Volume 28 Issue 8   20 August 2020
The pictures show the ecological landscape and some key protected, endemic, and representative species observed in the National Butterfly Monitoring Project. From left to right, from top to bottom, Teinopalpus aureus, Parnassius apollo, Papilio elwesi, Heliophorus moorei, Graphium cloanthus, Kallima inachus, and Choaspes hemixanthus. (Photos credit: The Project Team for the China Biodiversity Observation Networks for Butterflies (China BON-Butterflies), Fenghai Jia, Shaoshan Wang)
  
    • Special Feature: Butterfly Diversity Monitoring
      Population dynamics and diversity of butterflies in Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan national nature reserves, Yunnan Province
      Qun Wang, Zhixiang Guo, Jinbin Li, Kaibo Wang, Wenwei Wu, Entang Pu, Fangzhou Ma, Chengxing He
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  921-930.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019364
      Abstract ( 538 )   HTML ( 31 )   PDF (675KB) ( 380 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      Butterflies are one of the most concerned taxonomic groups and environmental indicators among invertebrate. Population dynamics and community structure of butterflies can quickly and effectively reflect the environmental situation of Ecosystem. Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan national nature reserves are rich in animal and plant resources with complicated and diversified habitats. To effectively protect and utilize environment and resources, this study researched population quantitative characteristics and diversity of butterflies in the two reserves during 2016 to 2018. Both Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan had high diversity levels, though Ailaoshan was more abundant than Wuliangshan. In Ailaoshan, 149 species were attributed to 5 families and 83 genera with Hs′ of 3.92, a Simpson’s index (D) of 0.97, and species richness (R) of 16.36. In Wuliangshan, 143 species were attributed to 5 families and 88 genera with Hs′ of 3.64, D of 0.96, and R of 15.04. In total among both areas, 178 species were identified, belonging to 5 families and 99 genera. The two regions shared similarities in butterfly communities, with a Similarity index of 0.64. There was evidence of vertical butterfly distribution Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan as most butterflies were distributed below altitude 1,100 meters in Ailaoshan, and between 1,100 to 1,400 meters in Wuliangshan. There were seasonal differences as well, as the butterflies mainly appear from May to September, but species abundances peaked in Ailaoshan in August while Wuliangshan peaked in September. Annual analysis showed 2016 had a greater abundance of butterflies, which is closely related to suitable climate and weak human disturbance. Overall, 13 threatened and 3 vulnerable species according to China Species Red List, and 56 unlisted species with less than 10 individuals were recorded in Ailaoshan and Wuliangshan national nature reserves. Therefore, butterfly protection is urgent and recommended in these regions.

      Influence of human disturbance on butterfly diversity in the Hupingshan National Nature Reserve
      Min Deng, Mingwei Liao, Chenbin Wang, Chengqing Liao, Zujie Kang, Fangzhou Ma, Guohua Huang
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  931-939.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019334
      Abstract ( 227 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1585KB) ( 105 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      In order to understand the impact of human disturbance on butterfly diversity in the Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, we surveyed butterfly abundance in Hupingshan between 2017 and 2018, and analyzed human impacts in the region for the same time period. We compared differences in butterfly assemblages between three different levels of interference: non-interference, mild interference and medium interference. The results showed that of a total of 6,711 individuals observed, which belongs to 5 families, 19 subfamilies, 119 genera, 190 species represented. The highest species diversity was under mild interference, but the lowest diversity was under the medium interference. We conclude that small-scale farming-living environments are conducive to butterfly aggregations. If the existing level of human disturbance or the range of interference is increased, species represented in the butterfly community structure may decrease and the number of dominant species/groups may increase.

      Butterfly diversity and its influencing factors in the Hunan Gaowangjie National Nature Reserve and its surrounding area
      Ying Xiang, Suqun Liu, Xinglong Huang, Zhixiao Liu, Youxiang Zhang, Fangzhou Ma
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  940-949.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019342
      Abstract ( 128 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (956KB) ( 102 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      In order to understand the butterfly diversity status and analyze its effective factors in the Gaowangjie National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province, we conducted a line-transect counting study for butterflies in 6 habitats (4 in protected reserve and 2 outside). We recorded a total of 13,956 individual butterflies and recorded 239 different species using the five-family classification system, which comprises 5 families and 113 genera. Seventeen species were newly recorded in the Hunan Province. Our analysis of zoogeography showed that Oriental species were dominant (139 species accounting for 58.1% of individuals), followed by the Widespread species (97 species, accounting for 40.6%) and the Palearctic species (3 species, accounting for 1.3%). We found that similarity in butterfly community was highly correlated with the degree of human disturbance and habitat heterogeneity. For three years, the butterfly diversity indices showed similar trends in monthly variation, and the species number and diversity index was positively correlated with mean monthly temperature rather than monthly rainfall. This indicates that butterfly diversity is directly correlated with human disturbance and meteorological factors. Therefore, we suggest that reduction of human disturbance and maintaining habitat quality may contribute to butterfly conservation of protected areas.

