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Table of Content
    Volume 29 Issue 9
    20 September 2021
    Rhododendron is one of the largest genus of angiosperms in China. Cheng et al established a dataset on the geographical distribution of wild Rhododendrons species in China (for details see pages 1175–1180 of this issue). The pictures show representative species of the seven subgenera distributed in China. From left to right: Rhododendron delavayi, R. yunnanense, R. molle, R. simsii, R. ovatum, R. redowskianum, and R. stamineum. (Photograph credit: Xinxiang Bai and Yechun Xu)
      
    Editorial
    Biodiversity data papers: Standardizing and diversifying data sharing
    Jian Zhang, Xiaolei Huang, Yurong Zhou, Keping Ma
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1147-1148.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021369
    Abstract ( 339 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (629KB) ( 339 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Data Papers
    A dataset on the life-history and ecological traits of Chinese birds
    Yanping Wang, Yunfeng Song, Yuxi Zhong, Chuanwu Chen, Yuhao Zhao, Di Zeng, Yiru Wu, Ping Ding
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1149-1153.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021201
    Abstract ( 793 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (459KB) ( 359 )   Save
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    China has a total of 1,445 bird species and is one of the countries with the richest bird diversity in the world. Species traits strongly determine the species' ability to persist in a variety of environments and are fundamental to ecological, evolutionary and conservational research. Therefore, it is important to collecting data on life-history, ecological and geographic traits of Chinese birds. However, so far, no efforts have been made to gather such trait data of Chinese birds. The aim of this study is thus to provide a comprehensive dataset of natural history traits for Chinese birds. We collected data on 17 traits related to geographical, morphological, ecological and life-history features for the 1,445 species of Chinese birds. Between 2015 and 2021, we compiled data by systematically searching all related literature, including academic ornithological books, field guides, peer-reviewed scientific publications, Baidu Scholar, Google Scholar and specialized websites. The 17 traits included body mass, body length, bill length, wing length, tail length, tarsus length, primary diet, clutch size, egg size, egg volume, nest site, nest type, flocking status, migrant status, endemic status, biogeographic distribution and the number of provinces distributed of Chinese birds. However, data completeness varied from 60.83% to 100% among traits. Except for migrant status, endemic status, biogeographic distribution and the number of provinces distributed, the data on other traits were incomplete to some extent. Flocking status was only available for 60.83% of Chinese birds. Our dataset is the latest and most complete one on species traits of Chinese birds. The dataset will be helpful for advancing the research fields of ecology, evolution, biogeography, and conservation biology in Chinese birds.

    A dataset on the diversity and geographical distributions of hemipteran insects in China
    Junjie Li, Huanhuan Liu, Yangxue Wu, Lingda Zeng, Xiaolei Huang
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1154-1158.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021187
    Abstract ( 296 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (916KB) ( 170 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    The gradual loss of global biodiversity has become one of the most serious environmental problems. It is an important scientific issue in the fields of ecology and biogeography to examine the resources available to study biodiversity and the underlying mechanisms of biodiversity loss. The integration and publication of biodiversity data would be a helpful foundation for related research. For example, insects are the most diverse group of organisms on earth, but there is a relative lack of relevant research due to the absence of collation of insect diversity data. This study selected the Hemiptera, an important and diverse group in the class Insecta, in order to promote the development of collection and distribution of insect diversity data. Through extensive retrieval and collection, we systematically collated the diversity and geographical distributions of hemipteran insects in China up to 2017. The dataset covers 7,822 hemipteran species belonging to 2,090 genera and 102 families, and 39,298 records of geographical distributions. The dataset can help the future researches on biodiversity patterns, biota evolution and pest control.

