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    Protozoan community diversity and its impact factor in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River in the wet season
    Qing Yang, Xiaodong Li, Shengxian Yang, Xin Chao, Huiqiu Liu, Sang Ba
    Biodiv Sci    2023, 31 (4): 22500.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022500
    Accepted: 22 February 2023

    Abstract596)   HTML242)    PDF (11898KB)(693)       Save

    Aim: The Yarlung Zangbo River is an important water system in China, and as a high-altitude river in the Tibetan Plateau, its special environmental conditions make its aquatic ecosystem valuable to study. In recent years, studies on the aquatic ecology of the Yarlung Zangbo River have gradually increased, but studies focusing on protozoa are rare. The aim of this study was to explore the community dynamics of protozoa in the middle Yarlung Zangbo River and its driving factors, and to provide basic data and decision-making references for further studies on the Yarlung Zangbo River as well as for the monitoring and conservation of the Tibetan Plateau water environment.

    Methods: 18S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technology was used to study the protozoa diversity, and the physicochemical factors were measured on site of water bodies at 28 sample sites in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River (Qushui County to Pai Town) in July 2021 (wet season). The α diversity of community was analyzed by Shannon diversity index, Simpson diversity index, Pielou evenness index and richness index; the β diversity of community was analyzed by Jaccard difference index; analysis of the interspecific relationships was analyzed by co-occurrence networks; the influence of physicochemical factors on the diversity of the protozoan community was studied by correlation and bioenvironmental (BIOENV) analysis.

    Results: Cercozoa, Ciliophora and Dinoflagellata were dominant on both mainstream and tributary reaches. With regard to community diversity, Shannon diversity was significantly different between the mainstream and tributary reaches; β diversity was dominated by the turnover component in both reaches, and there was a significant distance-decay trend in the protozoan community in both reaches. Protozoan species interactions were dominated by synergism. Electrical conductivity (EC), water temperature (WT), turbidity (TUR), and total nitrogen (TN) were the main environmental factors affecting α diversity of protozoan communities; WT and altitude (ALT) were the main environmental factors affecting β diversity of protozoan communities. The main environmental factors affecting the protozoan communities in the tributaries were pH, WT and ALT combinations, while the main environmental factor affecting the protozoan communities in the mainstream was EC.

    Conclusion: Protozoan community diversity in the study area is spatially variable in two reaches of the mainstream and tributaries, β diversity is dominated by turnover components, and community similarity has a clear trend of geographical decay. The mainstream protozoan community is the most stable and sensitive to environmental changes. The dynamic changes in protozoan community diversity are the result of the combined influence of multiple environmental factors.

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    Vegetation survey and mapping on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Jiawen Sang, Chuangye Song, Ningxia Jia, Yuan Jia, Changcheng Liu, Xianguo Qiao, Lin Zhang, Weiying Yuan, Dongxiu Wu, Linghao Li, Ke Guo
    Biodiv Sci    2023, 31 (3): 22430.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022430
    Accepted: 28 March 2023

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    Background & Aim: Surveying and mapping has always been an important part of vegetation research on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Historically, China has performed several vegetation surveys of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and compiled a series of important vegetation maps. In this research, we aim to review the history of vegetation surveys and mapping on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and evaluate the consistency across maps, and to investigate the consistency between vegetation types in several maps and vegetation survey points provided by the Second Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program.

    Results: (1) The vegetation surveys of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau have a long history, with systematic and scientific vegetation surveys of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau starting after the founding of the People’s Republic of China. In vegetation mapping, the Vegetation Map of China (1 : 4,000,000), the Grassland Resource Map of China (1 : 1,000,000), and the Vegetation Map of China (1 : 1,000,000) were the most widely used vegetation maps that cover the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, they are quite different in vegetation classification systems. (2) The comparison between different vegetation maps shows that the vegetation formation groups covering a large area, such as forest and grassland, have high consistency between different vegetation maps, while the vegetation formation groups covering a small area, such as aquatic and agricultural vegetation, have low consistency between different vegetation maps. Furthermore, we select Carex parvula meadow, Stipa purpurea grassland, Carex moorcroftii grassland, Stipa glareosa grassland, Carex alatauensis meadow, Artemisia wellbyi grassland, Stipa roborowskyi grassland, and Orinus thoroldii grassland to investigate the differences in the areas and spatial distribution patterns between the Vegetation Map of China (1 : 1,000,000) and the Grassland Resource Map of China (1 : 1,000,000). The results show that there are significant differences in the area and spatial distribution pattern between the two maps for these selected vegetation types. (3) The comparison of vegetation types between vegetation survey points and the Vegetation Map of China (1 : 1,000,000), the Grassland Resource Map of China (1 : 1,000,000), and the Current Vegetation Map of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2019−2020) indicates that 45.05%, 21.02%, and 50.83% of the vegetation survey points, respectively, are not consistent with the three vegetation maps at the vegetation formation group level. (4) In the past 30 years, due to the influence of climate change and human activities, the vegetation distribution pattern of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has changed significantly.

    Conclusion: Vegetation survey and mapping technology has undergone great progress in recent decades. Remote imaging with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution and deep learning technology have been widely used in vegetation identification and mapping. It is the right time to produce new vegetation maps of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at medium or large scales, which will provide more detailed and fundamental data for ecosystem management, and ecological restoration projects on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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    Species and functional diversity of the passerine birds in the Tibetan Plateau based on specimens from the collection of Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Xiaocheng Chen, Pengzhan Zhang, Bin Kang, Linshan Liu, Liang Zhao
    Biodiv Sci    2023, 31 (5): 22638.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022638
    Accepted: 21 March 2023

    Abstract603)   HTML50)    PDF (10611KB)(509)       Save

    Aims: Species diversity and functional diversity are the two main research contents of biodiversity. Studying species diversity and functional diversity in different regions can provide important theoretical support for biodiversity conservation.
    Methods: In this study, the passerine birds in eleven eco-geographical regions of the Tibetan Plateau collected by the Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences were taken as the research object, and the data of bird species and traits were combined to calculate three species α-diversity indices (species richness, Shannon entropy and Pielou evenness), three functional α-diversity indices (functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence), species and function β-diversity and their respective turnover and nestedness components. The relationship between species diversity and functional diversity was analyzed.
    Results: The species α-diversity of birds was higher in the southeast and lower in the northwest for the Tibetan Plateau. Functional richness and functional evenness showed clear spatial differences, and the average of species richness and functional richness were low in the whole region. Functional divergence was higher in the whole region. Species β-diversity was higher than functional β-diversity, but both of them had high values. Species β-diversity was mainly composed of turnover components, and the proportion of nestedness and turnover components were similar in functional β-diversity. Functional richness was positively correlated with species richness and Shannon entropy. There was a significant correlation between species and functional β-diversity, and a significant correlation between the contribution ratio of species and functional turnover components.
    Conclusion: The above results indicate that birds in the regions with higher functional richness occupy a larger functional trait space, while the higher functional evenness and functional divergence indicate that birds could utilize food resources more evenly and effectively in these regions. The relationship between bird diversity and the ecosystem could be well characterized by combining species and functional α-diversity and β-diversity.

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    Public welfare evaluation index system of national parks: A case study of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau National Park Cluster
    Xinyu Gong, Baorong Huang
    Biodiv Sci    2023, 31 (3): 22571.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022571
    Accepted: 04 March 2023

    Abstract645)   HTML1397)    PDF (798KB)(422)       Save

    Aims: Public welfare for all people is one of the three concepts to be adhered to in the construction of national parks in China. However, due to its unclear connotation and lack of effective performance assessment mechanisms, it has not been fully valued by relevant parties. Establishing a set of index systems that can accurately reflect what it means to consider national public welfare in national parks is of great importance for evaluating the effects of implementing the concept of national public welfare in national parks and guiding relevant parties to take targeted measures to improve the national public welfare of national parks.

    Methods: This study conducted an in-depth field investigation of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau National Park Cluster, sorted out the meaning and embodiment of public welfare of major national parks abroad, and analyzed the meaning of public welfare of national parks in China. On this basis, the Delphi method was utilized to conduct two rounds of consultations with 14 well-known experts in this field in the form of electronic questionnaires. The proposed national public welfare evaluation index system was scored, and the national public welfare evaluation index system of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau National Park Cluster was established based on the results of the questionnaire consultation.

    Results: The national park public welfare evaluation index system was established, including five aspects: managers, community residents, relevant enterprises and social organizations, visitors, and the public. There are 5 first-level indicators, 17 second-level indicators, and 35 third-level indicators. The index system includes many aspects such as national park system and mechanisms, the well-being and willingness of community people, the participation of enterprises and social organizations, the experience and participation of visitors, and public participation and perception. Considering the current situation of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we have also set up indicators such as a medical security system and an emergency rescue system. There was further consideration of increasing the weight of relevant indicators in the actual assessment, such as paying more attention to the safety and security of visitors and the interests of residents in high-altitude areas.

    Conclusion: Through the selection of multi-dimensional indicators, we can systematically and comprehensively evaluate the realization of national public welfare in China’s national parks, especially in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau National Park Cluster. This can fill the gap in the current national public welfare assessment research to a certain extent and promote corresponding indicators that better serve the management of national parks. It also provides an effective path reference for how to realize public welfare in the establishment of future national parks.

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    Avian and mammal diversities and their altitudinal and seasonal distribution patterns in Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon, China
    Xiangying Shi, Xueyang Li, Chunyue Wei, Ge Sun, Zhen Liu, Xiang Zhao, Jiading Zhou, Jian Fan, Cheng Li, Zhi Lü
    Biodiv Sci    2023, 31 (2): 22491.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022491
    Accepted: 19 February 2023

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    Aims: Due to its altitude and limited human development, the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon area boasts high degree of biodiversity and intact ecosystems. These conditions, have been favorable to the study and discovery of new species in recent years. In this study, we present the results of a comprehensive camera trap survey method implemented throughout the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon area that shows the distribution patterns of the surveyed species.

