生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (6): 605-612.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09141

所属专题: 群落中的物种多样性:格局与机制

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

局域和区域过程共同控制着群落的物种多样性: 种库假说

方精云*(), 王襄平, 唐志尧   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2009-06-03 接受日期:2009-11-30 出版日期:2009-11-20 发布日期:2009-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 方精云
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: jyfang@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(40638039);国家自然科学基金(40871030);国家自然科学基金(90711002)

Local and regional processes control species richness of plant communities: the species pool hypothesis

Jingyun Fang*(), Xiangping Wang, Zhiyao Tang   

  1. Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Center for Ecological Research & Education, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2009-06-03 Accepted:2009-11-30 Online:2009-11-20 Published:2009-11-20
  • Contact: Jingyun Fang

摘要:

解释群落的物种多样性大小是生态学研究的一个重要的理论和实践问题。人们提出了群落物种多样性的多种假说, Zobel等人提出的种库假说(species pool hypothesis)是生物多样性理论研究的重要发展。该假说认为, 一个群落的物种多样性不仅与环境条件和生态过程(ecological process)(如竞争、捕食)有关, 也受区域种库(regional species pool)的限制。区域种库是指一个地区可进入某一群落的潜在物种数量, 它由地史过程(如冰期、地质年代)和区域过程(物种形成、迁移扩散以及消亡)所决定。按照种库假说, 某一生境类型的面积越大, 地质年代越古老, 物种形成的机会也就越多, 因而能适应和分布于该生境的物种也就越多, 实际群落中的物种丰富度也就越高。种库在空间上主要有两个层次: 区域种库和实际种库, 前者指某一生境所拥有的潜在物种数量, 主要由生物地理过程(biogeographic processes)所决定; 后者则为调查的群落中实际出现的物种数量, 主要由竞争等生态过程和区域种库共同决定。本文对种库假说的基本概念、主要内容、种库确定方法等作了介绍, 并阐述了作者对这些问题的理解和认识。

关键词: 竞争, 干扰, 物种丰富度, 物种库, 生境, 群落生产力, 局域过程, 区域过程

Abstract

Exploring the mechanisms underlying community species richness is a key issue in ecology and conservation biology, and many hypotheses based on small-scale, local processes have traditionally been used as explanations. The species pool hypothesis developed by Zobel et al. suggests that the variation in community species richness is not only associated with contemporary environmental factors and ecological processes (e.g. competition and predation), but also limited by the regional species pool. The regional species pool is the set of species in a certain region that are capable of coexisting in a target community, which is shaped by historical (e.g. glaciation and geological age) and regional processes (e.g. speciation, immigration, dispersion, and extinction). The species pool hypothesis suggests that the larger the area of a habitat type and the greater its geological age, the greater the opportunity for speciation and hence the larger the number of available species adapted to that particular habitat, which will in turn lead to higher community diversity. The species pool is generally studied at two spatial scales: the regional and the actual scales. While the regional species pool is primarily determined by biogeographic processes, the actual species pool (species present in the target community) is determined by both ecological processes (e.g. competition) and the regional pool. In this review, we introduce and discuss the concepts relating to, and evidence for the species pool hypothesis, together with methods for estimating the species pool.

Key words: competition, disturbance, species richness, species pool, habitat, community productivity, local process, regional process