生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 428-438.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020335

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

华东地区归化植物的组成特征、引入时间及时空分布

严靖, 闫小玲, 李惠茹, 杜诚, 马金双()   

  1. 中国科学院上海辰山植物科学研究中心/上海辰山植物园, 上海 201602
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-19 接受日期:2020-11-14 出版日期:2021-04-20 发布日期:2021-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 马金双
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31872645);上海市绿化和市容管理局科研项目(G182419)

Composition, time of introduction and spatial-temporal distribution of naturalized plants in East China

Jing Yan, Xiaoling Yan, Huiru Li, Cheng Du, Jinshuang Ma()   

  1. Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Science/Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai 201602
  • Received:2020-08-19 Accepted:2020-11-14 Online:2021-04-20 Published:2021-04-20
  • Contact: Jinshuang Ma
  • About author:* E-mail: jinshuangma@gmail.com

摘要:

归化是入侵的前期阶段, 对归化植物的深入研究是科学管理外来物种的基本前提, 有助于预防外来植物造成入侵危害, 区域性归化植物的研究对地方外来植物的管理与防治对策的制定具有重要的指导意义。本文基于文献报道、标本信息和分类学考证, 特别是于2014-2019年对华东地区(安徽省、福建省、江苏省、江西省、山东省、上海市和浙江省)归化植物的全面调查, 统计分析了华东地区归化植物的物种组成和分布格局, 并对其首次引入(或发现)地、引入时间和引入途径进行综合分析。结果表明, 华东地区有归化植物62科181属299种, 总体上呈现种类丰富、以草本植物为主、原产于美洲的种类多、引入途径集中等特征。在空间尺度上, 福建省的物种多样性明显高于其他省市, 且仅分布于该省的种类也最多(达57种, 占总种数的19.1%), 其他省市之间则差别不大。对外交流程度和原产地与归化地之间的气候相似性可能是影响归化植物多样性和空间分布格局的主要因素。在时间尺度上, 1850年之后, 华东地区的归化植物呈现出指数增长的趋势, 增长速率达1.5种/年, 且当前正处于快速增长阶段; 21世纪以来, 80%以上的归化植物来自于无意引入的物种, 这提示我们需要对此特别关注。华东地区作为对外交流的重要区域, 面临着外来植物输入以及归化并造成入侵的双重压力, 因此需对该地区的热点地区如口岸、港口等地加强出入境监管, 同时构建一套行之有效的外来植物风险评估体系, 这是开展外来物种风险管理的基础, 也是预防外来物种入侵的有效手段之一。

关键词: 归化植物, 分布格局, 生物入侵, 引入时间, 华东地区

Abstract

Background: Naturalization is the pre-invasion stage. Detailed research on naturalized plants is a fundamental first step for scientific management of alien species. This research is necessary for predicting and hence preventing such invasion caused by alien plants. Regional studies of naturalized plants are important for local governments to manage and control of such plants. As an important area for foreign exchanges, East China is facing pressures from imported alien plants being naturalized and then invading. This study aims to enrich the basic information about naturalized plants of East China, discussed the current deficiencies in the study of naturalized plants, and summarized the direction of future research.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive survey of naturalized plants in East China (Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Shanghai and Zhejiang provinces) from 2014 to 2019 using literature reports, specimen information, and taxonomic research. We analyzed the species composition and distribution pattern of naturalized plants in East China and conducted a comprehensive analysis of their first detected locations, introduced route, and the time when species were discovered.

Results: We found that 299 species belonging to 181 genera and 62 families were naturalized in East China. The four most dominant families were Compositae (49 species), Leguminosae (35 species), Gramineae (28 species) and Amaranthaceae (25 species). The four most dominant genera were Amaranthus (16 species), Euphorbia(10 species),Ipomoea (9 species) andSolanum (9 species). There was a large diversity in species identified as naturalized, with a high proportion of plants coming from the Americas, and concentration in introduction routes. The Americas are the primary geographical origin of naturalized alien plant species, with more species originating from North America rather than South America. The route of introduction analysis revealed that 143 naturalized plant species were introduced unintentionally due to human activity and 156 species were introduced intentionally. Ninety-five frequencies were introduced as ornamental plants, which take up 55.2% of all the frequencies introduced intentionally. This suggests that introductions of plants for the purpose of ornamental use is the most common way for species naturalization to occur. A comparative study of the first detected locations show that the largest number of naturalized species were firstly introduced to South China (84 species) which mostly went to the Guangdong Province (33 species) and Hong Kong District (33 species). This was followed by East China (74 species), the Taiwan Province (72 species), Southwest China (19 species, mainly from Yunnan), Northeast China (15 species, mainly from Liaoning), Northwest China (14 species, mainly from Xinjiang) and North China (14 species, mainly from Beijing). There were only two naturalized species found in Central China. Jiangsu, Fujian and Zhejiang provinces were the main importing areas for East China. This may be due to many factors such as international communication, population density, climate similarity, disturbance levels, biological characteristics unique to species and investigation degree. Spatially, the species diversity of the Fujian Province (236 species) is significantly higher than that of other provinces, but little difference has been detected among other provinces. There are 57 species that are only distributed in Fujian (19.1%), which is the most when compared with other provinces. The amount of foreign exchange and climate similarity between native habitat and naturalized place may be the primary driver of current diversity and distribution pattern. Historically, the naturalized plants in East China showed an exponential growth trend after 1850. The growth rate is 1.5 species per year, and is currently in a period of rapid growth. In the 21st century, more than 80% of naturalized plants have been unintentionally introduced. Therefore, special attention should be placed on preventing the introduction of unintentional species.

Proposal: Constructing an effective risk assessment system of alien plants based on an accurate and complete database of naturalized plants is one effective way to eliminate the risk of invasions from alien plant species.

Key words: naturalized plants, distribution pattern, biological invasion, time of introduction, East China