    Methods: From October 2020 to November 2021, infrared remote cameras were set in the Medog County, Bomi County, and Milin County of Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon area to determine degree of biodiversity. Camera traps were placed in 116 sites in seven monitoring areas with different altitudes ranging from 646 m to 4,360 m. With a total survey effort of 24,741 camera days, 12,010 independent detections were obtained and relative abundance index (RAI) were calculated. Shannon-Wiener diversity index in different altitude bins and Pianka index were used to analyze the species altitudinal distribution. Seasonal distribution patterns of dry season (October 2020 to March 2021) and rainy season (April 2021 to September 2021) were also compared using seasonal RAI at different camera trap sites.

    Results: In total, 37 mammal species, which belong to 4 orders and 14 families, and 99 bird species, which belong to 9 orders and 28 families, were identified. Of these, 51 of the identified species were classified as State Key Protected Species. Ten species were documented with the use of camera for the first time in Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon area. These species were the forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), brown bear (Ursus arctos), Asian badger (Meles leucurus), Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), grey-headed flying squirrel (Petaurista caniceps), particolored flying squirrel (Hylopetes alboniger), Chinese giant flying squirrel (Petaurista xanthotis), Sclater’s monal (Lophophorus sclateri) and Blyth’s tragopan (Tragopan blythii). Species like the dhole (Cuon alpinus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Asian golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) had higher RAI during the dry season than in the rainy season.

    Conclusion: This study reveals high degree of biodiversity in the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon area, with high heterogeneity of the altitudinal and seasonal distribution pattern of carnivore and ungulates. The result of this survey provides a biodiversity baseline and a scientific basis for the protection and management of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon area.

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    Differences in management capacity of national nature reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the impact on conservation effectiveness
    Le Qin, Yanpeng Zhu, Yueheng Ren, Boyan Li, Mengdi Fu, Junsheng Li
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (11): 22419.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022419
    Accepted: 24 November 2022

    Abstract447)   HTML20)    PDF (580KB)(353)       Save

    Aims: The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an important ecological barrier in China. Setting nature reserves in this area can effectively protect ecological security and biodiversity. Assessing the impact of nature reserve management capacity on conservation effectiveness may facilitate scientific conservation and management of nature reserves.

    Methods:This study analyzed the differences in management capacity, funding and staffing of 54 national nature reserves in the Tibetan Plateau. We studied the conservation effectiveness of different nature reserves using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which revealed the relationship between management capacity and conservation effectiveness of national nature reserves. This provided a basis for optimizing the conservation and management of nature reserves on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Results: (1) The management institutions responsible for the national nature reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau varied greatly on the administrative level. In general, these institutions covered four hierarchies: bureau level, division level, section level and unit level. Among these institutions, 42 were independent management and 12 were non-independent management that were co-located with other institutions. The administrative level of the institution and whether it was an independent property affect the conservation effectiveness, and the higher administrative level and independent management institutions had better conservation effectiveness. (2) Nature reserves differed greatly from the national average in terms of unit management funds, per capita management area and patrol area, and there was a general lack of professional talents among staff.

    Conclusion: We recommend focusing on the special characteristics of nature reserve protection and management in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, standardizing the construction of management institutions, and strengthening financial security. We also suggest promoting more high-level professionals to engage in conservation work, further increasing the capacity of ecological management positions, and effectively improving the management capacity and conservation effectiveness of nature reserves in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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    Research status and challenges of road impacts on wildlife in China
    Abudusaimaiti Maierdiyali, Yun Wang, Shuangcheng Tao, Yaping Kong, Hao Wang, Zhi Lü
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (11): 22209.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022209
    Accepted: 21 November 2022

    Abstract833)   HTML35)    PDF (4525KB)(1153)       Save

    Background & Aim: Habitat loss and fragmentation, driven by expansion of global transport infrastructure networks, has become one of the significant factors contributing to the decline of biodiversity. Many studies on the impact of roads on wildlife have been conducted abroad, yet only a modest number of studies have been conducted in China.

    Summary: This review summarizes 144 case studies conducted in China by the year 2021 and 210 posts relating to roadkill from Sina Microblog. The impacts of roads on wildlife in China were divided into seven types: habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, avoid or gather at the roadside, hinder or promote migration, population isolation, wildlife crossing structures and roadkill. Recent, relevant studies in China are mainly concentrated in Hoh Xil, Changbai Mountains, and Qinling Mountains. The main species studied are ungulates on Tibetan Plateau, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Perspectives: Collecting data on the impacts of roads on wildlife, is critical to inform interdisciplinary and multi-departmental management and conservation solutions of road-wildlife conflicts in China. Social media platforms can be important sources of data on roadkill occurrences.

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    The floristic differentiation of Southwest China: Insights from Cedrelospermum and Ailanthus fossils
    Linbo Jia, Tao Su, Weicheng Li, Shufeng Li, Yongjiang Huang, Zhekun Zhou
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (11): 22348.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022348
    Accepted: 13 October 2022

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    Aims: Northwest Yunnan-Xizang and Southeast Yunnan-West Guangxi are two regions with distinct differences in pedigree age and appearance in southwestern China. The two regions are characterized by young flora dominated by herbaceous plants and ancient flora dominated by woody plants, respectively. It is unknown how the floristic differentiation of these two regions has formed.

    Methods: We report new fossil records of Cedrelospermum and Ailanthus from the two study regions. We also review the fossil history of the two genera, particularly those in Southwest China.

    Results: The fossil history of the two genera in Southwest China is as follows: Cedrelospermum occurred in the middle Eocene to late Oligocene of Xizang (C. tibetica) and the late Eocene of Southeast Yunnan (C. asiaticum). Ailanthus appeared in the middle Eocene to late Oligocene of Xizang (A. maximus) and the late Eocene of Southeast Yunnan (A. confucii). Our results show that both Northwest Yunnan-Xizang and Southeast Yunnan-West Guangxi floras grew Cedrelospermum and Ailanthus in the Paleogene, but the species are different since the late Eocene.

    Conclusion: The genus level similarity of Northwest Yunnan-Xizang and Southeast Yunnan-West Guangxi floras support the hypothesis that floristic exchanges have occurred between the two regions. However, the difference in species indicates that the two floras have separated from each other since or before the late Eocene due to environmental differentiation. The woody Cedrelospermum and Ailanthus have disappeared from Xizang, and have been replaced by a generally younger herbaceous flora. In contrast, Ailanthus occurs presently in Southeast Yunnan, providing evidence for the archaic nature of the flora. Our study provides fossil evidence for the similarity and differentiation of the floras of Northwest Yunnan-Xizang and Southeast Yunnan-West Guangxi in the geological past.

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    The evolutionary genetics, taxonomy, and conservation of the Chinese mountain cat
    Ke Liu, Sicheng Han, He Yu, Shu-Jin Luo
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (9): 22396.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022396
    Accepted: 27 September 2022

    Abstract1463)   HTML77)    PDF (938KB)(1114)       Save

    Background & Aims The Chinese mountain cat (Felis bieti) is the only wild felid endemic to China, and it is one of the world’s least studied felids. It is listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and is listed as a nationally first-class protected species in China. Here, we reviewed recent advances in the distribution, range, taxonomy, genetic diversity, evolutionary history, and conservation threats to the Chinese mountain cat to provide a much needed scientific basis for conservation efforts.
    Review Results Scientists have not reached a unanimous agreement on the taxonomic status of the Chinese mountain cat (Felis bieti) since its inception as a species in 1892. Morphological distinctiveness supports its independent species status, yet recent genetic studies revealed that it is equidistant with other currently recognized wildcat subspecies and hence should be considered a wildcat conspecific (Felis silvestris bieti). However, because of the divergent evolution that occurred over one million years between the wildcat subspecies, an alternative approach to resolve the dispute over the Chinese mountain cat’s taxonomy would be to elevate all F. silvestris lineages to the species level, thus retaining the Chinese mountain cat as F. bieti. Nevertheless, this proposition would require a comprehensive analysis of the entirety of the genome data from all wildcat taxa. In addition, a complex admixture scenario was depicted, including an ancient introgression from the Asiatic wildcat (F. s. ornata) to the Chinese mountain cat, as well as a widespread signal of contemporary genetic introgression from F. s. bieti to domestic cats across, but not beyond, the range of F. s. bieti. Regional socioeconomic change in the Tibetan region since the mid-20th century may have facilitated an expansion of domestic cats that had likely recently arrived to the plateau, setting the stage for their close contact, frequent interaction, and interbreeding with sympatric Chinese mountain cats. This raises concern for conservationists about the opposite direction of gene flow that may pose a threat to the Chinese mountain cat and jeopardize its genetic integrity as well as its evolutionary adaptation to high altitude, an issue with profound conservation implications. The IUCN Red List assessment confirmed the Chinese mountain cat’s range to be restricted to the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, encompassing the eastern Qinghai, north-western Sichuan, south-western Gansu, and a small area in south-eastern Tibet adjacent to Qinghai. The free-ranging population of the Chinese mountain cat is likely threatened by indirect poisoning by rodenticide, illegal trade, poaching for furs, habitat loss, fragmentation, and road kills caused by grazing and infrastructure development, as well as potential introgression from local domestic cats.
    Conclusion: There is an urgent need to assess the efficacy of current conservation measures in place for the protection of the Chinese mountain cat, including the effectiveness of the management of current protected areas, to safeguard China’s only endemic felid.

