生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 157-166.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.10155

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弄岗北热带喀斯特季节性雨林群丛数量 分类及与环境的关系

黄甫昭1,2, 王斌1,2, 丁涛1,2, 向悟生1,2, 李先琨1,2,*(), 周爱萍1,2   

  1. 1 广西壮族自治区、中国科学院广西植物研究所, 广西桂林 541006
    2 广西友谊关森林生态系统定位观测研究站, 广西凭祥 532600
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-08 接受日期:2013-10-28 出版日期:2014-03-20 发布日期:2014-04-03
  • 通讯作者: 李先琨
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31270469)、国家科技支撑计划(2011BAC09B02)、广西自然科学基金(2012GXNSFAA053068、2013GXNSFBA019076)和广西科技攻关计划(桂科攻1298008-3)

Numerical classification of associations in a northern tropical karst seasonal rain forest and the relationships of these associations with environmental factors

Fuzhao Huang1,2, Bin Wang1,2, Tao Ding1,2, Wusheng Xiang1,2, Xiankun Li1,2,*(), Aiping Zhou1,2   

  1. 1 Guangxi Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    2 Guangxi Youyiguan Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Pingxiang, Guangxi 532600
  • Received:2013-07-08 Accepted:2013-10-28 Online:2014-03-20 Published:2014-04-03
  • Contact: Li Xiankun

摘要:

以弄岗15 ha北热带喀斯特季节性雨林监测样地各样方的相对海拔、坡度、坡向、凹凸度和物种重要值数据为变量, 采用多元回归树方法将喀斯特季节性雨林森林群落分为8个群丛。同时, 按乔木层、亚乔木层优势种为主, 灌木层指示种为辅的方法分别把8类群丛命名为: (A)南方紫金牛(Ardisia thyrsiflora)–苹婆(Sterculia monosperma)–中国无忧花(Saraca dives)群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于土壤和空气的湿度都较大的谷底边缘; (B)对叶榕(Ficus hispida)–苹婆–董棕(Caryota obtusa)群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于伴有季节性水淹、土壤和空气湿度都很大的谷底; (C)山石榴(Catunaregam spinosa)–广西牡荆–蚬木(Excentrodendron tonkinense)群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于受太阳直射时间较长、水分条件中等偏旱的中下坡阳坡地带; (D)垂茉莉(Clerodendrum wallichii)–苹婆–广西棋子豆(Cychidendron guangxiensis)群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于受太阳直射时间稍短、水分条件适中的中下坡阴坡地带; (E)米仔兰(Aglaia odorata)–闭花木(Cleistanthus sumatranus)–蚬木群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于土壤湿度中等偏旱的中上坡半阴坡地带; (F)割舌树(Walsura robusta)–闭花木–蚬木群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于土壤湿度中等偏旱、比较陡峭的半阳坡地带; (G)枝花流苏树(Chionanthus ramiflorus)–广西牡荆–蚬木群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于坡度缓和、太阳直射的时间较短、水分条件适中的垭口部位; (H)齿叶黄皮(Clausena dunniana)–黄梨木(Boniodendron minius)–蚬木群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于受到太阳直射时间最长、岩石裸露度最大、气温干燥、土壤水分严重不足的山顶及其周围。群丛划分说明该区域植被差异主要源于相对海拔和坡向变化, 各群丛物种组成并不存在明显界限, 而是随环境梯度逐渐变化, 反映了植被分布具有连续性, 间断只是相对的。

关键词: 多元回归树, 地形因子, 喀斯特季节性雨林, 植被分类

Abstract:

The associations in a northern tropical karst seasonal rainforest plot in Nonggang National Nature Reserve were classified using the multivariate regression tree method in conjunction with the relative elevation, slope, aspect, convexity, and the importance value of species. The results showed that the relative elevation and aspect were critical for the spatial distribution of species. The forest community of the Nonggang plot was divided into eight associations. They were as follows: (A) Ardisia thyrsifloraSterculia monospermaSaraca dives association, distributed primarily at the edge of valley bottoms with high humidity and soil moisture; (B) Ficus hispidaSterculia monospermaCaryota obtusa association, distributed primarily at the valley bottom where seasonal flooding occurs and the soil moisture and humidity are high; (C) Catunaregam spinosaVitex kwangsiensisExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed primarily on south-facing slopes at lower elevations with slight drought and greater sunlight; (D) Clerodendrum wallichiiSterculia monospermaCychidendron guangxiensis association, distributed primarily on shaded slopes at lower elevations with moderate soil moisture and less sunlight; (E) Aglaia odorataCleistanthus sumatranusExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed primarily on upper and middle half-shaded slopes with slight drought; (F) Walsura robustaCleistanthus sumatranusExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed primarily on steep half-sunny slopes with slight drought; (G) Chionanthus ramiflorusVitex kwangsiensisExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed mainly on passes with a gentle slope, moderate soil moisture, and less sunlight; (H) Clausena dunnianaBoniodendron miniusExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed mainly at the top of the mountain and in the surrounding areas, where the longest sunlight periods and the greatest extent of bare rock are accompanied by dry air and a substantial shortage of soil water. According to an analysis of the species components, the changes in species composition were associated with different topographical environmental factors. The spatial distribution of the vegetation was continuous, and there were no obvious boundaries between different associations. These results highlighted the importance of environmental factors as determinants of the distribution of species and the composition of associations in the north tropical karst seasonal rainforest.

Key words: MRT, topographic factor, karst seasonal rainforests, vegetation classification