生物多样性 ›› 2024, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (5): 24065.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2024065

所属专题: 数据论文

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

广东东海岛与硇洲岛海域底栖贝类物种多样性及其地理分布

邝起宇, 胡亮*()   

  1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2024-02-25 接受日期:2024-04-15 出版日期:2024-05-20 发布日期:2024-04-28
  • 通讯作者: E-mail: huliang5@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    海岛生态修复关键技术研究项目(37000-73000005)

Species diversity and geographical distribution of marine benthic shell-bearing mollusks around Donghai Island and Naozhou Island, Guangdong Province

Qiyu Kuang, Liang Hu*()   

  1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006
  • Received:2024-02-25 Accepted:2024-04-15 Online:2024-05-20 Published:2024-04-28
  • Contact: E-mail: huliang5@mail.sysu.edu.cn

摘要:

海洋底栖贝类是海洋底栖动物区系的重要组分之一, 也是影响海洋生态系统和海洋底质环境的关键类群之一。粤西岸段地处南海北部, 海洋底栖贝类物种丰富, 但却是我国海洋底栖贝类区系调查最为缺乏的区域之一, 严重妨碍了我国近海底栖动物地理区系区划工作的开展。东海岛与硇洲岛海域是粤西岸段中底栖贝类历史研究相对较多的地区, 也是揭示南海北部底栖动物地理格局的关键地区。本文基于中山大学地理科学与规划学院2021-2023年间在东海岛与硇洲岛潮间带及近海海域采集的底栖贝类标本的鉴定, 结合中国科学院南海海洋研究所馆藏标本记录及已发表文献中记载物种的整理, 更新了该海域的底栖贝类名录, 并对各物种在东亚大陆近海的地理分布类型进行了分析。本研究共采集贝类标本2,600余号, 分属73科144属207种, 其中38种为东海岛与硇洲岛海域新记录。结合中国科学院南海海洋研究所馆藏标本及历史文献资料记录的物种, 至本研究为止, 东海岛与硇洲岛海域共记录底栖贝类115科330属602种, 为目前南海北部大陆岸段海洋底栖贝类物种数最多的地区。区系成分上, 热带性暖水种占26.2%; 热带-亚热带性暖水种占49.3%; 余下24.4%为广温性种。地理格局上, 有89.0%的种类在海南岛也有分布记录, 80.2%的种类在北部湾也有分布记录, 粤东岸段有分布记录的种类也占80.2%。研究结果表明, 东海岛与硇洲岛海域的底栖贝类区系十分丰富, 热带性特征明显, 且与海南岛的联系最为密切, 在南海北部近海底栖生物地理区划上可考虑同海南岛划入同一生物地理地区。基于本文结果及近年来的南海北部底栖生物相关研究, 我们推测雷州半岛及琼州海峡对南海北部底栖生物扩散及生物地理格局的影响程度很有可能被高估了。本研究丰富了雷州半岛东侧海域的底栖贝类区系, 为开展整个南海北部的底栖生物地理格局与区系区划工作提供了数据支持。

关键词: 腹足纲, 双壳纲, 软体动物, 物种多样性, 南海北部

Abstract

Aims: Marine benthic shell-bearing mollusks are one of the most important components of marine benthic fauna and one of the key groups influencing marine ecosystem and sediments. The west coast of Guangdong is located in the Northern South China Sea (NSCS) and is rich in marine benthic shell fauna. However, it is also the area with a great lack of surveys of the marine benthic shell fauna, which seriously hinders the development of geographical divisions of offshore benthic fauna. Donghai Island and Naozhou Island have been well studied in terms of marine benthic mollusks. They are also the key areas to reveal the geographical pattern of benthic animals in the NSCS. Here we aim to report on the species diversity and geographical distribution of benthic mollusks found on the coast of the two islands and adjacent waters.

Methods: Based on historical records from previous studies, historical specimens preserved in the collection of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, and more than 2,600 specimens collected in 2021-2023 by the School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, an up-to-date checklist of known marine benthic shell-bearing mollusks living around Donghai Island and Naozhou Island was compiled. The geographical distribution patterns of all species were analysed based on their northern limits in the East Asian continental shelf.

Results: A total of 207 species from 144 genera and 73 families were identified in the field collections. Thirty-eight of these were new to the area. So far, a total of 602 benthic mollusks from 330 genera and 115 families have been recorded in the waters around Donghai Island and Naozhou Island, making this area the most species-rich area on the continental coast of the NSCS in terms of marine benthic shell-bearing mollusks. Of the 602 benthic mollusk species, 26.2% were tropical warm-water species, 49.3% were tropical-subtropical warm-water species and 24.4% were eurythermal species. The number of species that were also recorded in the nearshore waters of Hainan, Beibu Gulf and Eastern Guangdong accounted for 89.0%, 80.2% and 80.2% of the total species, respectively.

Conclusion: The results show that the coast of Donghai Island, Naozhou Island and the adjacent waters are rich in marine benthic shell-bearing mollusks. The shell fauna here has typical tropical characteristics and is most closely related to that of Hainan Island. It is recommended that these two areas could be placed in the same ecoregion with regard to the bioregionalization of the coastal and shelf benthic fauna. The present work enriches the benthic shell-bearing mollusks in the sea east of Leizhou Peninsula and provides up-to-date data to support the bioregionalization of benthic fauna in the NSCS.

Key words: Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Mollusca, species diversity, Northern South China Sea