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    Population dynamic of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) in Yunta Village, Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve, China
    Moyan Chu, Shujie Liang, Peiyun Li, Ding Jia, Abudusaimaiti Maierdiyali, Xueyang Li, Nan Jiang, Xiang Zhao, Faxiang Li, Lingyun Xiao, Zhi Lü
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (9): 22157.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022157
    Accepted: 26 September 2022

    Abstract994)   HTML44)    PDF (4435KB)(830)       Save

    Aims: Wildlife population monitoring projects provide important insight and basis for species research and conservation efforts. The snow leopard (Panthera uncia), as the top predator and flagship species of Asian mountainous ecosystems, is of great scientific and conservation interest. However, due to its remote habitat, elusive behavior and large home ranges, long-term population monitoring study on snow leopards is rarely reported. Here we report a long-term population monitoring project of snow leopards in Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve (Yunta Village, Haxiu Township, Yushu Prefecture, Qinghai Province) from Oct. 2013 to Jan. 2019.
    Methods: We monitored the population using infrared cameras maintained by the local community. We estimated population size and density as well as population growth rate using spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SECR). We calculated population turnover rates and analyzed territory replacement.
    Results: In total, we identified 35 snow leopard individuals. From SECR, population estimation based on 3-month high-quality data for three consecutive years (2015-2017) suggested stable population dynamic with a growth rate of 1.02. However, individual turnover was obvious with a rate of 0.44, and territory displacement happened around core utilization area of snow leopards. We proposed that the snow leopard population might locate on a potential dispersal pathway of snow leopards, or the camera array only covered a fraction of the population.
    Conclusion: As the first long-term population monitoring project of snow leopards reported in China, our work highlights the importance of long-term monitoring, and demonstrates the feasibility of mammal population monitoring maintained by local communities.

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    Additions to the seed plant flora in Xizang, China
    Hongbo Ding, Shishun Zhou, Jianwu Li, Jianyong Shen, Xingda Ma, Jian Huang, Yu Song, Xuemei Wen, Ming Lei, Yanli Tu, Yaowu Xing, Yunhong Tan
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (8): 22085.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022085
    Accepted: 12 May 2022

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    Aims: The Himalaya contains many V-shaped valleys owing to the steep slopes, these valleys add to the flora and vegetation diversity. To better understand flora diversity and vegetation structure of the south slope of the Himalaya, especially the top five valleys (Yadong Valley, Chentang Valley, Gama Valley, Zhangmu Valley and Gyirong Valley), we conducted the investigation in the top five valleys July to August 2021.

    Methods: In this study, 1,490 specimens were collected and photographed through field investigation, made into specimens, and sorted out and identified. The voucher specimens for each reported species were preserved in the Herbarium of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (HITBC), Chinese Academy of Sciences and Herbarium of Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology (XZ).

    Results: Eight species, Marsdenia roylei, Trachycarpus takil, Sonerila khasiana, Cissampelos convolvulacea, Herminium edgeworthii, Passiflora napalensis, Hedychium ellipticumand Roscoea brandisii are reported as newly recorded species from the south slope of the Himalaya in China. One genus, Belostemma (Belostemma hirsutum) is reported as newly recorded genus in Xizang Autonomous Region.

    Conclusions: The south slope of the Himalaya harbors one of richest floras in Xizang. But the floristic survey in this area is still insufficient, and should be further strengthened in the floristics and specimen collection in the future.

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    Palynological assemblage and age of the Cenozoic coal-accumulation strata in the Puyang Basin, southeastern Yunnan Province
    Jiucheng Yang, Jia Liu, Yu Li, Tao Su, Shufeng Li, Linbo Jia, Zhekun Zhou, Shitao Zhang
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (11): 21504.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021504
    Accepted: 04 August 2022

    Abstract345)   HTML97)    PDF (7514KB)(511)       Save

    Aims: Located in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, Yunnan Province is mainly characterized by a typical tropical monsoon climate and hosts the richest biodiversity in China. Dramatic tectonic activities during the Cenozoic era created many intermountain basins. These sedimentary basins provide excellent opportunities for understanding Cenozoic vegetation evolution, biodiversity and paleoenvironmental change. However, the ages of the basins remain far from fully investigated. Here we use the Puyang Coal mine section, Puyang Basin, southeastern Yunnan, southwestern China, to investigate paleoclimate and the evolution of vegetation, as well as the age of the coal-accumulation strata.

    Methods: In this study, 40 palynological samples were collected from different layers in the Puyang Coal mine section, and the pollen and spores were extracted using the conventional acid-base method. The samples were used to reconstruct palynological assemblages and vegetation features by identifying and counting the species, quantity and proportion of pollen in sedimentary strata.

    Results:A total of 74 morphological genera of pollen were identified in this study, including 13 gymnosperms, 49 angiosperms, 10 ferns, and 2 algae.

    Conclusion: The palynological assemblage of the lower part of the study section is dominated by Taxodiaceaepollenites, indicating a swamp forest with a relatively humid climate in the cold season. The palynological assemblage of the upper section indicates a mixed subtropical evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest, dominated by evergreen oaks, along with other subtropical taxa, such as Caryapollenites, Ilexpollenites, Juglanspollenites, and Liquidambarpollenites.It represents a warm and humid climate with significant seasonality. By combining newly discovered mammal fossil and palynological evidence, we infer that the age of the coal-accumulation strata in the Puyang Basin is late Eocene. The palynological assemblage also indicates the modernization of the biota in Southeast Yunnan since the late Eocene.

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    Determining the daily activity pattern of Chinese mountain cat (Felis bieti): A comparative study based on camera-trapping and satellite collar tracking data
    Yueqiao Kong, Yanlin Liu, Chengwu He, Tianti Li, Quanliang Li, Cunxin Ma, Dajun Wang, Sheng Li
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (9): 22081.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022081
    Accepted: 24 July 2022

    Abstract833)   HTML44)    PDF (4264KB)(1108)       Save

    Aims: For elusive and difficult to observe wild cats, camera trap and satellite tracking collar are widely used sampling methods to determine daily activity patterns. While satellite tracking collars can continuously monitor a limited number of captured individuals, camera traps have the potential to monitor all population members in a given area. The detection probability of camera traps for wild cat activity patterns is likely influenced by the selected spatial placement of the cameras. The activity patterns are constructed based on the binary classification of target animals’ active status (i.e., active or inactive). Although the different methods of monitoring wild cats may lead to different activity patterns, few empirical studies have examined the difference between the patterns. The Chinese mountain cat (Felis bieti), a small felid endemic to China, is distributed in the eastern and northern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at low density. The Chinese mountain cat was uplisted to Class-I National Key Protected Wildlife of China in 2021, is listed as Vulnerable (VU) by the IUCN Red List, and is considered Critically Endangered (CR) in China’s Red List. However, the existing surveys and data are insufficient to carry out conservation of Chinese mountain cat. Therefore, urgent field investigations about the ecological activities of the Chinese mountain cat are needed.
    Methods: From June 2020 to December 2021, we investigated activity patterns of Chinese mountain cats in Qilian Mountains of Qinghai Province using camera traps and satellite-tracking collars. We compared daily activity patterns derived from camera traps placed at den sites (2 sites, 173 independent detections) and animal trails (23 sites, 423 independent detections), to satellite-tracking collars fitted on Chinese mountain cats (10 individuals, 62,942 fixed locations).
    Results: Results show Chinese mountain cats were active all day long, with peak activity from 17:00 to 19:00. A daily activity curve produced by camera traps showed a high level of overlap with results produced by the activity sensor implanted in the collars; the coefficient of overlap is 0.89. However, the camera traps showed significantly higher levels of activity from 16:00 to 21:00. Detection of activity from 16:00 to 21:00 was primarily concentrated at a small range of den sites. Concurrently, activity records of the collars were relatively lower. Based on the ethogram of Chinese mountain cat, activity patterns recorded from the camera traps placed at den sites predominantly represents social behaviors related to reproduction and nursing while activity records from the trail camera traps generally represent movement and foraging. The satellite-tracking collar was limited to distinguishing just the movement and still of an individually tracked animal.
    Conclusions: Our results indicate considerable differences between the activity patterns of wild cats obtained via camera-trapping and a satellite collar tracking. The binary classification of “active” or “inactive” used to construct activity patterns reflect different behaviors in data derived from different methods. Caution should be taken for researchers when comparing the activity patterns derived from different studies. Proper and accurate interpretation of data should be made on the basis of in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the target animal’s behaviors.

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    Effect of plant species loss on grassland caterpillar in alpine meadows
    Yongqingcuomu , Xinqiang Xi, Kechang Niu
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (11): 22069.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022069
    Accepted: 23 June 2022

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    Aims: Plant diversity plays a crucial role in regulating food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning. Existing studies have documented significant impact on large herbivores and ecosystem functioning from loss in plant species diversity. Yet, little is known about effect of plant diversity loss on small herbivores and its functional consequence on food web dynamics, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem service, due to difficulty in distinguishing the role of plant diversity from larger fluctuations of small herbivore populations under the confounding effect of multiple ecological factors and demographic stochasticity.

    Methods: Based on our long-term experiment of plant species removal in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, we repeatedly measured the number of grassland caterpillar (Gynaephora alpherakiif) in each plot (i.e. density) in July and August over five years (2016-2020). We examined the effect of plant species removal on caterpillar population by associating changes in caterpillar counts with a shift in plant community attributes following plant removal and using a set of generalized linear mixed models.

    Results: Plant removal induced a difference in the plant community, which significantly and consistently influenced the caterpillar counts over years and months independent of the observed variation in caterpillar counts accounted for by the difference in years and observational times within each month. Comparing the caterpillar counts in plots without removing plant species, (i) the caterpillar counts decreased in plots subjected to removal of dominant species (Kobresia capillifolia) in both July and August across five years, and increased in plots subjected to removal of forbs species in August of 2016 and 2019, and (ii) the caterpillar counts tended to increase in plots subjected to removal of legume species but only significantly in few cases, and did not significantly differ with plots subjected to removal of partial species (accounting for 20% aboveground biomass) of each functional groups. Further analysis showed that neither total aboveground biomass nor plant species richness and total individual numbers was significantly correlated with the caterpillar counts. The variation in caterpillar counts was associated positively with aboveground biomass of sedges and grasses as well as grass species richness, but negatively with the amount of forbs and legumes. The structural equation model further revealed that the removal of Kobresiaand grass species affected caterpillar counts through decreasing aboveground biomass of graminoids, but increasing graminoids following removal of forb and legume species promoted the density of caterpillars.

    Conclusion: Based on field observations on the grassland caterpillar populations in plots subjected to different removal protocols, our study provides robust evidence that the decline in relative abundance of graminoids significantly reduced the fitness of caterpillars, and thus potentially impacts grassland functioning and ecosystem service. This study also suggests that future research on biodiversity effects and biological control of pests needs to pay more attention to the effects of plant functional diversity and demographic stochasticity on small herbivores.

