生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (5): 596-604.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020292

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

贵州典型自然保护区内外外来入侵草本植物的比较

郭朝丹, 朱金方, 柳晓燕, 赵彩云*(), 李俊生   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院生态研究所, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-21 接受日期:2021-02-24 出版日期:2021-05-20 发布日期:2021-04-22
  • 通讯作者: 赵彩云
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: zhaocy@craes.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC1201100)

Contrasting biodiversity of invasive herbs inside and outside nature reserves in Guizhou

Chaodan Guo, Jinfang Zhu, Xiaoyan Liu, Caiyun Zhao*(), Junsheng Li   

  1. Institue of Ecology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2020-07-21 Accepted:2021-02-24 Online:2021-05-20 Published:2021-04-22
  • Contact: Caiyun Zhao

摘要:

自然保护区是抵御外来物种入侵的重要屏障, 然而人类活动可能增加外来入侵物种扩散的风险, 导致自然保护区面临不同程度的入侵。为了对比研究自然保护区内外以及不同保护区之间外来入侵草本植物的分布格局及其与人类活动的关系, 本文基于贵州省四个国家级自然保护区(赤水桫椤、习水、梵净山和麻阳河) 380个样方的调查数据, 运用双因素方差分析和非度量多维标度分析方法分析了保护区内外的外来入侵草本植物多样性和物种组成差异, 并利用冗余分析探讨了影响不同保护区内外来入侵草本植物分布的关键人类活动因子。赤水桫椤、习水、梵净山和麻阳河4个保护区共调查发现外来入侵草本植物46种, 隶属于18科37属, 其中, 4个保护区内分别有16、18、7和20种, 保护区外分别有17、10、24和20种。赤水桫椤和梵净山保护区外的外来入侵草本植物丰富度、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Simpson优势度指数显著高于保护区内, 而习水和麻阳河保护区内外差异不显著。梵净山保护区内的Pielou均匀度指数显著高于保护区外, 其余保护区内外差异不显著。四个保护区内外的外来入侵草本植物物种组成无明显差异。保护区内的居民量和道路长度是影响保护区内外来入侵草本植物分布格局差异的主要原因。研究结果表明, 不同保护区对外来草本植物入侵的抵御能力不同, 而人类活动程度的差异是导致其不同的原因之一。建议加强自然保护区内及周边区域人类活动管控, 减缓外来入侵植物的扩散。

关键词: 自然保护区, 外来入侵植物, 物种多样性, 人类干扰

Abstract

Aims: Nature reserves are important barriers against invasive species. Human activities, however, can increase the risk of species invasions in these reserves and beyond. Comparative studies on the biodiversity and distribution patterns of invasive plant species within and outside nature reserves, as well as differences among nature reserves, may help elucidate the level of resistance among nature reserves and reveal the factors driving these differences.
Methods: We surveyed the invasive herbs from 380 plots of four national nature reserves (Chishui Alsophila, Xishui, Fanjingshan, and Mayanghe), in Guizhou Province. We contrasted the diversity of invasive herbs inside and outside the four nature reserves using a two-way analysis of variance, and explored differences in species composition with non-metric multidimensional scaling. Redundancy analysis was used to evaluate the key anthropogenic factors to explain these differences.
Results: A total of 46 invasive herbs were recorded and classified into 37 genera and 18 families. At each of the four reserves, between 7 and 20 invasive herb species were identified inside the reserve and between 10 and 24 invasive species were observed outside the reserve. The richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and Simpson dominance index of invasive herbs outside Chishui and Fanjingshan nature reserves were significantly higher than those inside nature reserves, while there were no significant differences between invasive herbs inside and outside Xishui and Mayanghe nature reserves. Pielou’s evenness index inside Fanjingshan Nature Reserve was significantly higher than that outside the reserve, but no differences in evenness were found in the other nature reserves. In terms of invasive herb species composition, no significant differences inside and outside the four nature reserves were discovered. Redundancy analysis results showed that the residents and the length of roads were the key anthropogenic factors underlying the distribution pattern of invasive herbs.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that different reserves have different resistance to plant invasion, which results from differences in anthropogenic activity. We recommend that restriction of human activities in and around nature reserves can help to prevent the spread of invasive plant species.

Key words: nature reserve, invasive alien plant, plant diversity, human disturbance