生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 157-166.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.10155

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弄岗北热带喀斯特季节性雨林群丛数量 分类及与环境的关系

黄甫昭1, 2, 王斌1, 2, 丁涛1, 2, 向悟生1, 2, 李先琨1, 2, *(), 周爱萍1, 2   

  1. 1 广西壮族自治区、中国科学院广西植物研究所, 广西桂林 541006
    2 广西友谊关森林生态系统定位观测研究站, 广西凭祥 532600
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-08 接受日期:2013-10-28 出版日期:2014-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 李先琨 E-mail:xiankunli@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31270469)、国家科技支撑计划(2011BAC09B02)、广西自然科学基金(2012GXNSFAA053068、2013GXNSFBA019076)和广西科技攻关计划(桂科攻1298008-3)

Numerical classification of associations in a northern tropical karst seasonal rain forest and the relationships of these associations with environmental factors

Fuzhao Huang1, 2, Bin Wang1, 2, Tao Ding1, 2, Wusheng Xiang1, 2, Xiankun Li1, 2, *(), Aiping Zhou1, 2   

  1. 1 Guangxi Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    2 Guangxi Youyiguan Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Pingxiang, Guangxi 532600
  • Received:2013-07-08 Accepted:2013-10-28 Online:2014-03-20
  • Contact: Li Xiankun E-mail:xiankunli@163.com

以弄岗15 ha北热带喀斯特季节性雨林监测样地各样方的相对海拔、坡度、坡向、凹凸度和物种重要值数据为变量, 采用多元回归树方法将喀斯特季节性雨林森林群落分为8个群丛。同时, 按乔木层、亚乔木层优势种为主, 灌木层指示种为辅的方法分别把8类群丛命名为: (A)南方紫金牛(Ardisia thyrsiflora)–苹婆(Sterculia monosperma)–中国无忧花(Saraca dives)群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于土壤和空气的湿度都较大的谷底边缘; (B)对叶榕(Ficus hispida)–苹婆–董棕(Caryota obtusa)群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于伴有季节性水淹、土壤和空气湿度都很大的谷底; (C)山石榴(Catunaregam spinosa)–广西牡荆–蚬木(Excentrodendron tonkinense)群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于受太阳直射时间较长、水分条件中等偏旱的中下坡阳坡地带; (D)垂茉莉(Clerodendrum wallichii)–苹婆–广西棋子豆(Cychidendron guangxiensis)群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于受太阳直射时间稍短、水分条件适中的中下坡阴坡地带; (E)米仔兰(Aglaia odorata)–闭花木(Cleistanthus sumatranus)–蚬木群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于土壤湿度中等偏旱的中上坡半阴坡地带; (F)割舌树(Walsura robusta)–闭花木–蚬木群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于土壤湿度中等偏旱、比较陡峭的半阳坡地带; (G)枝花流苏树(Chionanthus ramiflorus)–广西牡荆–蚬木群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于坡度缓和、太阳直射的时间较短、水分条件适中的垭口部位; (H)齿叶黄皮(Clausena dunniana)–黄梨木(Boniodendron minius)–蚬木群丛, 该群丛类型主要分布于受到太阳直射时间最长、岩石裸露度最大、气温干燥、土壤水分严重不足的山顶及其周围。群丛划分说明该区域植被差异主要源于相对海拔和坡向变化, 各群丛物种组成并不存在明显界限, 而是随环境梯度逐渐变化, 反映了植被分布具有连续性, 间断只是相对的。