      The community characteristics and month dynamics of butterfly at different habitats in the Badagongshan National Nature Reserve
      Mengyue Chen, Yuheng Wu, Chengqing Liao, Fangzhou Ma, Xing Wang
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  950-957.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019333
      Abstract ( 273 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2914KB) ( 126 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      To explore the butterfly community composition and its altitude distribution in the Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, we investigated and analyzed the butterfly populations of different habitats at different altitudes, and continuously observed the monthly dynamics of their populations in 2016-2018. In this study, we recorded 6,164 butterfly individuals, belonging to 5 families, 107 genera, and 191 species. The survey results showed that the butterfly individuals recorded in low-altitude (250-450 m) and high-altitude (1,200-1,400 m) habitats were mainly Popilioninae and Pierinae, respectively, but mid-altitude (700-900 m) habitats did not have obvious dominant butterfly groups. Similarity analyses showed that there was a high proportion of common species (> 59%) in each habitat, but the individual distribution of these species in different habitats was different. Seasonal dynamic analyses showed that the butterflies in the Badagongshan were in the rising period from April to June including the species, individuals and diversity indices, usually reaching a peak in July, and then gradually decreasing from August to September. In general, the composition of the butterfly community in the Badagongshan is vertically distributed along the altitude gradient with heterogeneity between high and low altitude habitats and a transitional state at the middle altitude. The butterfly community in the Badagongshan showed consistent seasonal dynamics with a high percentage of species turnover. High altitude habitats had a shorter active period and higher species turnover than lower altitudes.

      Diversity of butterfly communities in the Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve
      Dunyuan Huang, Shigui Huang, Jianhao Wang, Hongying Li, Feiyue Dou, Ke Zhang, Xianglong Zhu, Fangzhou Ma
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  958-964.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019420
      Abstract ( 184 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1168KB) ( 129 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      To study the diversity of butterfly community, from April 2016 to October 2018, a butterfly diversity survey was conducted along five fixed-sample transects of 2,000 m each in different habitats within the Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve of Jiangxi Province. Transects were sampled six times per year and 18 times in total. A total of 6,946 butterflies was recorded, belonging to 189 species of 106 genera under 5 families, of which the Oriental was dominant group (183 species, 96.8%). The family Nymphalidae had the largest number of species (81 species, 42.9%) with a high richness index (R = 8.42), diversity index (H′= 3.21), and dominance index (D = 0.60), suggesting this was the dominant group. The number of butterflies in Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve gradually increased from April to May, stayed relatively stable from June to July, and remained until October. From April to October, the number of butterfly species was basically stable, with a high diversity index. However, there were significant differences in the species composition and distribution of butterflies across various habitats in the protected area. The Tongjiang transect of the mixed forest had the greatest number of butterfly species (126 species, 66.7%), the highest species richness index (R = 16.51), and the highest overall abundance (n = 1,945, 28.2%). In the evergreen broad-leaved forest of the Shangshibalei transect, a smaller abundance of butterflies was observed (n = 905, 13.0%), but there were more butterfly species (103 species, 54.5%), with a higher diversity index (H′= 3.93) and dominance index (D = 0.85). The number of butterfly species in the farmland/orchard habitat of the Sanjiaotan transect was relatively small (97 species, 51.3%), likely due to its simple habitat and high intensity of human disturbance. Our results show that the composition of butterfly fauna of Qiyunshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province is dominated by species in the Oriental realm. The diversity of butterfly communities has a clear correlation with the type of habitat. Intensity of human activities, such as seasonal farming, heavy use of herbicides and pesticides, and massive cutting of host plants, threatens the diversity of butterflies and the stability of butterfly community structure.