    Database/Dataset Profile

    Title A dataset on the diversity and geographical distributions of hemipteran insects in China
    Authors Junjie Li, Huanhuan Liu, Yangxue Wu, Lingda Zeng, Xiaolei Huang
    Corresponding author Xiaolei Huang (huangxl@fafu.edu.cn)
    Time range 1864-2017
    Geographical scope China
    File size 1.49 MB
    Data format *.xlsx
    Data link http://www.dataopen.info/article/206
    http://doi.org/10.24899/do.202107001
    https://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/1005-0094/DATA/2021187.zip
    Database/Dataset composition The dataset includes one Excel data file with a file size of 1.49 MB
    A geometric morphometric dataset of stag beetles
    Yijie Tong, Mengna Zhang, Josh Jenkins Shaw, Xia Wan, Xingke Yang, Ming Bai
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1159-1164.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021160
    Abstract ( 280 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (6057KB) ( 219 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) have become an important model group for morphological research due to their sexual dimorphism, male polymorphism, and unique behaviors. Here we present a preliminary database of geometric morphometrics for 1,302 stag beetles, which includes nearly 99% of described species from around the world. This new dataset comprises morphological information from two continuous traits, the curves of the pronotum and elytron, both of which are typical characters of stag beetles. Two curves were measured from the left contours of the pronotum and elytron to represent their external forms. Curve 1 was measured from the middle of the anterior margin of the pronotum to the middle of the posterior margin of the pronotum. Curve 2 started from the anterior margin of the left elytron and terminated at the rear edge. Each curve was resampled into 25 and 50 equally spaced semi-landmarks, respectively. Our dataset provides a baseline for future research in several disciplines, including biodiversity, phylogeny and evolutionary biology.

    A photographic dataset of the beetle specimens from a SITE100 standardized sampling area in Huaping, Guangxi
    Panpan Li, Yijie Tong, Haoyu Cao, Guosen Rong, Shiqing Qin, Xingke Yang, Guoquan Wang, Ming Bai
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1165-1169.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021212
    Abstract ( 146 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (5179KB) ( 110 )   Save
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    It is important to quantitatively assess the relationship between insect diversity and the environment by laying long-term sample plots at a global scale. Consequently, the SITE100 International Science Project was proposed. The project plans to select 100 large sites around the world and use three types of data collection methods, namely, flight interception trap (FIT), Malaise trap (MT), and pitfall trap (PT). The global insect diversity pattern is explored from three dimensions: species diversity, morphological diversity and genetic diversity. Huaping, Guangxi was selected as one of the 100 sites to explore the origin of global insect diversity and its relationship with the environment through long-term monitoring and cross-regional large-scale comparison. In this study, the data set of beetles collected from the Huaping site during 2020 growing season lasted 7 months (2020.05.09-2020.11.23), covering 10 sites. Each site contained one FIT, one MT and 10 PT. All sites were visited once a week on average. A total of 8,914 beetles were collected during the study period. 563 morphological species from 57 families were identified. The data set consists of four parts. The first part is the original photos of all beetle specimens obtained from all traps at various collection points, with a total of 644 photos. After compression, the file name is Photo-1.zip. The second part is the photos of beetles grouped by morphological species. After compression, the file name is Photo-2.zip. The third part is the statistics of each beetle specimen: the collection method, and the longitude, latitude, and altitude of its sampling point. The file name for this data set is data-1.zip. The fourth part is detailed identification information of the morphological species of each specimen. The file name is data-2.zip. In addition to joint analysis with the results from other SITE100 sites, this data set can also be used to analyze and compare the distribution and morphological differences of beetle taxa in different habitats. The images of some taxa can provide data support for subsequent geometric morphometrics or morphological studies. This dataset is the first quantitative assessment of beetle diversity in Huaping, and is of great significance in enriching biodiversity background data in China and understanding the origin of insect fauna in southern China.