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    A spatiotemporal analysis of human digital footprint and the human activities exposure of grassland biomass in Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve
    Wenna Tu, Jiawei Yi, Yunyan Du, Nan Wang, Jiale Qian, Sheng Huang, Xiaoyue Wang
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (6): 21310.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021310
    Accepted: 19 June 2022

    Abstract538)   HTML33)    PDF (5944KB)(422)       Save

    Aims: Quantifying the pressure of human activities in protected areas is important for protecting ecological systems and reducing the impact of human activities. While many researchers have evaluated the impacts of human activities on species diversity, biological habitats or ecosystem services, it remains challenging to quantify the short-term dynamics of human disturbance in protected areas due to the coarse spatial and temporal resolutions of data reflecting human activity. This research attempts to study the dynamics of the scope and intensity of human activities through high- resolution digital footprint data, providing a new pathway for human activity monitoring and management refinement in protected areas.
    Methods: Qinghai Lake Nature Reserve was selected as the research area in this study. We used 0.01° daily Tencent location request data and grassland biomass to derive three indicators for exploring the intensity of human digital footprint invasion and its impact on the ecological environment in Qinghai Lake Nature Reserve. These indicators included the human digital footprint coverage (α), the human digital footprint intensity (β), and the human activities exposure of grassland biomass (ε).
    Results: (1) The human digital footprint in Qinghai Lake Nature Reserve had a spatiotemporal pattern of “multiple peaks, high in the southern and low in the northern zones, and rhythm of attractions”. After the Qinghai Lake was opened to the public in April, the β increased and then decreased, with the highest in August and the lowest in February. Human digital footprints mainly distributed in the popular scenic spots in the south and along the highway around Qinghai Lake. (2) The α and β showed a pattern of aggregation by month, with the largest values observed in August. The maximum daily α and β were 7.42% and 5.24, respectively. The closure of the Bird Island Scenic Area and Sand Island Scenic Area played an important role in reducing human invasion. (3) During the peak travel period in July and August, the human digital footprints invaded more seriously into the buffer zone and Experimental zone of Qinghai Lake Nature Reserve. Analysis on the human activities exposure of grassland biomass showed that human digital footprints had the greatest impact on grassland biomass along the Erlangjian-Heimahe route in the Qinghai Lake Nature Reserve, with a highest impact of 2.24 at key tourist sites.
    Conclusion: Our research demonstrated the potential effectiveness of digital human footprint data to study the impact of human activities on the ecological environment of the Qinghai Lake Nature Reserve, which could support the refined ecological management in the reserve.

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    Relationship between culturable filamentous fungal diversity and environmental factors in Nam Co Lake
    Wenkai Xue, Huadanshang Meng, Yanhong Wang, Pan Zhu, Ji De, Xiaofang Guo
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (6): 21473.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021473
    Accepted: 18 May 2022

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    Aims: Microbial diversity plays an important role in assessing the ecological environment of water bodies. This study aims to investigate the diversity and influencing factors of culturable filamentous fungi in Nam Co Lake, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
    Methods: Filamentous fungi from 20 sites in Nam Co Lake were isolated, purified and identified by membrane filtration flat culture, morphological characterization and ITS sequence analysis. Water physical and chemical variables were determined to analyze the correlation between filamentous fungal diversity and environmental factors.
    Results: Species identification results showed that a total of 1,412 filamentous fungal strains were isolated from Nam Co Lake water samples, and were identified as 47 species in 22 genera. Alternaria, Penicillium and Mucor are the dominant genera, Alternaria chlamydosporigena and Mucor hiemalis are the dominant species. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the total abundance of filamentous fungi was significantly positively correlated with temperature, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. Redundancy analysis showed that ammonium nitrogen, temperature, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, salinity and electrical conductivity are important factors influencing the composition and distribution of filamentous fungal communities in Nam Co Lake.
    Conclusion: In summary, the filamentous fungal community from Nam Co Lake showed high species diversity and spatial heterogeneity, and the distribution of filamentous fungi was affected by environmental factors in Nam Co Lake.

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    Multi-scale habitat selection of Chinese monal (Lophophorus lhuysii) in Wolong National Nature Reserve, Sichuan
    Hualin Yang, Yuehong Cheng, Tianxiang Zhou, Xi Feng, Qiang Hu, Guiquan Zhang, Jian Yang, Jindong Zhang, Bin Wang, Caiquan Zhou
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (7): 21535.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021535
    Accepted: 05 May 2022

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    Aims: The habitat selection of animals is a scale-dependent ecological process, affected by environmental factors across spatial scales. Studying key factors which influence habitat selection across both spatial and temporal scales is tantamount to a comprehensive understanding of species’ resource requirements and effective habitat protection. Chinese monal (Lophophorus lhuysii), an alpine-obligate Galliformes species native to China, has received a first-class National Protected Wildlife status with a high priority for global conservation. To our knowledge, no study to date has examined habitat selection of Chinese monal across spatial and temporal scales. In this paper, we detail how Chinese monal habitat selection patterns may reveal habitat in critical need for protection to facilitate its persistence and the conservation of biodiversity at scale.
    Methods: During October 2019 to October 2020, we constructed 15 transect localities and established a network of infrared camera monitoring stations in Wolong National Nature Reserve, Sichuan. In total, we sampled 303 quadrats, including both microhabitat used by Chinese monal and systematic controls and collected landscape-scale habitat usage data from 176 wildlife cameras. To examine spatial patterns in habitat selection of Chinese monal, we used principal component analysis (PCA) and logistic regression models to analyze the data at the microhabitat and landscape scales, respectively. Furthermore, our analyses separate data from breeding (March-August) and non-breeding (September-February) periods, which allowed us to examine interactions in habitat utilization at both spatial and temporal scales.
    Results: At the landscape scale, the Chinese monal showed similar habitat selection patterns during breeding and non-breeding periods, with significant preferences for habitats (1) at higher elevation (3,700‒4,300 m), (2) intermediate slopes (27°‒33°), (3) proximity to exposed slope-faces, and (4) a higher proportion of meadows and tundras (complimented by a lower proportion of forests and bushes). At the microhabitat scale, the Chinese monal displayed significant preferences for habitats with higher rock coverage during breeding period. However, during non-breeding period, habitats with higher herbage coverage and lower shrub and litter coverage were significantly preferred.
    Conclusions: Our research indicates that Chinese monal show habitat specificity at both landscape and microhabitat scales, as well as seasonal variation in microhabitat selection reflecting changes in resource demands at different life stages. These findings enrich our understanding of the life history, biology, and ecology of Chinese monal. Given the endangered status of this species, we believe our research can inform more effective habitat and population management in the Wolong National Nature Reserve and beyond.

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    The drivers of plant taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic β-diversity in the gobi desert of northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Jianming Wang, Mengjun Qu, Yin Wang, Yiming Feng, Bo Wu, Qi Lu, Nianpeng He, Jingwen Li
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (6): 21503.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021503
    Accepted: 20 April 2022

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    Aims: Uncovering the assembly mechanism that shapes the large-scale biodiversity patterns is a key challenge in ecology. Numerous previous studies have demonstrated that multiple ecological processes can simultaneously regulate plant community assembly. However, how they shape the plant taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic β-diversity of gobi deserts remains unclear, hindering the understanding of gobi plant assembly processes and diversity maintenance.
    Methods: We selected 61 sites from major gobi desert habitat types across northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Plant species abundance, molecular phylogeny, as well as eight functional traits including: leaf nitrogen concentrations (LNC), leaf phosphorus concentrations (LPC), leaf area (LA), specific leaf area (SLA), fine root nitrogen concentrations (RNC), fine root phosphorus concentrations (RPC), root length (RL), specific root length (SRL), and associated environmental variables were measured. We then tested the relative effects of different assembly processes on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity using null model and variation partitioning analyses.
    Results: Plant taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic β-diversity all significantly increased with geographic distance, whereas taxonomic and functional β-diversity were more strongly related to geographic distance. Null model analysis revealed that three facets of plant β-diversity exhibited a non-random pattern, indicating niche processes may dominate the gobi desert plant community assembly. Plant functional β-diversity exhibited clustering patterns, while phylogenetic β-diversity displayed dispersion patterns. Among eight traits, only LA and RL demonstrated significant but weak phylogenetic signals, suggesting gobi plant functional traits were not conserved throughout evolution. Variation partitioning analysis further indicated that compared with geographic distance, environmental distance could better explain the variation in all three facets of plant β-diversity. More importantly, local habitat factors, such as soil moisture content and gravel coverage, drove the variation in both three facets of plant β-diversity rather than climatic factors.
    Conclusions: These results demonstrated that niche processes, such as habitat filtering, may determine the different facets of plant β-diversity in the gobi desert, and the distribution patterns of plant functional and phylogenetic β-diversity were significantly different. In addition, the mismatch between functional and phylogenetic β-diversity patterns may be partly caused by functional traits that were not conserved along the phylogeny. Taken together, our findings provide new understanding for plant assembly mechanism in extremely harsh environment regime.

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    Spatial and temporal distribution patterns and driving mechanisms of ciliate communities in the midstream and downstream reaches of the Lhasa River
    Qing Yang, Peng Zhang, Ruizhi An, Nanqian Qiao, Zhen Da, Sang Ba
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (6): 22012.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022012
    Accepted: 19 April 2022

    Abstract566)   HTML120)    PDF (3196KB)(442)       Save

    Aims: As a high-altitude water area, the Lhasa River’s aquatic ecosystem has a high research value due to its special environmental conditions. In recent years, studies on the high-altitude water area have gradually increased, but there are few studies on the community structure of ciliates in the Lhasa River. We conducted this study to explore the composition pattern, spatial and temporal diversity pattern, and maintenance mechanism of ciliate communities in the midstream and downstream reaches of the Lhasa River.
    Methods: Seventeen samples were collected from the middle and lower reaches of the Lhasa River in May 2015 and August 2015, and October 2016. In-vivo observation, Rugo’s iodine solution fixation staining, and Wilbert’s protein silver method were utilized for species identification. The spatial and temporal differences of community structure were analyzed by the Shannon diversity index, Margalef index, and richness. The interactions between ciliate groups were analyzed through co-occurrence network. The effects of physical and chemical factors on ciliate community structures were investigated using redundancy analysis (RDA).
    Results: There was no significant difference in the Shannon index between seasons and river segments. The richness and Margalef index were significantly different among the reaches. The correlation between nodes in the midstream and downstream of the co-occurrence network is primarily positive. Dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total dissolved salt (TDS) are the key factors affecting ciliate community structures.
    Conclusion: The ciliate community structures in the midstream and downstream of the Lhasa River exhibited no significant seasonal differences but significant spatial differences. At the class level, the interaction between ciliates was dominated by synergy, and there were complex interactions among different groups. On the whole, the interaction between ciliates was more complex in spring and simpler in summer. The community structures of ciliates in the midstream and downstream of the Lhasa River was influenced by several environmental factors.