关键词: 多元回归树, 地形因子, 喀斯特季节性雨林, 植被分类

The associations in a northern tropical karst seasonal rainforest plot in Nonggang National Nature Reserve were classified using the multivariate regression tree method in conjunction with the relative elevation, slope, aspect, convexity, and the importance value of species. The results showed that the relative elevation and aspect were critical for the spatial distribution of species. The forest community of the Nonggang plot was divided into eight associations. They were as follows: (A) Ardisia thyrsifloraSterculia monospermaSaraca dives association, distributed primarily at the edge of valley bottoms with high humidity and soil moisture; (B) Ficus hispidaSterculia monospermaCaryota obtusa association, distributed primarily at the valley bottom where seasonal flooding occurs and the soil moisture and humidity are high; (C) Catunaregam spinosaVitex kwangsiensisExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed primarily on south-facing slopes at lower elevations with slight drought and greater sunlight; (D) Clerodendrum wallichiiSterculia monospermaCychidendron guangxiensis association, distributed primarily on shaded slopes at lower elevations with moderate soil moisture and less sunlight; (E) Aglaia odorataCleistanthus sumatranusExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed primarily on upper and middle half-shaded slopes with slight drought; (F) Walsura robustaCleistanthus sumatranusExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed primarily on steep half-sunny slopes with slight drought; (G) Chionanthus ramiflorusVitex kwangsiensisExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed mainly on passes with a gentle slope, moderate soil moisture, and less sunlight; (H) Clausena dunnianaBoniodendron miniusExcentrodendron tonkinense association, distributed mainly at the top of the mountain and in the surrounding areas, where the longest sunlight periods and the greatest extent of bare rock are accompanied by dry air and a substantial shortage of soil water. According to an analysis of the species components, the changes in species composition were associated with different topographical environmental factors. The spatial distribution of the vegetation was continuous, and there were no obvious boundaries between different associations. These results highlighted the importance of environmental factors as determinants of the distribution of species and the composition of associations in the north tropical karst seasonal rainforest.

Key words: MRT, topographic factor, karst seasonal rainforests, vegetation classification

图1

弄岗北热带喀斯特季节性雨林15 ha样地群丛分类相对误差及交叉验证相对误差变化图。○ 相对误差变化趋势; ●交叉验证相对误差变化趋势; □ 交叉验证相对误差最小点; | 表示标准差; --- 交叉验证相对误差最小值加上1个标准差线; ◇ 根据“1SE”规则确定的分类树规模点。"

表1

弄岗15 ha石灰岩季节性雨林样地的8类群丛"

代号 Codes 群丛名称 Association
A 南方紫金牛–苹婆–中国无忧花群丛 Asso. Ardisia thyrsifloraSterculia monospermaSaraca dives
B 对叶榕–苹婆–董棕群丛 Asso. Ficus hispidaSterculia monospermaCaryota obtusa
C 山石榴–广西牡荆–蚬木群丛 Asso. Catunaregam spinosaVitex kwangsiensisExcentrodendron tonkinense
D 垂茉莉–苹婆–广西棋子豆群丛 Asso. Clerodendrum wallichiiSterculia monospermaCychidendron guangxiensis
E 米仔兰–闭花木–蚬木群丛 Asso. Aglaia odorataCleistanthus sumatranusExcentrodendron tonkinense
F 割舌树–闭花木–蚬木群丛 Asso. Walsura robustaCleistanthus sumatranusExcentrodendron tonkinense
G 枝花流苏树–广西牡荆–蚬木群丛 Asso. Chionanthus ramiflorusVitex kwangsiensisExcentrodendron tonkinense
H 齿叶黄皮–黄梨木–蚬木群丛 Asso. Clausena dunnianaBoniodendron miniusExcentrodendron tonkinense

图2

弄岗北热带喀斯特季节性雨林15 ha样地群丛分类多元回归树图。A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H表示8个群丛类型, 见表1; 括号内的数字表示每组包含的样方数。"

表2

弄岗15 ha石灰岩季节性雨林样地8类群丛内物种的优势度排序(群丛名称见表1)"