    The wildlife camera-trapping dataset of Laohegou Protected Area, Sichuan Province (2011-2015)
    Sheng Li, Dajun Wang, Xianghui Chen, Hongliang Bu, Xiaogeng Liu, Tong Jin
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1170-1174.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021320
    Abstract ( 210 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (411KB) ( 161 )   Save
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    Camera-trapping has become one of the most efficient approach to detect and investigate the large- and medium-sized terrestrial mammals and birds, which can provide reliable data to the biodiversity inventory and wildlife baseline survey of protected areas. Laohegou Protected Area, with an area of 110 km2 in central Minshan Mountains, locates in Pingwu County, Sichuan Province, and harbors the habitat of a rich fauna such as the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) and chestnut-throated partridge (Tetraophasis obscurus). In this study, we summarized the camera-trapping records in Laohegou between 2011 and 2015, and provided a comprehensive camera-trapping dataset of Laohegou. The dataset includes data collected from 130 camera locations with an elevation range of 1,317-3,265 m and an extensive sample effort of 10,185 camera-days. With a total of 159,694 photographic records, we identified 28 wild mammal species (belonging to 5 orders and 15 families) from the 91,839 records of mammals (No. of independent photograph = 3,017), 60 bird species (belonging to 7 orders and 19 families) from the 37,775 records of mammals (No. of IP = 1,311), 1 amphibian species (belonging to 1 order and 1 family) from the 8 records of amphibians (No. of IP = 2), and 1 domestic animal species from 47 records (No. of IP = 5).

    A dataset on wild Rhododendron and geographical distribution information in China
    Jiejie Cheng, Meijun Li, Taohua Yuan, Hong Huang, Guili Yang, Xinxiang Bai
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1175-1180.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021152
    Abstract ( 311 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (960KB) ( 225 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    The genus Rhododendron is widely distributed, lives in diverse habitats, and its group structure is complex. An in-depth analysis of its geographical distribution pattern and characteristics can provide a basis for conservation and utilization of germplasm. Based on current literature and data, this paper updates the list of species of wild Rhododendron distributed in China, explores species composition, and establishes a geographical distribution database of wild Rhododendron in China. As of July 2021, 720 species (including 114 varieties, 45 subspecies and 2 forms) of 7 subgenera have been recorded, of which 450 are endemic to China. The genus Rhododendron is distributed in all provinces of China except the arid desert areas of Ningxia and Xinjiang. Over half of all Rhododendron (393) species are distributed in the Yunnan Province, which is the highest species richness and endemism at the provincial level. There are 278 species in Sichuan province and 271 species in Tibet Autonomous Region. At the county level, Gongshan and Zayul counties are tied for having the most species of Rhododendron at 134 species, followed by 128 species in Deqin County. This study revised and updated the list of wild Rhododendron plants and their geographical distribution in China in order to provide reference for germplasm investigation and application research.

    An unmanned aerial vehicle visible light remote sensing image dataset of four forest dynamic plots in subtropical China
    Zhaochen Zhang, Jianbo Hu, Qingsong Yang, Juyu Lian, Buhang Li, Xihua Wang, Wanhui Ye, Jian Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1181-1185.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021299
    Abstract ( 225 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (889KB) ( 148 )   Save
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    The evergreen broad-leaved forest is a zonal vegetation type in the subtropical regions of China. However, due to complex vertical structure and relatively dense canopy of subtropical forests, we are lack of reliable data in current canopy studies of this forest. Here we present a large dataset of visible light remote sensing images of four large-scale (> 20 ha) forest dynamic plots in Tiantongshan and Baishanzu of Zhejiang, and Dinghushan and Chebaling of Guangdong. These data were collected by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with visible light camera in August of 2014 or September of 2016. By combining the UAV data with ground survey data, we generated four data files for each plot: orthoimages and surface digital models with spatial resolution of ~5 cm, forest canopy height data with spatial resolution of 1 m, and data quality reports of the orthoimages. This dataset of evergreen broad-leaved forest provides significant supports for the studies in forest canopy ecology, biodiversity and ecosystem function.