      Butterfly community structure and diversity in Qinling National Botanical Garden, China
      Lijun Fang, Yujun Zhang, Xiaoyu Xing
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  965-972.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020041
      Abstract ( 107 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (871KB) ( 97 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      In order to determine butterfly resources and diversity status of the Qinling National Botanical Garden, we used the transect method across three years to observe butterflies within five habitats. A total of 134 species were recorded, belonging to 5 families and 76 genera. The species richness index, diversity index, evenness index and dominance index were 1.3295, 3.4616, 0.7068 and 0.7656, respectively, among them, Nymphalidae had the largest number of genera (33) and species (65), while Papilionidae had only 5 genera and 10 species. Nymphalidae had the highest diversity index (2.8525) and richness index (1.3622). Papilionidae had the lowest diversity index (1.4936) and Pieridae had the lowest richness index (0.2790). The comparison of butterfly diversity indicators in different habitats showed that butterfly diversity index increased with the increase of vegetation richness. These results show an abundance of butterfly diversity, indicating that Qinling National Botanical Garden may be of significant conservation value.

      Diversity of Satyrinae in the Liupanshan National Nature Reserve of Ningxia
      Xueqin Liu, Dahan He, Xinpu Wang
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  973-982.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019387
      Abstract ( 285 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1160KB) ( 124 )   Save
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      Butterfly is one of indicator species of biodiversity, and the population dynamics and community structure of butterflies can reflect the environmental effect of Ecosystem. The Liupanshan National Nature Reserve is rich in plant resources with diversified habitats. To effectively protect and utilize environment and resources, we studied the diversity of Satyrinae in four habitat types, including artificial vegetation, shrub, broad-leaved forest, and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of the Liupanshan National Nature Reserve from 2016 to 2018 by surveying transects, we discussed the spatial and temporal dynamic changes of Satyrinae. A total of 4,363 butterflies were collected, of which 19 species in 13 genera were identified. Among them, the largest numbers of individuals were Aphantopus hyperanthus (961), Melanargia asiatica (637), and Coenonympha oedippus (594), accounting for 22%, 15% and 13% of the assemblage respectively, all of which are dominant species in the reserve. Triphysa phryne had only 17 individuals which we regard as a rare species. We calculated and analyzed the Margalef richness index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index, and Simpson dominance index of the four habitats. The results showed that the dominance index was lowest, but the diversity, richness, and evenness indices were highest in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest. The richness, diversity, and evenness indices were significantly different, while the dominance index was not for the four habitat types (P < 0.05). In terms of temporal dynamics, the number of Satyrinae individuals decreased from 2016 to 2018, and the peak of the number species mainly occurred in August, with significant changes in dominant species. Therefore, butterfly protection is urgent and recommended in the Liupanshan National Nature Reserve.

      Special Feature: Butterfly Diversity Monitoring
      Butterfly community structure and species-abundance distribution in different habitats in the Xinglong Mountains National Nature Reserve
      Suqin Shang, Xingbo Wu, Zhaolong Wang, Henian Peng, Huili Zhou, Hongyong Zhang, Yinglu Bai
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  983-992.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019386
      Abstract ( 147 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1273KB) ( 93 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      In order to determine species abundance, abundance distribution, and changes in community structure of butterflies found in different habitats in Xinglong Mountains National Nature Reserve, there are six sampling transect lines in total were used in various habitats in the forest stations located within the reserve. Between 2015-2018, the butterfly community in the reserve was evaluated using the method of route tracking. A total of 5,719 butterfly specimens belonging to 120 species, 69 genera, and 8 families were collected and these data were used to determine the biodiversity index and species-abundance distribution. The results show that the family Satyridae was the dominant group while species of family Libytheidae were the rarest. Using species numbers, individual numbers, diversity index and species richness as primary metrics, the sampling transect lines performed as follows: line I ranked first, and line IV ranked second, indicating that these habitats have stable structure and ideal environments well-suited for butterfly survival; line III ranked next and had a high diversity index due an abundance of nectar plants, followed by line V which had a lower diversity index due to its location at a higher altitude; finally, line II was ranked lowest due to the simple plant community structure present. The similarity coefficient between line I and VI, III and IV, III and VI were moderately similar, while pairwise comparisons between all other line combinations were moderately dissimilar. The fauna analysis showed that there were 63 Palaearctic species, 2 Oriental species, and 55 widely distributed species, which accounted for 52.5%, 1.7%, and 45.8% of the total species, respectively. The Palaearctic species were dominant relative to the Oriental species, which had a strong regional representation. The results of the species-abundance distribution analysis found that line I and IV had lognormal distribution pattern with a good model fit and line II and VI were atypical logarithmic series model, which was in accordance with the niche-preemption hypothesis. Together, these results indicate that both different habitats and human disturbance correlate with butterfly diversity, seen most notably in the diversity indices which were lower in simple ecosystems and higher in complicated ecosystems.