群丛
Association
物种
Species
优势度
Dominance
层次
Layer
群丛
Association
物种
Species
优势度
Dominance
层次
Layer
A 苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 0.23 U B 对叶榕 Ficus hispida 0.18 S
中国无忧花 Saraca dives 0.22 T 苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 0.16 U
广西棋子豆 Cychidendron guangxiensis 0.10 T 劲直刺桐 Erythrina stricta 0.15 U
广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensis 0.09 U 董棕 Caryota obtusa 0.10 T
肥牛树 Cephalomappa sinensis 0.05 U 广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensis 0.09 U
白头树 Garuga forrestii 0.04 T 广西棋子豆 Cychidendron guangxiensis 0.07 T
劲直刺桐 Erythrina stricta 0.03 U 苹果榕 Ficus oligodon 0.06 U
假肥牛树 Cleistanthus petelotii 0.03 U 秋枫 Bischofia javanica 0.05 T
对叶榕 Ficus hispida 0.02 S 水东哥 Saurauia tristyla 0.02 S
董棕 Caryota obtusa 0.02 T 中国无忧花 Saraca dives 0.02 T
总数 Total 103 总数 Total 92
C 广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensis 0.28 U D 苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 0.22 U
苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 0.11 U 广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensis 0.20 U
劲直刺桐 Erythrina stricta 0.10 U 劲直刺桐 Erythrina stricta 0.06 U
海南椴 Diplodiscus trichosperma 0.06 U 闭花木 Cleistanthus sumatranus 0.03 U
闭花木 Cleistanthus sumatranus 0.05 U 假玉桂 Celtis timorensis 0.03 U
西南猫尾木 Dolichandrone stipulata 0.02 U 广西棋子豆 Cychidendron guangxiensis 0.03 T
蚬木 Excentrodendron tonkinense 0.02 T 海南大风子 Hydnocarpus hainanensis 0.02 U
木蝴蝶 Oroxylum indicum 0.02 U 肥牛树 Cephalomappa sinensis 0.02 U
羽叶白头树 Garuga pinnata 0.02 T 日本五月茶 Antidesma japonicum 0.02 U
肥牛树 Cephalomappa sinensis 0.02 U 董棕 Caryota obtusa 0.02 T
总数 Total 144 总数 Total 159
E 闭花木 Cleistanthus sumatranus 0.34 U F 闭花木 Cleistanthus sumatranus 0.24 U
蚬木 Excentrodendron tonkinense 0.09 T 广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensis 0.12 U
广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensis 0.08 U 蚬木 Excentrodendron tonkinense 0.09 T
海南椴 Diplodiscus trichosperma 0.05 U 海南椴 Diplodiscus trichosperma 0.06 U
网脉核果木 Drypetes perreticulata 0.03 U 苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 0.05 U
金丝李 Garcinia paucinervis 0.03 U 黄梨木 Boniodendron minius 0.04 U
苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 0.02 U 肥牛树 Cephalomappa sinensis 0.04 U
细叶谷木 Memecylon scutellatum 0.02 S 网脉核果木 Drypetes perreticulata 0.02 U
榕树 Ficus microcarpa 0.02 T 山榄叶柿 Diospyros siderophylla 0.02 U
密花核果木 Drypetes confertiflora 0.02 U 劲直刺桐 Erythrina stricta 0.02 U
总数 Total 142 总数 Total 142
G 广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensis 0.16 U H 黄梨木 Boniodendron minius 0.15 U
苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 0.10 U 鱼骨木 Canthium dicoccum 0.13 U
蚬木 Excentrodendron tonkinense 0.09 T 细叶谷木 Memecylon scutellatum 0.07 S
海南椴 Diplodiscus trichosperma 0.09 U 毛叶铁榄 Sinosideroxylon pedunculatum 0.07 U
劲直刺桐 Erythrina stricta 0.09 U 山榄叶柿 Diospyros siderophylla 0.06 U
假玉桂 Celtis timorensis 0.06 U 清香木 Pistacia weinmannifolia 0.05 U
日本五月茶 Antidesma japonicum 0.03 U 蚬木 Excentrodendron tonkinense 0.04 T
茎花山柚 Champereia manillana 0.02 U 柴龙树 Apodytes dimidiata 0.03 U
枝花流苏树 Chionanthus ramiflorus 0.02 S 海南椴 Diplodiscus trichosperma 0.03 U
南酸枣 Choerospondias axillaris 0.02 T 闭花木 Cleistanthus sumatranus 0.03 U
总数 Total 135 总数 Total 151

表3

弄岗15 ha石灰岩季节性雨林样地8类群丛内具有显著指示作用的物种指示值排序(群丛名称见表1)"