    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    Relationship between variation of plant functional traits and individual growth at different vertical layers in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of Dinghushan
    Yanpeng Li, Yunlong Ni, Han Xu, Juyu Lian, Wanhui Ye
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1186-1197.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021205
    Abstract ( 103 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1330KB) ( 149 )   Save
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    Aims: Establishing the relationship between plant functional traits and community dynamics is one of the core issues of functional ecology. Previous studies have found weak evidence of a relationship between functional traits and growth rate relationships in tree communities, highlighting the evidence that functional traits often fail to predict growth rate. It is therefore essential to advance a predictive approach to functional ecology. Since functional traits vary both among species and within species, linking functional traits at the individual level with plant growth will provide a path towards a more rigorous trait-based community ecology.
    Methods: Based on the data from two survey of a 1.44-ha plot and the data of six plant functional traits from 4,142 individuals in Dinghushan, the effects of plant functional traits on plant growth were analyzed at the individual level and species level. First, the varied trends of different functional traits at different vertical layers (shrub layer, subcanopy layer and forest canopy layer) were explored. Second, the intraspecific and interspecific variations of each functional trait under different vertical layers were analyzed. Finally, the effects of plant functional traits, light competition and underground competition on tree growth were quantified using a structural equation model.
    Results: Results suggest that: (1) Plant functional traits at different vertical layers exhibited significant differentiation. From the shrub layer to the canopy layer, leaf area (LA), specific leaf area (SLA) and energy supply-demand index (R) decreased significantly, while leaf thickness (LT) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC) increased significantly. (2) The interspecific variation of plant functional traits at different vertical layers is greater than the intraspecific variation, and the intraspecific variation of functional traits in the canopy layer is greater than that in the shrub layer and subcanopy layer. (3) The structural equation model based on plant functional traits at an individual level produces a higher degree of explanation for growth than at the species level. Furthermore, the introduction of plant functional traits at the individual level is more conducive to improving the ability to predict individual growth at the shrub layer. (4) Light competition and underground competition indirectly affect plant growth by affecting functional traits. From the shrub layer to the canopy layer, the interactions between conspecific individual gradually weakened and the interactions between different species gradually increased.
    Conclusion: Our study highlights that analyzing plant functional traits at an individual level could help to better understand plant community structure and dynamics.

    Phenotypic plasticity of Alternanthera philoxeroides in response to simulated daily warming in the Tibet Plateau in introduced vs. native populations
    Mingxian Deng, Heyan Huang, Shiyun Shen, Jihua Wu, Qiong La, Tsechoe Dorji, Xiaoyun Pan
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1198-1205.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021095
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (823KB) ( 124 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: Phenotypic plasticity for key traits in plants can adapt in response increasing temperatures seen through climate change. Under the evolution of increased phenotypic plasticity hypothesis, populations of invasive species have greater phenotypic plasticity than native populations. Studies of this hypothesis have mostly focused on the plasticity of invasive plants to light, water, nutrients, neighbors, and natural enemies. Studies focusing on these key plant traits under warming conditions are mostly concentrated in temperate and tropic regions, while alpine regions are overlooked. Additionally, these studies mostly focus on plant growth-related traits, while relatively little attention has been paid to plant resistance and the secondary metabolites of defense traits in response to warming, especially in alpine region. Here, test for differences in plant fitness traits, important functional traits, and defense traits in response to daily warming between introduced and native populations of invasive plants. Specifically, we explore the following questions: (1) Will the phenotypic plasticity of fitness traits, functional traits and defense traits of the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides respond to daily air warming? (2) If so, does this response differ between introduced and native populations? (3) Does this response differ between alpine regions and tropic regions?
    Methods: Using 6 populations of the invasive plant A. philoxeroides from the introduced region in China and 6 populations from their native region in Argentina, we conducted a field experiment to simulate a daily warming of 2℃ in Lhasa City, Tibet Autonomous Region (Alpine region: 91.04° E, 29.64° N) from August to October 2020. We placed plants from each of the 12 populations into the control plots and the warming plots, and each treatment had three replicates. There were a total of 72 experimental units in the experiment (2 origins × 6 populations × 2 temperature treatments × 3 replicates). After 8 weeks of growth, we harvested all plants and measured the several variables. The fitness traits we measured included total biomass, ground biomass, storage root biomass and hair root biomass. The functional traits we measured included branching intensity, specific stem length, root-to-shoot ratio, and specific leaf area. The defense traits we measured included triterpenoid saponins and flavonoids.
    Results: Simulated daily warming of 2℃ significantly increased the total biomass of A. philoxeroides (+36.4%), the ground biomass (+34.5%), the storage root biomass (+51.4%), the hair root biomass (+33.6%), and reduced the specific stem length (-30.2%) and branching intensity (-19.8%). Simulated daily warming of 2℃ increased the specific leaf area (+15.1%) and flavonoids (+8.9%) of the introduced populations, while the native populations showed the opposite effect (-22.9%, -30.0%).
    Conclusions: These results indicate that simulated daily warming of 2℃ in alpine regions is a positive condition for the invasive plant A. philoxeroides. The fitness traits of the introduced populations have greater plasticity to simulated daily warming, and the plasticity of some plant functional traits and defense traits of the introduced populations may have greater fitness in alpine regions. As a consequence, we conclude that increasing temperatures due to global climate change may be beneficial to colonization and spread of introduced populations of A. philoxeroides in the alpine region.