      Diversity of butterfly communities in Jimusaer County, Xinjiang
      Zhifeng Xu, Wen Zhong, Dongkang Zhang, Hongying Hu
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  993-1002.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020065
      Abstract ( 98 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (683KB) ( 69 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      Butterflies are indicator species that are widely used in biodiversity monitoring and environmental quality assessments. Here, we assessed the diversity of the butterfly community in Jimusaer County, Xinjiang, to guide recommendations for the protection of local butterfly diversity and environmental monitoring. We surveyed the species and community diversity of butterflies in five different habitat types, including Piedmont desert, farmland, mountain grassland, mountain forest, and subalpine meadow in Jimusar County, Xinjiang using the line transect sampling method from May to August in 2016-2018. We collected a total of 4,401 individuals belonging to 26 genera, 7 families, and 38 species. Nymphalidae was the dominant family with 9 genera and 12 species. Pieridae had the largest number of individuals, accounting for 55.01% of the total recorded. Pamassiidae, Papilioidae, and Hesperiidae had the fewest number of species and individuals—each family had only one species, which were rarely observed in the study region. By analysing and comparing the diversity and similarity of butterfly communities in different habitats, we found that diversity was greatest in sub-alpine meadows and lowest in Piedmont desert. Mountain forest, mountain grassland, and farmland had intermediate levels of diversity. The similarity coefficient was highest between mountain forests and sub-alpine meadows (0.77) and lowest between Piedmont deserts and mountain grasslands (0.37). Butterfly species richness and diversity increased with elevation. We also found that the number of butterfly species and individuals changed over the course of a year and were highest from May to July. The total number of individuals decreased over the three-year study period. Our results show that butterfly community composition and diversity are closely related to habitat types. Therefore, protecting the ecological environment, maintaining a diversity of plant communities, and reducing the degree of human disturbance in the region are key to conserving butterfly diversity.

      Community diversity and faunal composition of butterflies in the Longqishan Nature Reserve
      Fang Hong, Ying Xiang, Chaoyang Chen, Liangxian Sun, Chunshou Luo, Guofang Jiang
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  1003-1007.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020203
      Abstract ( 155 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (561KB) ( 89 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      Butterfly is an important indicator of ecological quality and environmental change. Finding out the butterfly resources and their dynamics in Longqishan National Nature Reserve in Fujian Province is of great significance to the conservation and research of Longqishan biodiversity. We analyzed the butterfly diversity, population dynamics, and faunal composition throughout the nature reserve using Shannon-wiener index and relative abundance and continuous observations over a three year period (2016-2018). We recorded five families, 107 genera, and 193 species of butterflies in the Longqishan Nature Reserve. Among the six sample lines in the Longqi Mountains area surveyed, the greatest number of genera and species was recorded on the Xiaopei sample line, with 48 genera and 58 species recorded in total. Six recorded butterfly species are under state protection. Overall, the faunal composition was dominated by Oriental species (79.3%) followed by widespread species (21.2%). The dominant butterfly species composition did not vary significantly between years. The continuously stable, dominant species recorded was Ypthima baldus.

      Original Papers
      Spatial distribution pattern and interspecific correlation analysis of main species of Rosaceae in a deciduous broad-leaved forest in Yaoluoping
      Dongdong Liang, Jie Peng, Gaili Gao, Xin Hong, Shoubiao Zhou, Jun Chu, Zhi Wang
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  1008-1017.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020015
      Abstract ( 214 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1627KB) ( 66 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      In order to discuss community construction and succession mechanism in Dabie Mountains, three main species of the Rosaceae in the Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve were taken as the object of study by using nearest-neighbor analysis and different zero models. An 11.56 ha forest dynamic plot was established in the Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve according to CTFS technical standards. Sorbus alnifolia, Cerasus serrulata and Photinia chinensis were the three most abundant tree species. The three species were divided into three age groups: small tree, adult tree and old tree according to DBH frequency distributions. Based on nearest neighbor analysis, O-ring functions, Monte Carlo fitting and zero model selection, spatial distribution patterns and interspecific correlations of the three main species were analyzed and compared. This study found three major conclusions: (1) The three species were aggregated across all age stages, although aggregation weakened with increasing age. (2) In the DBH range of 0-50 m, trees of the three species were clustered on small scales (≤ 10 m), while adults and older trees were mostly randomly distributed. Additionally, habitat heterogeneity decreased tree aggregation and tree species aggregate on smaller scales (≤ 4 m). (3) Most of the three species were negatively correlated or not significantly correlated with other age groups. Competitive and density-dependent effects seemed to impact species negatively on a small scale as well (≤ 10 m), though correlation decreased with scale. In conclusion, Rosaceae plants in the deciduous broad-leaved forests of Dabie Mountains are mostly aggregately distributed depending on tree age, though habitat heterogeneity impacts aggregation.

