生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 950-959.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020486

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

云南高黎贡山地区蝴蝶群落多样性

易浪1,2, 董亚坤2, 苗白鸽2*(), 彭艳琼2*()   

  1. 1.云南大学生态学与环境学院, 昆明 650091
    2.中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊 666303
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-30 接受日期:2021-04-02 出版日期:2021-07-20 发布日期:2021-04-22
  • 通讯作者: * E-mail: miaobaige@xtbg.org.cn; pengyq@xtbg.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Diversity of butterfly communities in Gaoligong region of Yunnan

Lang Yi1,2, Yakun Dong2, Baige Miao2*(), Yanqiong Peng2*()   

  1. 1 College of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    2 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
  • Received:2020-12-30 Accepted:2021-04-02 Online:2021-07-20 Published:2021-04-22
  • Contact: * E-mail: miaobaige@xtbg.org.cn; pengyq@xtbg.ac.cn

摘要:

位于滇西北的高黎贡山是全球生物多样性研究和保护的热点地区之一, 然而该地区昆虫多样性缺乏系统调查和总结。本研究聚焦蝴蝶类群, 考虑该区域高山峡谷特点, 结合海拔梯度、生境类型和季节变化, 采用样线法调查、分析蝴蝶物种多样性及群落结构变化。结果显示: 共观测记录到蝴蝶2,055只, 隶属于5科85属151种, 在历史记录上新增27种, 使该地区已知蝴蝶种类达488种; 其中蛱蝶科物种多样性最高, 灰蝶科次之, 凤蝶科最低。蝴蝶群落多样性分析结果表明: 中海拔1,000-2,000 m区域种类丰富、多样性指数最高; 低海拔区蝴蝶分布明显聚集, 并且与高海拔地区空间上分离, 少有重叠。该地区不同生境中蝴蝶的种类及数量差异也较大, 物种数及多样性指数在自然保护区最高、边缘交错带居中及农业种植区最低。此外, 蝴蝶的种类和数量也存在季节差异, 春季调查到的个体数少, 夏季观察到的物种数少, 两年秋季调查到的物种丰富度、多样性均高, 但存在季节内变化。总之, 高黎贡山地区不同海拔、生境、季节间和季节内蝴蝶群落组成有自身特点, 共存物种有限, 蝴蝶群落相似性低。综合评估分布于该地区的蝴蝶保护种类, 包括易危种17种、近危种50种, 有国家二级保护蝴蝶3种。本研究弄清了高黎贡山地区蝴蝶的物种本底, 并调查获得其多样性随海拔、生境和季节变化的模式, 为加强区域物种多样性监测、保护生物多样性提供了科学依据。

关键词: 高黎贡山, 蝴蝶, 物种多样性, 群落结构, 海拔, 生境, 季节

Abstract

Aims: Gaoligong is located in northwest Yunnan, a mountainous biodiversity hotspot in Southwest China. In this region, insect diversity has not been systematically investigated or summarized.
Methods: We focused on investigating butterfly diversity using a 1-km transect method at different altitudes, habitats and seasons in Gaoligong region.
Results: A total of 2,055 butterflies were recorded, belonging to 5 families, 85 genera, and 151 species. Of these, 27 species were recorded for the first time, increasing the total number of recorded butterfly species in Gaoligong to 488 species. Among the five families, the Nymphalidae had the highest species diversity, followed by Lycaenidae, while Hesperiidae had the lowest. The species diversity of butterflies showed the greatest abundance and highest richness at the 1,000-2,000 m altitude. At low elevations species were concentrated, and there was little overlap of species with those at higher elevations. The species and individuals of butterflies in different habitats were also different, the diversity was higher in the nature reserve, followed by the ecotone, and was lowest in the farm area. Additionally, diversity and abundance varied seasonally, with the lowest abundance observed in spring and the lowest diversity in summer, both diversity and abundance were the highest in autumns of two years, but exhibited intra-seasonal variation. Overall, the community composition of butterflies had distinct characteristics at different altitudes, habitats and seasons, only a few species were shared between communities and the community similarity of butterflies was found to be low. The butterflies were comprehensively evaluated in Gaoligong region, including 17 vulnerable species, 50 near-threatened species, and 3 species that were listed as second class protection animals in China.
Conclusion: This study systematically identified the species of butterflies in Gaoligong region, and obtained the diversity pattern of butterfly communities within different altitudes, habitats and seasons. The results will provide the scientific basis for strengthening regional species monitoring and biodiversity conservation.

Key words: Gaoligong region, butterfly, species diversity, community structure, altitude, habitat, season