生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (11): 1362-1375.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020243

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基于现代物种共存理论的入侵生态学概念框架

于文波1, 黎绍鹏1,2,*()   

  1. 1 华东师范大学生态与环境科学学院, 浙江天童森林生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站, 上海 200241
    2 崇明生态研究院, 上海 202162
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-15 接受日期:2020-07-24 出版日期:2020-11-20 发布日期:2020-08-16
  • 通讯作者: 黎绍鹏
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: spli@des.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31971553);上海市“科技创新行动计划”启明星项目(20QA1402900);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金

Modern coexistence theory as a framework for invasion ecology

Wenbo Yu1, Shaopeng Li1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Zhejiang Tiantong Forest Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241
    2 Institute of Eco-Chongming, Shanghai 202162
  • Received:2020-06-15 Accepted:2020-07-24 Online:2020-11-20 Published:2020-08-16
  • Contact: Shaopeng Li

摘要:

在入侵生态学60多年的发展历程中, 生态学家提出了多种多样的假说来解释生物入侵的机制。这些纷繁复杂的假说在丰富我们对生物入侵认知的同时, 也给入侵生态学概念的整合带来了困难。其中, 外来种和土著种是否存在生态学差异, 以及这种差异如何影响生物入侵, 是入侵生态学研究和争论的焦点问题。现代物种共存理论通过将外来种和土著种的生态学差异划分为生态位差异和适合度差异, 为入侵生态学概念的整合提供了新的视角。依据该理论, 外来种可以通过两种策略实现成功入侵: 一是扩大与土著种的生态位差异, 二是提高自身相较于土著种的适合度优势。因此, 外来种-土著种的生态位差异和适合度差异共同决定了入侵的成败与危害程度。通过对经典入侵假说进行梳理, 我们发现大部分假说都可以在该理论框架下进行解读, 不同假说的主要差别在于强调不同生态学过程对生态位和适合度差异的影响。同时, 这一理论框架很好地解释了为什么外来种-土著种的亲缘关系和性状差异会对生物入侵产生复杂的影响, 为达尔文归化谜团的和解以及外来种-土著种功能性状的比较研究提供了新的思路。目前, 现代物种共存理论还处于快速发展的阶段, 依旧存在很多不足, 但将其运用到生物入侵的实证研究中将是入侵生态学今后一个重要的发展方向。

关键词: 生态位, 竞争能力, 入侵机制, 达尔文归化谜团, 功能性状

Abstract:

In the 60-year development of invasion ecology, many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms behind biological invasion. However, it remains difficult to integrate these hypotheses into a unified framework. In particular, whether exotics ecologically differ from natives, and how ecological differences between exotic and native species could determine invasion outcome, have been hotly debated. By categorizing exotic-native ecological differences into niche differences and fitness differences, modern coexistence theory provides a framework to place different invasion hypotheses and mechanisms into a common context. This framework emphasizes that invasion success depends on either a niche difference between exotics and natives, or that exotics have fitness advantage over natives. By reviewing the leading invasion hypotheses, we found that most invasion hypotheses can be incorporated into this framework, as they considered different aspects of exotic-native niche and fitness differences. This framework can well explain why exotic-native phylogenetic distance and trait difference have complex influences on invasion, and therefore may help to reconcile the long-standing Darwin’s naturalization conundrum and the debate regarding the value of native versus exotic trait comparisons. Together, this framework provides a new opportunity to better understand the mechanisms of ecological invasion.

Key words: niche, competitive ability, invasion mechanisms, Darwin’s naturalization conundrum, functional traits