      Diversity of endophytic diazotrophs isolated from Oryza alta
      Liping Liu, Ruifeng Song, Fu Zhang, Xiuxiang Zhang, Guixiang Peng, Zhiyuan Tan
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  1018-1025.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019366
      Abstract ( 149 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (560KB) ( 50 )   Save
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      Forty-three strains of endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria were obtained from wild rice Oryza alta, and grown on nitrogen-free medium. Their potential nitrogen-fixing ability was determined with the acetylene reduction method and a PCR amplification of the nifH gene fragment. The obtained isolates were grouped into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI) based on their DNA patterns of IS-PCR and protein patterns of SDS-PAGE. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified representative strains, suggesting that group I belonged to Raoultella terrigena, group II to Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae, group III to Burkholderia vietnamiensis, group IV to genus Enterobacter, group V to Pseudomonas mendocina, and group VI to Phytobacter diazotrophicus. A Biolog plate test showed strains from differing groups had significant differences in carbon source utilization, often clustering consistently within IS-PCR and SDS-PAGE patterns. The diversity of endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in wild rice indicates that endophytic bacteria is strongly adaptable in obtaining both carbon and nitrogen from varying environments.

      Evaluation on nature reserve management effectiveness of mitigation and adaptation on climate change: A case study of 12 typical nature reserves in Guangxi
      Bin Feng, Diqiang Li, Yuguang Zhang, Yadong Xue
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  1026-1035.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019352
      Abstract ( 165 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1357KB) ( 86 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      Nature reserve establishment is vital to biodiversity conservation and play a key role in mitigating and adapting to climate change. The pressure for increased biodiversity conservation is also increasing due to climate change, but effective management must consider climate change impacts when managing nature reserves. Nature reserves require adaptive management techniques to cope with climate change threats, but to date, there are no management evaluation tools for the mitigation and adaptation of climate change globally. In the past half century, Guangxi’s temperature has risen continuously and extreme weather events have increased in frequency, seriously impacting Guangxi biological habitats. This paper suggests the management effectiveness assessment tool of mitigation and adaptation on climate change (MEATMACC), based on the management effectiveness tracking tool (METT), to use as a management framework to mitigate and adapt to climate change in nature reserves. This paper also evaluated and analyzed 12 nature reserves in Guangxi by using both evaluation tools. National nature reserves scored 28.98% and 43.91% higher (METT and MEATMACC) than non-national nature reserves, respectively. MEATMACC scores were significantly different between national and non-national nature reserves but no significant differences in METT scores. Additionally, the scoring rate of METT and MEATMACC is linearly correlated without significant differences. There is highly significant difference in three elements’ scoring rate that context, planning and outcomes between METT and MEATMACC. The results show that policy and technical support for climate change mitigation and adaptation in nature reserve still needs to be strengthened.

      Coupling and co-evolution of biological and cultural diversity in the karst area of southwest China: A case study of Pogang Nature Reserve in Guizhou
      Xing Bi, Zhaohui Yang, Cheng Wang, Haijun Su, Mingming Zhang
      Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (8):  1036-1044.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019269
      Abstract ( 251 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1133KB) ( 196 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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      Biodiversity is strongly linked with cultural diversity, positively influencing the balance of natural and social ecosystem. We studied the historical co-evolution of biological and cultural diversity by analyzing the distribution and change of cultural landscapes in Pogang Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China, a representative karst area. We then assessed how the national ecological policy and rural protection systems influenced bio-cultural diversity, based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a model of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS). Our results show that a complete and typical natural karst ecosystem was preserved in Pogang Nature Reserve, despite repeated alteration of management practices and changes in the attitudes toward protection and land use. Local residents in the Pogang Nature Reserve created a distinctive traditional culture following a process of long-term adaptation to the karst environment. Biodiversity and cultural diversity patterns in the Pogang Nature Reserve overlapped geographically, and two main interventions facilitated the maintenance of the coupled system based on their co-evolution: government policies and traditional village rules and regulations. The protection of bio-cultural diversity in Pogang Nature Reserve and other karst areas should be prioritized to promote coordinated development of both biological and cultural diversity. To avoid the separation of nature conservation and culture conservation, our results suggest that the government and the administrative department of Pogang Nature Reserve should not only make proactive policies supporting biodiversity conservation, but also enhance protection and maintenance of traditional village rules and regulations and local culture in and around the reserve.

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