生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (10): 1174-1181.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020018

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

新建川藏铁路(雅安-昌都段)沿线外来入侵植物种类及分布特征

邓亨宁1, 鞠文彬1,2, 高云东1,2, 张君议1, 李诗琦1,2, 高信芬1,2,*(), 徐波1,2,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院成都生物研究所山地生态恢复与生物资源利用重点实验室/生态恢复与生物多样性保育四川省重点实验室, 成都 610041
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-14 接受日期:2020-05-12 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 高信芬,徐波
  • 作者简介:E-mail: xfgao@cib.ac.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006);四川省重点研发项目(2018SZ0312);四川省中医药管理局重大专项(2018PC005)

The species composition and distributional characteristics of invasive alien plants along the new Sichuan-Tibet Railway (Ya’an to Changdu section)

Hengning Deng1, Wenbin Ju1,2, Yundong Gao1,2, Junyi Zhang1, Shiqi Li1,2, Xinfen Gao1,2,*(), Bo Xu1,2,*()   

  1. 1 CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization, Ecological Restoration and Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2020-01-14 Accepted:2020-05-12 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-10-20
  • Contact: Xinfen Gao,Bo Xu

摘要:

横断山区为全球生物多样性热点地区之一, 也是全国生态屏障的重要组成部分。新建川藏铁路雅安至昌都段横跨横断山核心地区, 铁路建设形成的交通网络将沿线生物多样性热点区域与外界相连, 导致生物入侵风险陡增。为获得区域内外来入侵植物的种类及分布特征信息, 为即将开始的铁路工程建设、生态保护及生态修复等工作提供参考, 我们在雅安-昌都段内选择43个位点各进行长度1 km、宽度20 m的样线调查。研究结果显示: 雅安-昌都段共发现外来入侵植物58种, 隶属于18科42属, 其中出现频度最高的种类依次是牛膝菊(Galinsoga parviflora)、秋英(Cosmos bipinnatus)和鬼针草(Bidens pilosa)。从危害等级来看, 其中10种为恶性入侵种, 16种为严重入侵种, 8种为局部入侵种, 15种为一般入侵种, 9种为有待观察种, 超过半数种类具有明显入侵性。原产地分析结果显示美洲是该区域外来入侵植物的主要原产地。基于海拔及主要河流区段的比较研究发现: 入侵植物的种类数量呈现出明显的由东向西、由低海拔向高海拔逐渐递减的趋势, 该分布格局是环境因子和人类活动共同作用的结果。结合铁路沿线入侵现状和生境特征, 本文分析了铁路建设可能造成的外来植物入侵风险, 并针对入侵的防范提出了相应的建议。

关键词: 新建川藏铁路, 青藏高原, 外来入侵植物, 物种组成, 分布特征

Abstract

Hengduan Mountains is a hotspot of global biodiversity and serves as an important part of the national ecological barrier. The new Sichuan-Tibet Railway (Ya’an to Changdu section) crosses the core area of the Hengduan Mountains. The transportation network formed by the railway connects the biodiversity hotspots along the route to the outside world, leading to an increased risk for biological invasions. In order to obtain information on the composition and distributional characteristics of the invasive alien plants in this region and provide references for upcoming railway construction, ecological protection, and ecological restoration, we selected 43 representative sites (1 km × 0.02 km) in the area to conduct surveys. A total of 58 invasive alien species were identified, belonging to 18 families and 42 genera. The three most frequently occurring species were Galinsoga parviflora, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Bidens pilosa. Ten species were considered to be the malignant invasive species, 16 serious invasions, 8 local invasions, and 15 general invasions. The damage of the remaining 9 species needs further observation. The Americas are the primary geographical origin of invasive alien plant species in this region. A comparative study based on altitude and major rivers found that with increasing altitude and geographic extension, the number of invasive alien plants decreased significantly, and the distributional pattern was the result of the combined effects of environmental factors and human activities. Based on the status and habitat characteristics of the invasions along the railway, this study analyzed the risk of alien plant invasion caused by railway construction, and we make corresponding suggestions to prevent further invasion.

Key words: the new Sichuan-Tibet Railway, Tibetan Plateau, invasive alien plants, species composition, distributional characteristics