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    Inorganic fertilizers are limiting factors of vegetation restoration of Qinghai Tala Shoal Photovoltaic Power Station
    Xiang Liu, Peng Zhang, Jianquan Liu
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (5): 22100.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022100
    Accepted: 12 April 2022

    Abstract617)   HTML46)    PDF (1293KB)(543)       Save

    Amis: With its unique geographical condition, vast desert and abundant solar energy resources (strong and abundant solar radiation and long sunshine duration), the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau comprises an important region with multiple advantages in constructing photovoltaic power stations for realizing carbon neutrality. However, the key factors that limit vegetation restoration after such station construction remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to examine how three factors (inorganic fertilizer, microbial inoculum and trace element) affect vegetation restoration under photovoltaic panels.

    Methods: Experiments were conducted in the Qinghai Tala Shoal desert steppe ecosystem. A full-factor interaction experiment was carried out to explore the short-term effect of limiting factors including microbial inoculum, inorganic fertilizers (nitrogen and phosphorus) and trace elements, as well as their interaction on the vegetation characteristics (including community cover, aboveground biomass and species richness).

    Results: The inorganic fertilizers significantly increased community cover (F1,5 = 40.598; P < 0.001), decreased plant species richness (F1,5 = 5.133; P = 0.026), but had no significant effect on aboveground biomass (F1,5 = 0.279; P = 0.599). Based on Tukey’s honestly significant difference test, the mixed addition of inorganic fertilizers, microbial inoculants and trace elements reached the maximum value in community cover for both under and outside the photovoltaic panels.

    Conclusions: These experiments suggested that inorganic fertilizer is a major factor limiting vegetation restoration under photovoltaic panels, while microbial inoculants and trace elements also play irreplaceable roles in promoting vegetation restoration. Therefore, all of them should be together supplemented for effectively restoring vegetation under photovoltaic panels.

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    Simulation of changes in land use distribution and biodiversity under different development scenarios in Qinghai Province
    Wen Pan, Yunhui Liu, Zehao Wu, Zengli Liu, Wenxuan Han, Zhenrong Yu
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (4): 21425.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021425
    Accepted: 16 March 2022

    Abstract655)   HTML46)    PDF (30304KB)(625)       Save

    Aims: Dramatic land use changes induced by intensified human activities are considered to be an important driver for the loss of biodiversity. In response to the demands of biodiversity conservation and socio-economic development of Qinghai Province for land use, this study provides a method of optimizing land use layout under different scenarios based on different conservation goals.

    Methods: Based on the relationships between land use type/disturbance intensity and biodiversity, this study formulated four development scenarios in Qinghai Province: Baseline scenario, Beautiful Qinghai (BQ), Intelligent Qinghai (IQ) and Harmonious Qinghai (HQ). And the land use patterns and mean species abundance (MSA) related to the local native communities of Qinghai Province in 2030 and 2050 were simulated under the four scenarios, with GeoSOS-FLUS model and FLUS-Biodiversity model, respectively.

    Results: Most land use types would change significantly compared to the current spatial pattern. Under Baseline scenario, the area of wetlands, forests, and grasslands would all decline by 2030 or 2050, resulting in a slow recovery of biodiversity accordingly. The other three scenarios (BQ, IQ, and HQ) would predict various optimized spatial patterns of the future land use in the next 10 or 30 years. A large portion of medium- and high-intensity grasslands would become wetlands, primary forests, or low-intensity grasslands. Part of the conventional farmlands would be converted into high-quality farmlands, and construction land area would be reduced, thus biodiversity be greatly improved.

    Conclusion: MSAvalues of the land use in Qinghai Province could achieve the target values by 2030 or 2050, and the biodiversity integrity/intactness would be increased compared with that in 2020 under all future scenarios.

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    Bacterial diversity differences and influence factors of four types of hydrochemical characteristic lakes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Guoping Shen, Rui Han, Zengqiang Miao, Jiangwa Xing, Yongzhen Li, Rong Wang, Derui Zhu
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (4): 21420.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021420
    Accepted: 13 March 2022

    Abstract714)   HTML118)    PDF (2220KB)(583)       Save

    Aim: Extreme environmental lakes are most densely distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in China, and the lake types and the hydrochemical characteristics are diverse. However, little is known about the bacterial community composition and diversity of these lakes in the QTP.

    Methods: This study was carried out in four hydrochemical types of lakes on the QTP (e.g. chloride type, MgSO4 subtype, Na2SO4 subtype, and carbonate type). Illumina 16S rRNA gene (V3‒V4 region) sequencing was used to analyze the bacterial diversity, community composition, and the associations between dominant taxa and environmental factors in the QTP.

    Results: The hydrochemical characteristics indicated that two lake groups of MgSO4 subtype and chloride type belonged to extremely hypersaline environment, while most samples of Na2SO4 subtype and carbonate type groups belonged to mesosaline, brackish or fresh water environments. A total of 45 phyla, 81 classes, and 1,148 genera (52,031 OTUs) of bacteria were investigated. The Shannon diversity index of bacteria was carbonate type (5.27 ± 0.57) > Na2SO4 subtype (4.96 ± 0.51) > chloride type (4.12 ± 0.80) > MgSO4 subtype (3.64 ± 1.04). The dominant phyla within the bacterial communities were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was high, and the dominant classes were γ-, α- and β-Proteobacteria. Firmicutes mainly distributed in the MgSO4 subtype and chloride-type lakes, and the dominant class was Bacilli. Bacteroidetes mainly distributed in the carbonate type and Na2SO4 subtype lakes, and the dominant class was Flavobacteriia. The bacterial community composition of chloride type lakes was similar to a few samples of MgSO4 subtype lakes, and the distribution of the dominant genera (Pseudomonas, Lactococcus, and Acinetobacter) positively correlated with the total salinity, main ion (Mg2+, Cl-, Na+ and K+), and temperature. Among the MgSO4 subtype lakes, the distribution of the uniquely common genera Bacillus, Aeromonas, and Oceanobacilluspositively correlated with the concentration of SO42-. The bacterial community composition of the Na2SO4 subtype lakes was similar to the carbonate type lakes, while the distribution of some dominant genera, e.g. Aquiflexum, Haliea and Luteolibacter, significantly and positively correlated with the environment variables, including HCO3-content, altitude, and pH value.

    Conclusion: Compared with other lake groups in the world, lakes in the QTP have unique dominant and common bacterial genera. Bacterial community composition varies in different lake types, which may be related to hydrochemical type or geographical location.

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    Distribution patterns of medicinal plant diversity and their conservation priorities in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Rensheng Zhao, Shijia Xu, Pengfei Song, Xiang Zhou, Yazhou Zhang, Yan Yuan
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (4): 21385.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021385
    Accepted: 11 March 2022

    Abstract1052)   HTML159)    PDF (2152KB)(959)       Save

    Aims: The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) harbors abundant resources of medicinal plants, but the public still lacks the knowledge of the distribution pattern of medicinal plant diversity. The public also has poor understanding of the effects of human activities on the resources of medicinal plants.

    Methods: In this study, we collected the distribution data of 254 medicinal plant species and quantified human activities in the QTP. Then we analyzed the diversity and endemism patterns and the effects of potential threats to medicinal plants. Finally we identified the conservation priority areas for medicinal plant resources.

    Results: Our results showed that the diversity and endemism of medicinal plants in the QTP are primarily concentrated in the eastern and southeastern regions. We found that stronger human influence overlapped with higher diversity and endemism of medicinal plants, and that these human activities all had a significant impact on diversity and endemism. We further use an algorithm combining biological and human factors to identify conservation priority areas, including northwestern Yunnan, southwestern and western Sichuan, eastern Qinghai and central Tibet, which revealed that the current protected areas in the QTP do not effectively protect hotspots identified in this study, and there is an abundance of conservation gaps.

    Conclusion: This study provides some suggestions on the protection of medicinal plant resources in the QTP, including improving laws, regulations and policy supervision, establishing more protection areas, supplementing the list of protected plants, strengthening the popularization of science, and promoting the collection, preservation and development of medicinal plant resources. These suggested measures will guide conservation policies and the delineation of protected areas in the future. We hope this study will publicize the serious threats of medicinal plants and arouse the attention of the public to conservation in the QTP.

