the Ketu area, Haiyan County, Qinghai Province, China in 2001. The Ketu area is one of the main distribution ranges of a rare and critically endangered gazelle, the Przewalski gazelle ( Procapra przewalskii ). Grassland fences were built for the purpose of vegetation restoration in the desert in 1999. Domestic animals at high density grazed outside the fenced range, while the Przewalski's gazelle at low density grazed inside the fenced ranges. Above ground biomass, plant height, plant cover, and plant species diversity of the plant communities outside and inside the fenced ranges were randomly sampled and analyzed in the laboratory to determine the impact of different grazing rates outside and inside fenced ranges. (1) The above-ground biomass outside the fences in June was significantly lower than that inside the fences (p <0.05), however, the above ground biomass outside the fences in both July and August were significantly higher than those inside the fences ( p <0.05). (2) The range of plant heights outside the fences (mean: 11.2~37.0 cm) was broader than that inside the fences (mean: 20.6 ~28.0 cm). Plant height outside the fences in June was significantly lower than that inside the fences ( df= 39, p <0.05). There was no significant difference between plant heights outside and inside the fences ( df =39, p >0.05). (3) The plant coverage during both June and July were significantly lower outside the fences than inside the fences (June: df = 19, p<0.05; July: df = 19, p < 0.05), but during August plant coverage outside the fences was similar to that inside the fences ( df =19,p > 0.05). (4) The animal edible herbage outside the fences was significantly lower than that inside the fences ( df = 6, p<0.05). The percentage of Chinese Stellera among total plants outside the fences was significantly higher than that inside the fences ( df =6, p<0.05). (5) The biodiversity index of the plant community outside the fences was significantly higher than that inside the fences ( df=6, p <0.05). Based on the above results, we discuss the impacts of fencing on the range community and test the hypothesis that grazing affects the productivity of the plant community. We suggest solutions for range, endangered species and integrated biodiversity management.
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    Cited: CSCD(11)
      
    Preliminary study of plankton community diversity of the Gahai Salt Lake in the Qaidam Basin of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau
    XU Mu-Qi, CAO Hong, JIA Qin-Xian, GAO Yu-Rong, CHEN Sheng-Gui
    Biodiv Sci    2002, 10 (1): 38-43.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002006
    Abstract4030)      PDF (237KB)(3792)       Save
    Gahai Salt Lake, which is situated in the Qaidam Basin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at an elevation of 2849.6 m above sea level, is a saline lake with high salinity and abundant biological resources of Artemia (brine shrimp). An investigation on the characteristics of community diversity of plankton with relation to salinity was conducted in the summer of 1997. Forty-six species of phytoplankton and twelve species of zooplankton have been identified in the major body of water in the in-lake area with 22 sampling sites at 5 sections. The differences of the species composition, richness , individual abundance and biomass of plankton were compared between two sampling area with a big change of salinity in the waters. The results show that the salinity is an important limiting factor in determining the structure of biological communities in the inland saline lakes.
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    Cited: CSCD(11)