生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (1): 50-59.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.050

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

太湖大型底栖动物群落结构及多样性

蔡永久1,2, 龚志军1,*(), 秦伯强1   

  1. 1 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
    2 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2009-08-26 接受日期:2009-12-31 出版日期:2010-01-20 发布日期:2010-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 龚志军
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: zjgong@niglas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院重大项目(KZCX1-YW-14);国家重点基础研究发展计划(2008CB418103);国家自然科学基金(40730529);国家自然科学基金(30770404)

Community structure and diversity of macrozoobenthos in Lake Taihu, a large shallow eutrophic lake in China

Yongjiu Cai1,2, Zhijun Gong1,*(), Boqiang Qin1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2009-08-26 Accepted:2009-12-31 Online:2010-01-20 Published:2010-01-20
  • Contact: Zhijun Gong

摘要:

为揭示现阶段太湖大型底栖动物群落现状及其对生态环境变化的响应, 于2007年2月至2008年11月对太湖大型底栖动物进行为期两周年的季度调查。30个采样点共记录底栖动物3门7纲19科40种, 底栖动物平均密度和生物量空间差异较大, 平均密度高值出现在梅梁湾、竺山湾及河口, 主要为寡毛纲颤蚓类; 平均生物量高值出现在贡湖湾、西湖区、东太湖和东部湖湾, 主要为软体动物。霍甫水丝蚓(Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri)、中华河蚓(Rhyacodrilus sinicus)、河蚬(Corbicula fluminea)、铜锈环棱螺(Bellamya aeruginosa)、中国长足摇蚊(Tanypus chinensis)和钩虾属一种(Gammarus sp.)是现阶段太湖大型底栖动物的优势种。聚类分析将30个采样点分成3组, 相似性分析检验表明各聚类组大型底栖动物群落具有显著差异(P<0.05)。多样性分析结果表明, 东太湖和东部湖湾物种多样性、丰富度和均匀度最高, 优势种为腹足纲螺类; 梅梁湾、竺山湾及河口多样性最低、密度最高, 霍甫水丝蚓和中华河蚓在该区占据绝对优势; 贡湖湾、湖心和西湖区多样性处于中等水平, 其优势种为河蚬。研究结果表明营养水平、底质类型以及水生植被的分布是决定太湖大型底栖动物群落结构及多样性的关键因子。

关键词: 颤蚓科, 软体动物, 功能摄食类群, 空间分布格局, 富营养化

Abstract:

To explore the status of macrozoobenthic communities and their response to ecological changes in Lake Taihu, we carried out a quarterly investigation on macrozoobenthos between February 2007 and November 2008. We recorded 40 species from 19 families, 7 classes and 3 phyla. Mean density and biomass varied largely among the 30 sampling sites. The highest mean density of macrozoobenthos occurred in Meiliang Bay, Zhushan Bay and river mouth, and communities were dominated by Tubificidae. Mean biomass was highest in Gonghu Bay, Western region, East Taihu and East Bays, these sites were dominated by Mollusca. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Rhyacodrilus sinicus, Corbicula fluminea, Bellamya aeruginosa, Tanypus chinensis and Gammarus sp. were the dominant species in Lake Taihu. Cluster analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) classified the 30 sites into three groups with different macrozoobenthic communities (P < 0.05). K-dominance curves, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indices indicated that species richness and evenness were highest in East Taihu and East Bays, dominated by Gastropods. Communities in Meiliang Bay, Zhushan Bay and river mouth had low species diversity and were dominated by L. hoffmeisteri and R. sinicus. Gonghu Bay, Central region and Western region contained intermediately diverse communities dominated by C. fluminea. Our results suggest that trophic status, habitat types and macrophytes are important factors regulating macrozoobenthic communities in Lake Taihu.

Key words: Tubificidae, Mollusca, functional feeding groups, spatial distribution pattern, eutrophication