    Original Papers: Animal Diversity
    Quantitative study on the activity rhythm and home range of wild camels (Camelus ferus) in the Kumtag Desert
    Yunjia Wu, Yun Cheng, Lei Yuan, Shi Zhang, Shuo Zhang, Shaochuang Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1206-1214.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021104
    Abstract ( 144 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1918KB) ( 104 )   Save
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    Aim: The wild camel (Camelus ferus) is a native species to the deserts of Central Asia. Further, it is considered a first class protected animal in China. This study aims to explore the daily activity rhythm and native ranges of wild camels both spatially and temporally, so as to provide data support for effective protection and management of wild camels in this region.
    Methods: GPS tracking collars were used to gather movement data for seven wild camels in the Kumtag Desert from May 2012 to July 2013. This tracking data was then used to infer the daily activity rhythm of the wild camels. A Brownian bridge model was also applied to further investigate the native range of wild camels.
    Results: The results of this study suggest that: (1) Daily activity rhythm data for these wild camels indicate a clear bimodal pattern, with peak activity periods occurring in the morning from 6:00 to 9:00 and in the afternoon from 15:00 to 20:00. This finding is consistent with the wild camels being a crepuscular species. (2) The double peak time of the wild camel's crepuscular activity is close to noon, occurring during the transition between the warm season and the cold season. The order of interval times between peaks compared seasonally is: summer > spring > autumn > winter. (3) There are obvious seasonal differences in the daily activity intensity of wild camels. The relationships between daily activity intensity between seasons is: summer > autumn > spring and winter, where no clear difference was observed between spring and winter. (4) Wild camels belong to the core home range utilization type, often utilizing multiple core home ranges. The home ranges of the wild camels in this study exhibit a distribution between the north and south sides of the desert, suggesting that this species can move across the desert. (5) There are significant differences in home ranges among individuals, along with slight differences between sexes. Large variation in the home ranges of wild camels are observed seasonally, with the relative ordering from largest to smallest being: summer (1,256.27 ± 427.45 km2) > spring (556.90 ± 259.35 km2) > autumn (396.77 ± 82.31 km2) > winter (250.83 ± 99.64 km2).

