生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (8): 973-982.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019387

• 蝴蝶多样性观测专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

宁夏六盘山国家级自然保护区眼蝶群落多样性

刘学琴, 贺达汉, 王新谱*()   

  1. 宁夏大学农学院, 银川 750021
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-06 接受日期:2020-02-22 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-03-08
  • 通讯作者: 王新谱
  • 作者简介:. E-mail: wangxinpu@nxu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护重大工程(SDZXWJZ01040-2018和宁夏高等学校一流学科建设草学学科资助项目NXYLXK2017A01)

Diversity of Satyrinae in the Liupanshan National Nature Reserve of Ningxia

Xueqin Liu, Dahan He, Xinpu Wang*()   

  1. School of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021
  • Received:2019-12-06 Accepted:2020-02-22 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-03-08
  • Contact: Xinpu Wang

摘要:

蝴蝶是地球生物多样性的重要指示物种之一, 其种群动态及群落结构变化能够揭示环境改变对生态系统的影响。六盘山国家级自然保护区生境优越, 植物区系多样, 孕育了丰富的蝶类资源。为了有效利用环境和保护蝶类资源, 2016-2018年, 作者采用样线调查法, 对宁夏六盘山国家级自然保护区人工植被、针阔混交林、阔叶林、灌木林4种生境中眼蝶亚科昆虫进行了调查, 分析了眼蝶在空间及时间上的动态变化。共记录眼蝶亚科13属19种4,363只, 其中阿芬眼蝶(Aphantopus hyperanthus, 961只)、亚洲白眼蝶(Melanargia asiatica, 637只)、爱珍眼蝶(Coenonympha oedippus, 594只)分别占总数的22%、15%和13%, 为保护区优势种; 蟾眼蝶(Triphysa phryne, 17只)仅占总数的0.39%, 为保护区的稀有种。在空间分布上, 4类生境中针阔混交林眼蝶物种丰富度和优势度低, 多样性指数最高, 不同生境眼蝶群落物种丰富度指数、多样性指数、均匀度指数存在明显差异(P < 0.05), 优势度指数差异不显著。在时间动态上, 2016-2018年眼蝶个体数量呈下降趋势, 物种个体数量高峰期主要发生在8月, 优势种变化明显。因此, 保护宁夏六盘山国家级自然保护区蝴蝶种类多样性刻不容缓。

关键词: 眼蝶, 多样性, 种群动态, 生境

Abstract:

Butterfly is one of indicator species of biodiversity, and the population dynamics and community structure of butterflies can reflect the environmental effect of Ecosystem. The Liupanshan National Nature Reserve is rich in plant resources with diversified habitats. To effectively protect and utilize environment and resources, we studied the diversity of Satyrinae in four habitat types, including artificial vegetation, shrub, broad-leaved forest, and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of the Liupanshan National Nature Reserve from 2016 to 2018 by surveying transects, we discussed the spatial and temporal dynamic changes of Satyrinae. A total of 4,363 butterflies were collected, of which 19 species in 13 genera were identified. Among them, the largest numbers of individuals were Aphantopus hyperanthus (961), Melanargia asiatica (637), and Coenonympha oedippus (594), accounting for 22%, 15% and 13% of the assemblage respectively, all of which are dominant species in the reserve. Triphysa phryne had only 17 individuals which we regard as a rare species. We calculated and analyzed the Margalef richness index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index, and Simpson dominance index of the four habitats. The results showed that the dominance index was lowest, but the diversity, richness, and evenness indices were highest in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest. The richness, diversity, and evenness indices were significantly different, while the dominance index was not for the four habitat types (P < 0.05). In terms of temporal dynamics, the number of Satyrinae individuals decreased from 2016 to 2018, and the peak of the number species mainly occurred in August, with significant changes in dominant species. Therefore, butterfly protection is urgent and recommended in the Liupanshan National Nature Reserve.

Key words: Satyrinae, diversity, population dynamics, habitat