生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (2): 231-234.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.04154

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

黑龙江省外来入侵植物的种类组成

郑宝江*(), 潘磊   

  1. 东北林业大学生命科学学院, 哈尔滨 150040
  • 收稿日期:2011-08-20 接受日期:2012-01-12 出版日期:2012-03-20 发布日期:2012-04-09
  • 通讯作者: 郑宝江
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: zbjnefu@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    全国理科生物学人才培养基地生物学野外实习实训项目

Species composition of alien invasive plants in Heilongjiang Province

Baojiang Zheng*(), Lei Pan   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040
  • Received:2011-08-20 Accepted:2012-01-12 Online:2012-03-20 Published:2012-04-09
  • Contact: Baojiang Zheng

摘要:

近年来, 黑龙江省外来入侵植物种类呈逐渐增多趋势。为摸清本地区外来入侵植物状况, 我们于2008年6月至2010年10月对原产地在国外、已经在黑龙江省内自然或半自然生态系统建立种群、威胁或者破坏当地经济和生态环境的植物种类(包括种下分类单位)进行了全面调查。根据实地调查和文献资料, 我们给出了目前黑龙江省外来入侵植物名录, 对它们的原产地、引入途径以及区系成分等进行了分析。黑龙江省目前共有外来入侵植物41种, 隶属于17科35属, 以菊科种类为最多, 有12种, 占外来入侵植物总种数的29.3%, 并且它们以草本植物为主, 共39种, 占95.1%。从来源地来看, 来自美洲、欧洲的种类分别为22种和14种, 占外来入侵植物总种数的53.7%和34.2%。 从传入途径看, 基本上为有意或无意引入(40种, 占97.6%)。本区外来入侵植物属的区系成分共包括9个分布区类型, 其中温带成分占明显优势, 共17属, 占68.0%。根据对黑龙江省外来植物的入侵现状及有效防治进行的探讨, 我们建议实行具有地域特色的外来物种引进风险评估制度。

关键词: 外来入侵植物, 原产地, 植物区系, 引入途径, 黑龙江省

Abstract

The number of alien invasive plant species in Heilongjiang Province has increased in recent years due to frequent economic and cultural exchanges with the outside world. To understand the current status of invasive plants, we carried out field surveys for invasive plant species between June 2008 and October 2010. Integrating field and literature data, we compiled a checklist of 41 species of alien invasive plants from 35 genera and 17 families found in this region. Of them, 39 species (95.1%) are herbs. Compositae contains the largest number of species, i.e.12 species (29.3%). Further analysis showed that 22 species (53.7%) have a geographical origin in the Americas, and 14 species (34.2%) in Europe. In relation to introduction pathways, 40 species (97.6%) were intentionally or unintentionally introduced. Floristic analysis of the genera showed that the temperate element, containing 17 genera (68.0%), dominated among nine areal-types. Finally, we discuss the management, monitoring and control of these invasive species and suggest that a specific risk assessment system should be used in Heilongjiang Province.

Key words: alien invasive plants, origin, flora, invasive pathway, Heilongjiang Province