生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (5): 0-0.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020326

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海南岛淡水蟹类分布格局与多样性保护研究

郝希阳1,贺姹1,楚克林2,申志新3,赵强1,高伟1,潘达4,孙红英1   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学生命科学学院
    2. 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所
    3. 海南省海洋与渔业科学院
    4. 南京师范大学生命科学学院, 江苏省生物多样性与生物技术重点实验室
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-12 修回日期:2020-09-29 出版日期:2021-05-20 发布日期:2021-01-17
  • 通讯作者: 孙红英

The distribution pattern and biodiversity conservation of freshwater crabs in Hainan Island

Xiyang Hao1,Cha He1,Kelin Chu2,Zhixin Shen3,Qiang Zhao1,Wei Gao1,Da Pan4,Hongying Sun1   

  1. 1. College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University
    2. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, MEP of China
    3. Hainan Academy of Ocean and Fisheries Sciences
    4. Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University
  • Received:2020-08-12 Revised:2020-09-29 Online:2021-05-20 Published:2021-01-17
  • Contact: Hongying Sun

摘要: 热带岛屿生物多样性是全球生物多样性保护研究的热点之一。海南岛是我国面积最大的热带岛屿,丰富独特的淡水蟹类是维持岛内淡水生态系统功能完整性的关键类群。本文通过多年野外调查,综合历史及最新文献资料,对海南岛淡水蟹类物种多样性及其现状进行了调查和评估,并对淡水蟹类物种多样性保护现状进行了分析讨论。研究发现,海南岛淡水蟹类物种多样性分布中心位于中南部山地,主要集中于中部的霸王岭、鹦哥岭和猕猴岭,南部的五指山和吊罗山,以及西南部尖峰岭一带。其物种多样性整体上呈现中南部山地多样性高,平原台地多样性低的特点。根据IUCN红色名录受胁等级标准对海南岛淡水蟹类物种现状的评估结果显示,全岛受威胁淡水蟹类物种的占比为16.7%。基于分布区预测,以海南热带雨林国家公园为主体的保护区对淡水蟹类潜在适宜分布区的覆盖度明显优于此前碎片化的各级保护区。本文研究结果显示,海南岛淡水蟹类的总体生存状况良好,但一部分山地或平原种类处于受胁状态。国家公园体制的建立,有望为岛内淡水蟹类物种多样性保护提供前所未有的新机遇。基于物种多样性分布格局开展淡水蟹类等淡水生物多样性监测,有助于促进海南岛淡水生态系统完整性的长效保护与可持续发展。

关键词: 海南岛, 淡水蟹类, 空间分布格局, IUCN红色名录, 物种分布区预测, 海南热带雨林国家公园

Abstract: The biodiversity of tropical islands is the hotspot of global biodiversity conservation research. Hainan Island is the largest tropical island in China. Freshwater crabs are the key group to maintain the functional integrity of the freshwater ecosystem. In present study, we investigate the species diversity and conservation status of freshwater crabs in Hainan Island by field survey and by referring to historical documents. Our results indicate that the diversity hotspots of freshwater crab species in Hainan Island locate in the south-central mountainous area, especially Bawangling, Yinggeling, Mihouling, Wuzhi Mountain, Diaoluo Mountain and Jianfengling. The diversity of freshwater crabs is higher in the central and southern mountains but lower in the plains. According to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, 16.7% freshwater crab species in Hainan Island are threatened. Diversity conservation effectiveness analyses demonstrate that Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park system as leading part of Hainan protected area system is better than the previous fragmented conservation areas system in covering the potential distribution areas of freshwater crabs. In summary, the overall survival situation of freshwater crabs in Hainan Island is favorable, but some species are threatened. The establishment of the national park system is expected to provide unprecedented new opportunities for the conservation of species diversity of freshwater crabs in Hainan Island. The monitoring of freshwater biological diversity based on the distribution pattern of species diversity will promote the long-term protection and sustainable development of the integrity of the freshwater ecosystem in Hainan Island.

Key words: Hainan Island, Freshwater crabs, Spatial distribution pattern, IUCN Red List, Species distribution prediction, Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park