生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (6): 727-733.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019325

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

外来入侵植物的根系觅养行为研究进展

韩雪,苏锦权,姚娜娜,陈宝明()   

  1. 中山大学生命科学学院/有害生物控制与资源利用国家重点实验室, 广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-17 接受日期:2020-01-21 出版日期:2020-06-20 发布日期:2020-08-19
  • 通讯作者: 陈宝明
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31971556);广东省自然科学基金(2017A030313187)

Advances in root foraging behavior of exotic invasive plants

Xue Han,Jinquan Su,Nana Yao,Baoming Chen()   

  1. School of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275
  • Received:2019-10-17 Accepted:2020-01-21 Online:2020-06-20 Published:2020-08-19
  • Contact: Baoming Chen

摘要:

土壤养分分布具有高度空间异质性, 植物的根系觅养行为是其对土壤养分异质性的一种适应。不同植物为了适应养分异质性会产生不同的根系觅养行为, 通过调整自身的根系觅养范围、觅养精度和觅养速度来更好地吸收利用土壤中的养分。外来植物与本地植物的竞争是决定其成功入侵的重要因素, 土壤养分等环境因素会影响它们之间的竞争关系。近年来, 外来入侵植物的觅养行为逐渐受到人们的关注, 关于入侵植物根系觅养行为的研究成果陆续出现: (1)总体来看, 外来入侵植物具有较强的根系觅养能力, 但根系觅养范围与觅养精度之间的权衡关系还不确定; (2)营养异质性会影响入侵植物与本地植物之间的竞争, 反过来, 二者之间的竞争也会影响根系觅养行为对营养异质性的响应; (3)丛枝菌根真菌(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF)能够提高入侵植物的根系觅养能力, 外来植物入侵能够改变入侵植物对AMF的偏好性, 形成AMF对入侵的正反馈作用, 而本地植物与AMF的相互作用也会影响入侵植物的竞争力。未来还应加强营养异质环境下种间竞争和AMF共生对入侵植物根系觅养行为的影响机制研究, 以及全球变化背景下入侵植物根系觅养行为的变化与机制方面的研究, 可以更深入地认识外来植物的觅养行为在其成功入侵中的作用, 并为利用营养调控来防控入侵植物提供理论依据。

关键词: 根系觅养, 外来入侵植物, 营养异质性, 丛枝菌根真菌, 竞争, 根系分布

Abstract:

Nutrient distribution within soils is highly spatially heterogenous, forcing plant root foraging behavior to adapt to heterogeneous soil nutrients. By adjusting root foraging scales, foraging precision and rate, plants can maximize soil nutrients. Successful invaders are heavily influenced by soil nutrients and other environmental conditions (e.g. water content, light, etc.) as successful invasion depends on the successful competitive interaction of an exotic species with a native species. In recent years, the foraging behavior of exotic invasive plants has attracted more attention, and studies are increasing worldwide. To date, foraging behavior studies have found: (1) Invasive plants have increased root foraging abilities compared to native plants, although the trade-off between foraging scale and precision are uncertain. (2) Soil nutrient heterogeneity influences the competitive outcome between invasive and native plants, as competition alters root foraging strategy. (3) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) facilitate root foraging of invasive plants, and invasive plants experience positive feedbacks with invasion by altering their AMF preference. Additionally, the interaction between AMF and native plants can influence the competitive ability of invasive plants. Further studies are necessary to understand the relationship between interspecific competition and AMF on root foraging behavior of invasive plants in heterogeneous nutrient conditions. Due to global change, root foraging strategies and related mechanisms of invasive species may be altering. Increased research on root foraging behavior in successful exotic plant invasions can provide a greater understanding of these mechanisms and a theoretical basis for control and management of invasive plants through nutrient regulation.

Key words: root foraging, exotic invasive plants, soil nutrient heterogeneity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, competition, root distribution