生物多样性 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 23011.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2023011

• 生物安全与自然保护 • 上一篇    下一篇

高黎贡山外来植物入侵现状及管控建议

肖俞1,2, 李宇然1, 段禾祥2, 任正涛2, 冯圣碧2, 姜志诚2, 李家华3, 张品1, 胡金明1,*(), 耿宇鹏1,*()   

  1. 1.云南大学入侵生物学研究中心; 西南跨境生态安全教育部重点实验室, 昆明 650500
    2.云南省生态环境科学研究院; 中国昆明高原湖泊国际研究中心, 昆明 650034
    3.云南高黎贡山国家级自然保护区保山市管护局, 云南保山 678000
  • 收稿日期:2023-01-16 接受日期:2023-05-03 出版日期:2023-05-20 发布日期:2023-05-12
  • 通讯作者: * E-mail: jhuynu@163.com; ypgeng@ynu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2022YFF1302402);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK05020208)

Invasion status and control measures for alien plants within the Gaoligong Mountains

Yu Xiao1,2, Yuran Li1, Hexiang Duan2, Zhengtao Ren2, Shengbi Feng2, Zhicheng Jiang2, Jiahua Li3, Pin Zhang1, Jinming Hu1,*(), Yupeng Geng1,*()   

  1. 1. Centre for Invasion Biology; Ministration of Education Key Laboratory for Transboundary Ecosecurity of Southwest China, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500
    2. Yunnan Academy of Ecological and Environmental Sciences; Kunming International Research Center for Plateau Lakes, China, Kunming 650034
    3. Baoshan Management Bureau of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, Baoshan, Yunnan 678000
  • Received:2023-01-16 Accepted:2023-05-03 Online:2023-05-20 Published:2023-05-12
  • Contact: * E-mail: jhuynu@163.com; ypgeng@ynu.edu.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

高黎贡山是中国生物多样性的关键地区, 也是西南地区重要的生态安全屏障。在气候变化和人类活动等影响下, 高黎贡山正面临越来越多的外来植物入侵, 其生物生态安全遭受严重威胁。本研究通过系统野外调查并结合文献数据分析, 揭示高黎贡山外来植物入侵现状, 根据分布范围、记录频次、分布状态以及危害性划分入侵植物的入侵等级, 并提出相应管控建议。结果显示, 高黎贡山现有外来植物共225种, 其中入侵植物214种、外来栽培植物11种; 入侵植物分散于50个科, 其中菊科占比最高, 达到17.29%, 其次是豆科(14.02%)、大戟科(7.01%)和苋科(6.54%); 从地理来源看, 美洲物种占比最高, 达到67.76% (145种), 其次是亚洲来源物种(17.76%)。根据入侵现状评估结果, 1级(恶性入侵植物)和2级(严重入侵植物)入侵物种分别有15种和27种, 另外还有一些物种虽然目前尚未形成明显危害, 但具有较高的入侵风险。高黎贡山外来入侵植物类群组成和原产地来源复杂多样, 入侵等级分布具有地域特点, 应实施分类管理措施以提高管控成效。以上结果可以为更好地管理高黎贡山地区外来植物、推动高黎贡山国家公园建设提供重要参考。

关键词: 高黎贡山, 外来入侵植物, 入侵现状, 入侵等级, 入侵管理

Abstract

Aims: The Gaoligong Mountains are crucial biodiversity hotspots in China serving as Southwest China’s vital ecological security barrier. The impact of climate change and anthropogenic activity has led to a severe invasion of alien plants in the Gaoligong Mountains, posing significant threats to their ecological integrity and biosecurity. This study seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the invasion status of alien plants and propose relevant control measures to safeguard the eco-security of the Gaoligong Mountains.
Methods: This study conducted systematic field investigations and combined information from previous literatures, to reveal the current invasion status of alien plants. The distribution range, recording frequency, distribution status, and impact were compiled to evaluate the invasion grade of each invasive plant in the Gaoligong Mountains.
Results: The study identified 225 alien plants from 50 individual families in the Gaoligong Mountains. Among these species, 214 species were categorized as alien invasive plants and 11 as alien cultivated plants. The Compositae family accounted for the highest proportion, which was 17.29%, followed by Fabaceae (14.02%), Euphorbiaceae (7.01%), and Amaranthaceae (6.54%). Most invasive and naturalized plants originated in the Americas, accounting for 67.76% (145 species), followed by Asia (17.76%). The numbers of species assessed as risk grade 1 and 2 were 15 and 27, respectively, and some species had a high invasion risk despite not currently causing apparent harm.
Conclusion: The taxonomic compositions, and origins of alien plants in the Gaoligong Mountains are complex, and their geographic origins characterize their invasion grade. Management of alien invasive plants should be species-specific according to their invasion grade to improve comprehensive control efficiency. These results could significantly contribute to better management practices for alien plants in the Gaoligong Mountains and provide valuable information for the Gaoligong Mountains National Park.

Key words: Gaoligong Mountains, alien invasive plants, invasion status, invasion grade, invasion management