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    Fish diversity and spatial distribution pattern in the Nujiang River Basin
    Ke Yang, Chengzhi Ding, Xiaoyong Chen, Liuyong Ding, Minrui Huang, Jinnan Chen, Juan Tao
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (7): 21334.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021334
    Accepted: 05 March 2022

    Abstract1942)   HTML85)    PDF (3853KB)(1926)       Save

    Aims: The Nujiang River is an important international river in Southwest China. It is known as one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, and the region is rich in unique fish resources. Due to its geographical location and topographical conditions, there is a lack of systematic studies on the species diversity and distribution patterns of fish species in the Nujiang River Basin.
    Methods: In this study, fish composition information of the Nujiang River Basin was systematically sorted out based on data from a five-year field sample of the river basin, as well as data from literature, books and online databases. The spatial distribution patterns of the Nujiang River Basin fish species were analyzed via clustering and ordination methods.
    Results: The results revealed that there were 85 indigenous fish species in the Nujiang River Basin. These fishes belong to 5 orders, 12 families and 47 genera. There were also 18 exotic fish species that belong to 3 orders, 8 families and 16 genera, in addition, two exotic species were newly recorded by field investigation. The fish diversity in the Nujiang River Basin significantly increased from the upper reach to lower reach. According to the results of clustering and ordination analysis of fish composition, the 25 sub-basins of the Nujiang River can be divided into three parts: (1) The upper reach in the Tibet Autonomous Region, there were 15 species. Fish of Schizothoracine and Triplophysa were dominant species, indicating a typical fauna characteristic of cold-water fish in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (2) In the middle reach from Gongshan to Lushui, there were 36 species. Aside from the cold-water fish species of the upper reach, fish of Barbinae and Labeoninae were also presented in this area. Fauna characteristics demonstrated the change from plateau fish species to plain fish species. (3) In the lower reach below Lushui, there were 74 species. Among them, the thermophilic fishes of Barbinae, Labeoninae, and Danioninae were widely distributed in the main stream, while a large number of Schistura and Glyptothorax fishes were more likely to be found in tributaries. The fish composition of this section has characteristics of tropical river and floodplain fauna. In recent years (2017-2021), several surveys have found only 43 native fish species together (50.6% of the historical records), and fishery resources in the Nujiang River Basin were decreasing significantly.
    Conclusion: Overfishing, development of small hydropower stations in tributaries, and the invasion of exotic fish species were the main threats to the native fish of the Nujiang River Basin. With the rapid increase in human activities, fish in the Nujiang River Basin were greatly threatened. Thus, systematic management and conservation planning for fish resources at the watershed-level are urgently needed.

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    Mammal and bird diversity recorded with camera traps in Gongga Mountain National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China
    Jiang Qiao, Guoqing Jia, Huaming Zhou, Lin Gong, Yong Jiang, Nengwen Xiao, Xiaoqi Gao, Anxiang Wen, Jie Wang
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (2): 20395.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020395
    Accepted: 13 March 2021

    Abstract1879)   HTML472)    PDF (8085KB)(2029)       Save

    Aims The Gongga Mountain National Nature Reserve lies in the global biodiversity hotspot—the Hengduan Mountains and is a priority area of biodiversity conservation in China. However, surveys of large to medium-sized mammals are insufficient in the reserve. For this reason, we conducted a camera trap survey during 2011-2018.

    Methods Camera traps were placed in 97 grid cells (1 km × 1 km per cell) with a minimum distance of over 500 m and at the altitudes of 2,672-4,764 m. Only one camera was placed in a cell during the same period. Seventy grid cells located continuously along the western slope of Mt. Gongga.

    Results A total of 20,932 independent photographs were taken over 39,881 camera-days. Thirty wild mammal species and 78 bird species were captured by camera traps. Seven other mammal species were reported by literature or occasional observation. Among them, 12 species are class I, and 28 are class II national protected animals. 11 and 12 species are listed in the CITES Appendix I and II, respectively. According to the IUCN Red List, 3 and 8 species are listed as endangered (EN) and vulnerable (VU) species, respectively. According to Red List of China’s Vertebrates, 5 species are listed as Critically Endangered (CR), 5 are listed as endangered, and 11 are listed as vulnerable. Using a relative abundance index, the three most detected mammal species were the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus, 147.39), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, 66.10), and wild boar (Sus scrofa, 36.03); the three most detected avian species were the blood pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus, 14.64), white eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon, 10.43), and giant laughingthrush (Garrulax maximus, 8.05).

    Conclusion We provided an inventory of large to medium-sized mammals in the reserve. More in-depth investigations should be conducted in broad-leaved forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, alpine shrub meadow, and alpine scree to survey other undetected mammals.

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    Roadmap for coordinated development of economic construction and ecological protection in protected areas: Take Sanjiangyuan area as an example
    Guanzheng Hu, Weihua Zeng, Bingran Ma
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (2): 21225.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021225
    Accepted: 28 January 2022

    Abstract631)   HTML168)    PDF (3769KB)(584)       Save

    Background There is an urgent need for a measure system to guide the coordinated development of economic construction and ecological protection in the protected area, but most of the relevant planning schemes lack the research on the trade-off relationship between economy and ecology, and the application of roadmap design.

    Methods Representative ecosystem services were selected to quantify the situation of economic construction and ecological protection, relationship between economy and ecology was identified through collaborative trade-off analysis, development objectives of each stage were pointed out, collaborative development measures were put forward from the aspects of scale structure, engineering technology, policies and regulations, and then a collaborative development roadmap was designed.

    Results & Conclusion The case study results of Sanjiangyuan area showed that its economy and ecology were still in a trade-off state because the rate of human demand for natural resources exceeds the rate of resource renewal. Therefore, the development objectives in the early phase (14th Five Year Plan period), the mid-term (2026-2030) and the long-term (2031-2035) were overall layout planning, solving practical problems and helping the backward, the coordinated development measures were put forward, including optimizing and adjusting the scale of social and economic development structure, optimizing the scope and zoning of national parks, improving the carrying capacity and reducing the utilization intensity of grassland, comprehensive ecological compensation mechanism, sustainable alternative livelihood, improving infrastructure construction and the level of public services, and the roadmap was drawn. Thus, support for the planning of Sanjiangyuan National Park was provided.

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    Nesting habitat preference of the black-necked crane and influence of anthropogenic disturbance in Yanchiwan, Gansu
    Bochi Wang, Wen Pei, Jucai Yang, Yongjun Se, Xuezhu Li, Hairong Yang
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (1): 21241.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021241
    Abstract691)   HTML623)    PDF (1856KB)(621)       Save

    Aims: The black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) is a flagship species of plateau and an important indicator of the health status of the plateau ecosystem. In recent years, plenty of research on black-necked cranes has been implemented, but these studies mainly focus on the migration, nest site selection, and foraging habitat selection of black-necked cranes. We know little about the preference of nesting habitat of black-necked cranes and the selection mechanism of nesting habitat. Black-necked cranes are divine birds in Tibetan Buddhism, and the species has always lived in harmony with the believers of Tibetan Buddhism. However, with the progression of human lifestyle, the problem of anthropogenic disturbance has become more prominent. Our research aims to provide a reference for understanding how black-necked cranes adapt to human modified habitats between multiple factors.

    Methods: Nest sites and number of black-necked cranes were collected in Danghe Wetland from April to September in 2019 and 2020. Satellite interpretation was utilized to classify the habitats of the black-necked cranes. To study the distribution pattern of the nests and anthropogenic disturbance, we used nearest neighbor analysis and kernel density estimation. A random forest model was applied to explore nesting habitat selection mechanism of the black-necked cranes.

    Results: There are two concentrated breeding grounds of black-necked crane nests in the Danghe Wetland and the nests are extremely concentrated. The two breeding grounds are located in the marsh in the north and south of the Danghe River. The houses of herders in the wetland are distributed in a strip on the gobi at the southern edge of the wetland. The density distribution of house is more concentrated on the south bank of the Danghe River, and the roads are also distributed along the south bank of the Danghe River. There is obvious geographical separation between the black-necked crane nests and anthropogenic disturbances. Meadows are the most prominent landscape type of wetland ecosystems and the sum of the proportions of marsh meadow and salinized meadow exceeds 50%. The proportion of shallow water marsh is relatively small, not exceeding 10% in two years. Deep water marsh and lake have smaller areas, below 3% and 2% respectively (average of two years). The distance from deep water marsh, shallow water marsh, and lake are the three critical environmental variables affecting the nesting habitat selection of the black-necked cranes, while the distance from houses and roads are less critical. The black-necked cranes prefer to nest in areas < 125 m from deep water marsh, < 130 m from shallow water marsh, and < 270 m from lake.

    Conclusion: The deep water marsh, which the black-necked cranes strongly prefer when nesting in Danghe Wetland, is characterized by a relatively low percentage and clustered distribution. Meanwhile, the range of suitable habitat for the black-necked cranes to nest is narrow (< 125 m from deep water marsh, < 130 m from shallow water marsh, < 270 m from lake). Therefore, the breeding distribution of black-necked cranes is narrow. Resource factors are the main driving force for the distribution pattern of the black-necked crane nests. However, anthropogenic disturbance has little impact on nesting habitat selection. Therefore, the geographical separation between the black-necked crane nests distribution and anthropogenic disturbance is largely due to the preference for resources rather than avoiding disturbance. The habitat quality of the black necked-cranes in Danghe Wetland may decline, and the increase of livestock, multi-season utilization of pasture, and climate change may be the main reasons.

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    Spatiotemporal overlap among sympatric Pallas’s cat (Otocolobus manul), Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and red fox (V. vulpes) in the source region of the Yangtze River
    Dong Wang, Qinggaowa Sai, Zihan Wang, Hongxiu Zhao, Xinming Lian
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (9): 21365.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021365
    Accepted: 13 January 2022

    Abstract1838)   HTML93)    PDF (2007KB)(1082)       Save

    Aim: Pallas’s cat (Otocolobus manul), Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and red fox (V. vulpes) are small sympatric carnivores inhabiting the Sanjiangyuan region on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The spatiotemporal overlaps between these species were analyzed in this study.
    Methods: From June 2014 to September 2019, we set up 208 infrared cameras along the Tuotuo River and the Tongtian River in the source region of the Yangtze River to collect the daily activity rhythm and spatial distribution data of three carnivores. The spatial overlap coefficient was used to evaluate spatial niche differentiation and the kernel density estimation method was utilized to evaluate daily activity rhythm. Then, the overlap coefficient of rhythms was applied to analyze the temporal niche differentiation among the three carnivores.
    Results: The spatial overlap coefficients between Pallas’s cat and Tibetan fox, Pallas’s cat and red fox, and Tibetan fox and red fox were 0.25, 0.48 and 0.17, respectively. This indicated that there were differences in space utilization among the three carnivores. The results of daily activity rhythm demonstrated that Pallas’s cats and Tibetan foxes displayed diurnal behavioral patterns and red foxes were primarily nocturnal. The overlap coefficients of daily activity rhythms of Pallas’s cats, Tibetan foxes, and red foxes between the cold and warm seasons were 0.83, 0.78 and 0.88, respectively. Between any two species, the highest overlap coefficient (0.84) of daily activity rhythm was between the Pallas’s cats and Tibetan foxes, and the lowest overlap coefficient (0.48) was between the Tibetan foxes and red foxes. A lower coefficient meant more significant temporal niche differentiation. Additionally, the overlap coefficients of daily activity rhythm between the two species were smaller in the warm season than those in the cold season.
    Conclusion: In the source region of the Yangtze River, the three small sympatric carnivores could reduce interference and competition through spatial or/and temporal niche differentiation and thus achieve coexistence.