    Multi-dimensional evaluation of small mammal diversity in tree line habitats across the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas: Implications for conservation
    Wenyu Song, Xueyou Li, Hongjiao Wang, Zhongzheng Chen, Shuiwang He, Xuelong Jiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1215-1228.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021006
    Abstract ( 115 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2376KB) ( 185 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim: To evaluate multi-dimensional biodiversity levels of small mammals in tree line habitats across the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas (TPR), and discuss their implication for conservational strategies.
    Methods: Between September 2013 and November 2018, we conducted standardized field investigations along tree line across the TPR to collect small mammals. We sequenced CYTB gene and obtained morphological measurements from field samples to calculate frequently used taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity metrics.
    Results: We found that indices derived using presence/absence and abundance-based data gave discrepant results, indicating using traditional richness metrics are limited in describing diversity distribution patterns. Taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity showed similar distribution patterns, whereas different distribution was found for functional diversity. Compared with Gaoligong and Yunling mountains, Nushan showed the highest diversity levels in most of the metrics and dimensions at the transect scale, and lowest level in functional redundancy.
    Conclusions: To comprehensively preserve evolutionary history and ecological functions requires simultaneous consideration of multi-dimensional biodiversity. Further research and conservational efforts should be imposed in the Nushan area. The study contributed to bridge knowledge gap of alpine ecosystems in the TPR, providing insight of the conservation of alpine biomes under contemporary climate change.

    Original Papers: Microbial Diversity
    Species diversity of macrofungi in the Wuling Mountain National Nature Reserve
    Miao Yang, Jie Zhang, Jiawei Bai, Jiangang Guo, Yahui Qu, Huiping Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1229-1235.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021020
    Abstract ( 183 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (914KB) ( 96 )   Save
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    Aims: Macrofungi plays a vital role in maintaining the stability of ecosystem and making unique and vital contributions to human economy. In order to provide basic information for the development and utilization of macrofungi, a detailed investigation of the macrofungi resources in the Wuling Mountain National Nature Reserve was carried out.
    Methods: A preliminary survey and assessment of the macrofungal species diversity in the reserve was conducted between 2019 and 2020 using methods of line-transect surveys and random investigation. Totally, 1,132 specimens of macrofungi were collected. The diversity was analyzed based on morphological data and ITS evidence, and its resource value was evaluated by referring to relevant scientific literature.
    Results: A total of 236 species of macrofungi were indentified in Wuling Mountain National Nature Reserve, belonging to 107 genera, 56 families, 18 orders, 6 classes, and 2 phyla. Of these, 15 species are classified as Ascomycota, and 221 species as Basidiomycota. For the convenience of statistics, families with more than ten species were defined as dominant families, and genera with more than five species were defined as dominant genera. The dominant families consisting of 62 species are Russulaceae, Agaricaceae, Polyporaceae, and Cortinariaceae. The number of species contained in each family account for 8.90%, 7.20%, 5.93% and 4.24% of the total number of species, respectively. Eleven fungal genera are dominant, such as Russula, Agaricus, Amanita, Cortinarius, Lycoperdon, and Marasmius. These genera consist of 79 species, accounting for 33.48% of the total species. The results of the evaluation of the resource value of macrofungi showed that there are 66 edible, 35 medicinal, 36 poisonous, and 26 both edible and medicinal species in the reserve.
    Conclusion: The reserve is rich in macrofungal resources. The richest dominant families and dominant genera are Russulaceae and Russula. There are 127 species of valuable fungi. Meanwhile, the results provides rich resources for the introduction and domestication of edible fungi, the development and utilization of medicinal fungi, as well as the identification of toxic fungi.