群丛
Associa-
tion
物种
Species
指示值
Indicator
value
层次
Layer
群丛
Associa-
tion
物种
Species
指示值
Indicator
value
层次
Layer
A 中国无忧花 Saraca dives 49 T B 对叶榕 Ficus hispida 75 S
南方紫金牛 Ardisia thyrsiflora 48 S 秋枫 Bischofia javanica 64 T
广西棋子豆 Cychidendron guangxiensis 46 T 木奶果 Baccaurea ramiflora 55 T
山桂花 Bennettiodendron leprosipes 43 S 火筒树 Leea indica 49 S
裂果卫矛 Euonymus dielsianus 36 S 水东哥 Saurauia tristyla 44 S
白花龙船花 Ixora henryi 34 S 苹果榕 Ficus oligodon 36 U
田方骨 Goniothalamus donnajensis 32 S 日本五月茶 Antidesma japonicum 32 S
淡黄金花茶 Camellia flavida 31 S 南烛厚壳桂 Cryptocarya lyoniifolia 30 T
茎花赤才 Lepisanthes cauliflora 29 S 石密 Alphonsea mollis 26 T
假肥牛树 Cleistanthus petelotii 27 U 禾串树 Bridelia balansae 22 U
显脉木兰 Lirianthe fistulosa 27 U 山地五月茶 Antidesma montanum 20 S
总数 Total 17 总数 Total 18
C 广西牡荆 Vitex kwangsiensis 24 U D 垂茉莉 Clerodendrum wallichii 31 S
山石榴 Catunaregam spinosa 20 S 广西澄广花 Orophea anceps 26 S
青叶苎麻 Boehmeria nivea 20 S 苹婆 Sterculia monosperma 25 U
中越杜茎山 Maesa balansae 15 S 茶条木 Delavaya toxocarpa 18 U
印度枣 Ziziphus incurva 11 T 臀果木 Pygeum topengii 8 T
木蝴蝶 Oroxylum indicum 10 U
总数 Total 6 总数 Total 5
E 闭花木 Cleistanthus sumatranus 46 U F 肥牛树 Cephalomappa sinensis 27 U
密花核果木 Drypetes confertiflora 24 U 割舌树 Walsura robusta 25 S
米仔兰 Aglaia odorata 24 S 三角车 Rinorea bengalensis 20 U
网脉核果木 Drypetes perreticulata 20 U 粗柄槭 Acer tonkinense 16 U
金丝李 Garcinia paucinervis 19 U 蜂窝木姜子 Litsea foveola 16 S
总数 Total 7 总数 Total 9
G 枝花流苏树 Chionanthus ramiflorus 38 S H 毛叶铁榄 Sinosideroxylon pedunculatum 82 U
假玉桂 Celtis timorensis 36 U 齿叶黄皮 Clausena dunniana 72 S
海南椴 Diplodiscus trichosperma 34 U 黄梨木 Boniodendron minius 64 U
鸡仔木 Sinoadina racemosa 34 U 鱼骨木 Canthium dicoccum 63 U
茎花山柚 Champereia manillana 29 U 石山巴豆 Croton euryphyllus 62 S
海红豆 Adenanthera pavonina 27 T 清香木 Pistacia weinmannifolia 61 U
蚬木 Excentrodendron tonkinense 21 T 子楝树 Decaspermum gracilentum 60 S
红芽木 Cratoxylum formosum 20 T 山牡荆 Vitex quinata 60 S
假鹰爪 Desmos chinensis 20 S 米念芭 Tirpitzia ovoidea 59 S
总数 Total 27 总数 Total 40

图3

8个群丛中具有显著指示作用的物种数(群丛名称见 表1)"

附图I

弄岗北热带喀斯特季节性雨林15 ha样地的三维地形图"

附图II

弄岗北热带喀斯特季节性雨林15 ha样地8类群丛的20 m × 20 m的样方分布图"

附图III-1

样地上部。该区域位于样地山脊,主要物种有黄梨木、鱼骨木、细叶谷木、毛叶铁榄、山榄叶柿等。"

附图III-2

样地中部。该区域位于样地山腰, 主要物种有蚬木、闭花木、广西牡荆、海南椴、网脉核果木、金丝李等。"

附图III-3

样地下部。 该区域位于样地谷底边缘地带,主要物种有广西棋子豆、中国无忧花、苹婆、广西牡荆、肥牛树、劲直刺桐、对叶榕等。"

附图III-4

样地谷底。 该区域位于样地最低处, 主要植物有对叶榕、苹婆、劲直刺桐、董棕、广西牡荆、广西棋子豆等。"

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