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    Species diversity and driving factors of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River
    Zhengfei Li, Xiaoming Jiang, Jun Wang, Xingliang Meng, Junqian Zhang, Zhicai Xie
    Biodiv Sci    2022, 30 (6): 21431.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021431
    Accepted: 09 January 2022

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    Aims: The Yarlung Zangbo River basin supports rich and unique biological resources, which makes it a global biodiversity hotspot. However, surveys on benthic macroinvertebrates in this river basin are far from sufficient. To fill this gap, this study focused on the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, where macroinvertebrates were sampled from the main stream and tributaries in autumn (October 2015) and spring (March 2016).
    Methods: One-way ANOVA was used to examine the differences of abundance, biomass and ecological indices between the main stream and tributaries. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) was adopted to test if community structures varied among different site groups. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was Applied to identify the key environmental factors that significantly influence the community structure of macroinvertebrates during each season.
    Results: A total of 270 species were identified, belonging to 5 phyla 8 classes 20 orders and 92 families. The community included 246 aquatic insects, 14 oligochaetes, 4 mollusks and 6 others. The average density was 939.1 ind./m2, and the average biomass was 5.44 g/m2. 184 and 214 macroinvertebrate species were collected in spring and autumn, respectively. The dominant species were aquatic insects that preferred clean and cold water, including Baetis sp., Baetiella sp., Simulium sp., Micropsetra sp. and Brachycentrus sp. The community structure, density and diversity indices exhibited significant temporal and spatial variation, and the diversity in tributaries was significantly higher than that of the main stream. CCA analysis indicated that environmental factors including altitude, velocity, river width and substrate types were key factors structuring the benthic community in the Yarlung Zangbo River.
    Conclusion: The variation in community structure and diversity pattern were mainly derived from the variable climate types and geological barriers in the Grand Canyon area. This study can provide important basis and reference for macroinvertebrate diversity assessments and environmental monitoring in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin.

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    Vulnerability of two Rhodiola species under climate change in the future
    Wenting Wang, Tingting Yang, Lei Jin, Jiamin Jiang
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (12): 1620-1628.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021209
    Accepted: 12 November 2021

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    Aims: Climate change has a profound impact on global species diversity, especially alpine species diversity. Furthermore, the number of species currently threatened by climate change may increase as climate change. Studying the extinction risk of species under future climate change is of great significance to biodiversity conservation. Rhodiola crenulata and R. chrysanthemifolia are two important medicinal plants distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, the potential effects of climate change on each species have not been widely researched. In this study, we investigate the vulnerability of each species to climate change and discuss the relationship between species vulnerability and climatic niche. In addition, we test whether climate change will affect the threat ranking of species in red list.
    Methods: In this study, we studied the vulnerability of R. crenulata and R. chrysanthemifolia to climate change using climate-niche factor analysis. We then discussed the influence of climate on the vulnerability of both species change in the context of two “Shared Socioeconomic Pathways” (i.e. SSP2-45 and SSP5-85). Next, we calculated the marginality and specialization of the two species. At the same time, we visualized the climate niches of each species using principal component analysis and analyzed the relationship between climate niches and vulnerabilities of both species.
    Results: Our results indicate that the vulnerability of each species is high in the western region of their range, and low in the eastern region of their range. Both species have lower vulnerability to climate change in the Hengduan Mountains, which will serve as a climate refugium for the two species. The vulnerability of the two species under SSP5-85 is higher than that under SSP2-45, and the resource- and energy-intensive socioeconomic pathways (i.e. SSP5-85) will increase the extinction risk of both species in the future. Rhodiola chrysanthemifolia, which is classified as Least Concern on China Species Red List, is more vulnerable to climate change than R. crenulata, which is classified as Endangered. Niche analysis demonstrates that niche marginality and specialization of R. crenulata were lower than that of R. chrysanthemifolia.
    Conclusions: Our results suggest that the vulnerability of different species to climate change inhabiting the same region is primarily determined by the climate niche of each species. Climate change may affect the threat ranking of species in red list. It is necessary to consider the impact of climate change when assessing threats to species.

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    Fish diversity and conservation in the Lanzhou reach of the Yellow River
    Zhaosong Chen, Bei An, Ziwang Wang, Faning Wu, Zhangyun Sun, Lixun Zhang
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (12): 1658-1672.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021199
    Accepted: 12 November 2021

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    Aim: Lanzhou is the only provincial capital city that the Yellow River passes through. It has played an important role in comprehensive management and high-quality development of the Yellow River basin. It is necessary to understand the status of and changes in fish species diversity to protect this aquatic ecosystem in the future.
    Methods: To comprehensively document the pattern of fish diversity in the Lanzhou reach of the Yellow River, we probed the distribution of fish species using field surveys from July to October in 2020. The indices of Shannon-Wiener, Pielou, Simpson, Cody, Routledge, and Bray-Curtis were applied to evaluate the main streams and four tributaries in Lanzhou County. Relative abundance (RA) was calculated to determine the dominant species, and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to show the spatial distribution pattern of the species.
    Results: A total of 20 species, including four threatened species, one national class II protected wildlife species, seven Chinese endemic fish species, and four of the Yellow River’s endemic fish species were collected. These species belonged to 15 genera, 6 families, and 4 orders. Triplophysa orientalis, T. robusta, Carassius auratus and Pseudorasbora parva are the dominant fish species in this area. The fish fauna was dominated by fishes that are widespread in the Northwest Qinghai-Tibetan subregion. Omnivorous, demersal, and settlement fish were the predominant ecological types. Also, the Zhuanglang River and the Yellow River had a higher diversity of fish species than the Datong River and the Wanchuan River. The beta diversity analysis showed that the habitats of the Yellow River were different from those of the Zhuanglang River, the Datong River, the Huangshui River and the Wanchuan River, and that the fish species differentiated somewhat in these rivers. Moreover, the fish composition dissimilarity between the Zhuanglang River, the Yellow River, the Huangshui River, and the Wanchuan River was high. The NMDS method was applied to the collected data and four separate groups with small geographic distance were identified.
    Conclusion: Water conservancy facilities construction, alien fish, and water pollution may affect the diversity and distribution of fish in the Lanzhou reach of the Yellow River. This study assessed available baseline information to ensure the protection and scientific management of freshwater fish diversity in the Lanzhou reach of the Yellow River. This information will be useful for the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River basin.

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    The diversity of large- and medium-sized terrestrial mammals and birds in the Giant Panda National Park: A meta-analysis based on camera-trapping data
    Jia Tian, Shuyi Zhu, Xiaofeng Zhang, Liwen He, Xiaodong Gu, Tianpei Guan, Sheng Li
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (11): 1490-1504.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021165
    Accepted: 12 August 2021

    Abstract1611)   HTML1413)    PDF (1849KB)(1739)       Save

    Aims Biodiversity monitoring is the foundation of conservation work in national parks. Systematic conservation planning and effective management actions within these parks highly rely on an in-depth evaluation of biodiversity metrics. In China, the Giant Panda National Park (GPNP) is one of the first five national parks. To establish baseline metrics of mammal and bird diversity in GPNP, we conducted a meta-analysis based on published camera-trapping data.
    Methods We systematically searched academic publications, project reports, and news articles that reported on wildlife camera-trapping studies between 2005 and 2020 in GPNP. We also conducted a questionnaire survey on the history and results of camera-trap monitoring projects within the protected areas of the region. These data were compiled for statistical analysis.
    Result Between 2005 and 2020, 71 wild mammal species belonging to 6 orders, 22 families and 55 genera, and 232 wild bird species belonging to 13 orders, 45 families and 132 genera were recorded via camera-trap monitoring in 51 protected areas within GPNP. Among the four mountain ranges within GPNP (i.e., Mts. Qinling, Mts. Minshan, Mts. Qionglai and Mts. Xiangling), the species richness of large- and medium-sized terrestrial mammals and birds was the highest in Mts. Qionglai and Mts. Minshan (40 mammal and 12 pheasant species for each) and the lowest in Mts. Xiangling (25 mammal and 7 pheasant species). The recorded number of target species in individual protected areas was positively correlated with the area of protected area, sampling effort (measured as number of camera-days), and the camera station elevation range. The numbers of species recorded in national protected areas (28 ± 8.3, mean ± SD) were significantly higher than those in provincial protected areas (19 ± 8.9). Four large carnivores of Felidae and Canidae (leopard Panthera pardus, snow leopard P. uncia, wolf Canis lupus and dhole Cuon alpinus) were recorded in GPNP, primarily from Mts. Qinling and Mts. Qionglai, while no large carnivores were recorded within the park in Mts. Minshan and only one wolf was recorded in Mts. Xiangling.
    Conclusion The previous protected area network and camera-trapping monitoring network prior to the establishment of GPNP have already accumulated a high quantity of data on wild mammals and birds in this region. These data provide a reliable baseline biodiversity inventory for the pilot and construction phases of GPNP. In light of these results, GPNP should design and implement a standardized wildlife monitoring system to further provide additional data for future evaluations of park management, decision-making, and conservation effectiveness.