    Diversity of endophytic bacteria in five types of tissues of Hippophae tibetana
    Aimei Zhang, Yiran Yin, Weibao Kong, Xuetai Zhu, Yingli Yang
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1236-1244.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021034
    Abstract ( 160 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2042KB) ( 82 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: Hippophae tibetana is a special kind of actinorhizal plants distributed in severe cold and high altitude areas. Frankia spp. can infect its roots and form nodules, which enhances its ecological adaptability due to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and other effects. Besides Frankia spp., there are other endophytic bacteria in the root nodules of H. tibetana. Frankia spp. can distribute not only nodules but also other tissues. By analyzing the community structure and diversity of endophytic bacteria in different tissues, the clonization and possible migration of Frankia in different tissues were discussed.
    Methods: High-throughput sequencing of the V5‒V7 region of 16S rRNA gene was used to study the diversity of Frankia spp. and other endophytic bacteria in root nodules, stems, branches, leaves, and seeds of H. tibetana,.
    Results: The results showed that the richness and diversity indices of the community in the root nodules of H. tibetana were the highest, while the richness of endophytic bacterial community in seeds were the lowest, and diversity indices in the stems were the lowest. The diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in five types of tissues of H. tibetana was different. Proteobacteria were the dominant phylum of the endophytic bacterial communities of five tissue types, Frankia was the dominant genus in root nodules, while Friedmanniella was the dominant genus in stems, and Stenotrophomonas was the dominant genus in branches, leaves, and seeds. The results also showed that Frankia could not only colonize in root nodules of H. tibetana, but also distributed in other tissues. There were different “species” of Frankia in the same tissue type of H. tibetana, and the same “species” of Frankia were also distributed in different tissues. In addition, functional endophytic bacteria existed in five tissue types of H. tibetana, which can fix nitrogen, promote the growth inhibit pathogens of host plants. Endophytic bacteria with nitrogen fixation function were mainly distributed in nodules, while those with growth-promoting and bacteriostatic functions were mainly distributed in branches and leaves of H. tibetana.
    Conclusion: There were rich diversity of endophytic bacteria in five tissue types of H. tibetana, but the community structure and dominant population of each tissue were different, and different tissues could also colonize endophytic bacteria with multiple functions.

    High prevalence and genetic variation of Bartonella species inhabiting the bats in southwestern Yunnan
    Dongmei Li, Weihong Yang, Qingduo Li, Xi Han, Xiuping Song, Hong Pan, Yun Feng
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1245-1255.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021028
    Abstract ( 93 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2169KB) ( 56 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: Bats are natural reservoir hosts of many zoonotic viruses and non-viral pathogens. Several lines of evidence indicate that bats harbor diverse groups of Bartonella species and genotypes. Little is still known about how prevalence varies and the genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in China.
    Methods: Between 2015 and 2017, bats were captured in four areas in southwestern Yunnan by the net trapping method. Liver and spleen tissues of bats were collected, and nucleic acids were extracted after mixing and grinding. The ssrA gene of Bartonella spp. was detected by using the TaqMan real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay (qPCR). The positive products of qPCR were amplified and sequenced to identify the species of Bartonella. The phylogenetic relationships were constructed by binary and network methods.
    Results: We present the results of the investigation of bat-borne Bartonella in four areas of Yunnan Province, which have shown a high prevalence of Bartonella and high genetic diversity in the local bat population. Bartonella gene ssrA was detected by using qPCR in 56.4% (172/305) bats captured from four sampling sites, including 22 Rhinolophus affinis, 18 Rhinolophus blythi, and 132 Rousettus leschenaultii. There was no statistically significant difference (χ2 = 1.135, P = 0.567) in the infection rates among species. The infection rates of Lincang, Xishuangbanna, Baoshan, and Ruili were 50.0% (22/44), 61.7% (29/47), 62.1% (18/29), and 55.7% (103/185), respectively. Thirty-seven ssrA sequences of Bartonella were obtained by second amplification from qPCR and sequencing. The binary tree revealed 10 phylogroups, one of which was related to B. elizabethae, B. tribocorum and B. krasnovii, the other sequences were far from the known Bartonella spp. and were closely related to bat-borne Bartonella from bats in Asia, Europe, and America. The genetic diversity analysis showed that the nucleotide diversity index (π) was 0.11381 ± 0.00928, and the genotypic diversity index (Hd) was 0.985 ± 0.010, which brought about 29 genotypes. The genetic networks constructed by 115 ssrA sequences exhibited that Bartonella spp. from global bats had an incomplete geographical distribution and host specificity.
    Conclusion: We found that the bat-borne Bartonella in Yunnan was genetically diverse, geographically widespread, and endemic and that bats play a part in transmitting Bartonella species locally. The analysis of phylogenetic networks based on the global dataset of ssrA sequences of bat-borne Bartonella points to an evolutionary association of Bartonella spp. with their bat hosts and the effect of geographical isolation.