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    A comparison of seed plants’ polyploids between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine and the Pan-Arctic regions
    Jun Zhang, Huanwen Peng, Fucai Xia, Wei Wang
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (11): 1470-1480.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021146
    Accepted: 27 July 2021

    Abstract1291)   HTML872)    PDF (1232KB)(905)       Save

    Aims: Polyploidization is an important mechanism for plants to adapt to extreme environments. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) alpine and Pan-Arctic regions have a similar low-temperature environment, and there were closely biotic exchanges between the two regions. However, it is unclear whether the QTP alpine and Pan-Arctic floras have similar polyploid buildup or not. Here, we compared polyploid proportions between these two floras and explored the potential causes for the difference.
    Methods: By comprehensive searches in the databases and various literatures, we obtained species lists with chromosome numbers and ploidy of seed plants for the QTP alpine and Pan-Arctic regions, and then calculated polyploid proportion in totality as well as polyploid proportion for different life forms in the two regions.
    Results: A total of 1,770 species of seed plants with chromosome numbers were collected, of which 774 occur in the QTP alpine region and 996 occur in the Pan-Arctic. According to the statistical analyses, the proportions of polyploid plants are 20.9% in the QTP alpine region and 61.5% in the Pan-Arctic. The proportions of polyploids of annual herbs, perennial herbs and woody plants in the QTP alpine region are 20.7%, 21.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. The proportions of polyploids of annual herbs, perennial herbs and woody plants in the Pan-Arctic are 60.2%, 65.5%, and 38.3%, respectively.
    Conclusions: The polyploid proportions in totality and for different life forms in the Pan-Arctic are higher than those in the QTP alpine region obviously, which is associated with the different evolutionary history of the two floras, as well as their different geological and climatic events. The modernization of the QTP alpine flora took place around the Oligocene-Miocene boundary, and since then the QTP has had a relatively constant low-temperate environment, whereas the Pan-Arctic flora did not develop until 3-4 Ma, and since then the Pan-Arctic flora experienced repeated glacial and interglacial periods and repeated sea-level fluctuations, which might have resulted in the polyploidization of plants. This study contributes to our knowledge on how polyploids adapt to low-temperate environments.

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    Seven newly recorded species from Xizang and Xinjiang in China
    Fanbin Hu, Yue Xin, Ke Guo, Liqing Zhao
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (9): 1265-1270.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021181
    Accepted: 29 June 2021

    Abstract1120)   HTML23)    PDF (1107KB)(932)       Save

    Aim: We aim to understand the plant diversity in the border areas of Xizang and Xinjiang. These border areas are the focus and hot spots of biodiversity conservation.
    Method: In this study, plants were collected and photographed through field investigation, made into specimens, and sorted out and identified. The voucher specimens for each reported species were preserved in the Herbarium of Inner Mongolia University (HIMC).
    Results: Six newly recorded angiosperm species and one sub-species in China were reported, of which Atriplex pallida, Blitum litwinowii, Chenopodium atripliciforme, Stipa turkestanica and Polygonum cognatum subsp. chitralicum were found in the Xizang Autonomous Region, while Astragalus baitagensis and Lythrum hyssopifolia were collected from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
    Conclusion: The investigation of plants in the border areas of Xizang and Xinjiang with neighboring countries is relatively weak, and should be further strengthened in the investigation of flora and resources in the future. The discovery of new distributed plants is of great significance to the nature of the local flora and the attribution of the regionalization.

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    Evaluation indicator system for the recreational sustainability management of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster
    Conglin Zhang, Mengzhen Chu, Huizhi Zhang, Haijuan Qiao, Baorong Huang
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (6): 780-789.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020401
    Accepted: 28 May 2021

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    Aims: The establishment of an evaluation indicator system of recreational sustainability management is extremely important for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster to guide scientific planning and construction, promote recreational sustainability management, regulate the behaviors of market subjects and visitors, and protect the important and fragile ecological environment.

    Methods: Based on scientific investigation of the potential construction area of national park cluster, taking demands as orientation, the demand of national park cluster for recreational sustainability management evaluation indicator is analyzed. Guided by global consensus, the applicability of Global Sustainability Tourism Criteria for Destinations in national park cluster is discussed. Guided by experience, the management emphases of recreational sustainability of national parks in major countries is summarized.

    Results: The recreational sustainability management evaluation indicator system for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster has been established, including five first-level indicators of system construction, economy, society, culture and ecological environment, 15 second-level indicators and 34 third-level indicators.

    Conclusion & suggestions: The recreational sustainability management evaluation indicator system for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster has regional, representative, systematic and pragmatic characteristics. The application of the Recreational Sustainability Management Evaluation Indicator System for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster needs to be supported by monitoring and statistical systems. However, the foundation of these two fields in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau national park cluster is relatively weak. In order to apply the evaluation indicator system of recreational sustainability management, it is suggested to improve related monitoring and statistics systems. On the one hand, priority should be given to monitoring number of visitors, rare and endemic species, water environment quality, vegetation coverage, authenticity, and integrity of cultural heritage in the national park cluster potential construction area. On the other hand, it is necessary to give priority to strengthen the statistical work on the visitor attributes, visitors' satisfaction, local community satisfaction, the contribution of recreation to local economic and social development, and the waste disposal rate of recreation.

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    Diversity of endophytic bacteria in five types of tissues of Hippophae tibetana
    Aimei Zhang, Yiran Yin, Weibao Kong, Xuetai Zhu, Yingli Yang
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (9): 1236-1244.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021034
    Accepted: 28 May 2021

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    Aims: Hippophae tibetana is a special kind of actinorhizal plants distributed in severe cold and high altitude areas. Frankia spp. can infect its roots and form nodules, which enhances its ecological adaptability due to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and other effects. Besides Frankia spp., there are other endophytic bacteria in the root nodules of H. tibetana. Frankia spp. can distribute not only nodules but also other tissues. By analyzing the community structure and diversity of endophytic bacteria in different tissues, the clonization and possible migration of Frankia in different tissues were discussed.
    Methods: High-throughput sequencing of the V5‒V7 region of 16S rRNA gene was used to study the diversity of Frankia spp. and other endophytic bacteria in root nodules, stems, branches, leaves, and seeds of H. tibetana,.
    Results: The results showed that the richness and diversity indices of the community in the root nodules of H. tibetana were the highest, while the richness of endophytic bacterial community in seeds were the lowest, and diversity indices in the stems were the lowest. The diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in five types of tissues of H. tibetana was different. Proteobacteria were the dominant phylum of the endophytic bacterial communities of five tissue types, Frankia was the dominant genus in root nodules, while Friedmanniella was the dominant genus in stems, and Stenotrophomonas was the dominant genus in branches, leaves, and seeds. The results also showed that Frankia could not only colonize in root nodules of H. tibetana, but also distributed in other tissues. There were different “species” of Frankia in the same tissue type of H. tibetana, and the same “species” of Frankia were also distributed in different tissues. In addition, functional endophytic bacteria existed in five tissue types of H. tibetana, which can fix nitrogen, promote the growth inhibit pathogens of host plants. Endophytic bacteria with nitrogen fixation function were mainly distributed in nodules, while those with growth-promoting and bacteriostatic functions were mainly distributed in branches and leaves of H. tibetana.
    Conclusion: There were rich diversity of endophytic bacteria in five tissue types of H. tibetana, but the community structure and dominant population of each tissue were different, and different tissues could also colonize endophytic bacteria with multiple functions.

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    On the experiences of Qilian Mountain National Park system pilot
    Kun Jin
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (3): 298-300.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021046
    Accepted: 23 March 2021

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    The five integrative management strategies of Sanjiangyuan National Park
    Xinquan Zhao
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (3): 301-303.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021023
    Accepted: 22 March 2021

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    The experience and its reference study of law enforcement system of Sanjiangyuan National Park pilot
    Hongqiao Su, Nan Wang, Yang Su
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (3): 304-306.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021047
    Accepted: 19 March 2021

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    The spatial distribution relationship between three pheasant species and mutual predator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), on the Western Sichuan Plateau
    Boyan Zou, Gai Luo, Bowei Zhu, Jianghong Ran, Chao Fang
    Biodiv Sci    2021, 29 (7): 918-926.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020438
    Accepted: 11 March 2021

    Abstract1282)   HTML53)    PDF (2566KB)(948)       Save

    Aims: Multiple interspecific factors such as predator-prey dynamics and responses to different environmental variables collectively influence the spatial distribution of wildlife species. To be able to understand how these mechanisms influence community aggregation and biodiversity stability, it is crucial to understand role these factors play in impacting the formation of spatial distribution patterns among sympatric species.
    Methods: Here, we investigated the spatial distribution correlations and driving factors of three pheasant species commonly seen or surveyed on the Western Sichuan Plateau. We combined a total of 682 independent photos obtained from 84 infrared camera traps from 2016 to 2018 with conditional two-species occupancy model. We then used the model operation to assess the spatial distribution relations on the camera site scale. We used this model operation for each of the three pheasant species (the buff-throated partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii, blood pheasant Ithaginis cruentus, and the white eared-pheasant Crossoptilon crossoptilon) and their predator the red fox which can also be found over a wide area in the Western Sichuan Plateau.
    Results: We had two major results from our analyses. First, under the synergic-influence of species interactions and environmental variables, the spatial distribution of the red fox and the blood pheasant (species interaction factor, SIF = 1.31 ± 0.14) was similar to that of the red fox and the buff-throated partridge (SIF = 1.42 ± 0.41). Both these pairs tended to have a great overlap within the study area. Additionally, the spatial distribution between the red fox and the blood pheasant would overlap in some large areas and then spatial distribution overlapped decreased with the increasing distance to rivers. The spatial relationship between the red fox and the buff-throated partridge were exhibited a different trend, which has been a consistently falling overlap ratio tendency since the distance from camera site to rivers began to increase. The red fox and the white eared-pheasant shared independent distribution patterns with each other (SIF = 1). Environmental variables were a strong predictor for the spatial distribution pattern of white-eared pheasants. However, environmental variables hardly had any impact on the distribution strategy for the red fox. The second major result was that the detection probabilities for all three pheasant species was associated with the synergic-influence of species interactions. The presence of red fox practically reduced the detection probability for all three pheasant species on the site scale (pB > rB).
    Conclusion: Results from this experiment provide a new up to date case study (with solid scientific basis) that focused on species distribution relationships, and help us understand the importance of species coexistence and biodiversity conservation.

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