    Bioinventories
    An updated species checklist of freshwater fishes from the Ganjiang River
    Zitong Wang, E Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1256-1264.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021119
    Abstract ( 231 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1591KB) ( 146 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: The Ganjiang River is one of the major tributaries flowing into the Yangtze River basin. This area harbors a high variety of freshwater fish, but its fish diversity is not yet fully understood. To this end, seasonal field surveys of the fishes in this river were conducted from September 2016 to August 2017.
    Methods: Due to the complexity of the habitat types, numerous sampling methods were employed to collect the fish specimens. Battery-powered backpack electro-fishing was used in small, shallow, or navigable streams to capture fish, and a single pass electro-fishing method was used from bottom to top; the distance and time of operation depended on the situation. For streams that could be waded, gill nets, cast nets, and cages were used to collect fish specimens (we prepared gill nets and cages of various sizes for each habitat type). Also, fish were collected from the markets in the study area to ensure that sufficient specimens were available for study. Based on the survey results and historical records and the current taxonomic revisions made for relevant fish groups, an updated checklist of the freshwater fishes of the Ganjiang River was created.
    Results: This updated checklist of the freshwater fishes in the Ganjiang River included a total of 180 species belonging to 12 orders, 31 families, and 93 genera. Among them, 174 species are indigenous and six are aliens. Cypriniformes dominate the fish fauna of this river. Cyprinidae had the highest number of species, followed by the Bagridae. There are 23 newly recorded species, 5 of which were previously undescribed. Twenty-five of the valid species had nomenclatural changes, 36 historically recorded species were excluded. Twenty-eight documented fish species that have unique ecological preferences such as migratory species, fast running water dwellers, and pelagic drifting eggs-releasing species were not collected during these field surveys.
    Conclusion: The species diversity of freshwater fish from the Ganjiang River is not only still in the stage of exploration and discovery, but also under severe threat from anthropogenic interferences. The updated checklist presented here undoubtedly provides baseline information that will aid efforts to conserve the biodiversity of the Ganjiang River in the future.

    Seven newly recorded species from Xizang and Xinjiang in China
    Fanbin Hu, Yue Xin, Ke Guo, Liqing Zhao
    Biodiv Sci. 2021, 29 (9):  1265-1270.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021181
    Abstract ( 193 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1107KB) ( 88 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim: We aim to understand the plant diversity in the border areas of Xizang and Xinjiang. These border areas are the focus and hot spots of biodiversity conservation.
    Method: In this study, plants were collected and photographed through field investigation, made into specimens, and sorted out and identified. The voucher specimens for each reported species were preserved in the Herbarium of Inner Mongolia University (HIMC).
    Results: Six newly recorded angiosperm species and one sub-species in China were reported, of which Atriplex pallida, Blitum litwinowii, Chenopodium atripliciforme, Stipa turkestanica and Polygonum cognatum subsp. chitralicum were found in the Xizang Autonomous Region, while Astragalus baitagensis and Lythrum hyssopifolia were collected from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
    Conclusion: The investigation of plants in the border areas of Xizang and Xinjiang with neighboring countries is relatively weak, and should be further strengthened in the investigation of flora and resources in the future. The discovery of new distributed plants is of great significance to the nature of the local flora and the attribution of the regionalization.


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