生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (11): 1376-1390.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020218

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生物多样性与传染性疾病的关系: 进展、挑战与展望

刘向1, 陈立范2, 周淑荣3,*()   

  1. 1 兰州大学草地农业生态系统国家重点实验室/生态学创新研究院, 兰州 730000
    2 上海健康医学院文理教学部, 上海 201318
    3 海南大学林学院, 海口 570228
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-26 接受日期:2020-08-17 出版日期:2020-11-20 发布日期:2020-09-13
  • 通讯作者: 周淑荣
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: zhshrong@hainanu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31830009);国家自然科学基金(31770518);国家自然科学基金(31700466);国家自然科学基金(32001116);兰州大学“双一流”引导专项-队伍建设经费-科研启动费(561119211);兰州大学中央高校基本科研业务费学科交叉研究项目(lzujbky-2020-cd01);海南大学科研基金(RZ2000009932)

The relationship between biodiversity and infectious disease: Progress, challenge and perspective

Xiang Liu1, Lifan Chen2, Shurong Zhou3,*()   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem/Institute of Innovation Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000
    2 School of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai 201318
    3 School of Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228
  • Received:2020-05-26 Accepted:2020-08-17 Online:2020-11-20 Published:2020-09-13
  • Contact: Shurong Zhou

摘要:

在全球生物多样性快速丧失的背景下, 理解生物多样性如何影响传染性疾病风险具有重要意义。大量研究表明, 宿主多样性对传染性疾病可能存在稀释效应(即疾病风险随宿主生物多样性的增加而降低), 但是也有放大效应或者没有影响的证据。本文首先介绍了关于生物多样性与传染性疾病关系的研究进展, 以及该领域的热点研究问题, 包括宿主多样性-疾病关系的格局和空间依赖性、稀释效应的体系依赖性和系统发育稀释效应等。随后,介绍了相关研究伴随的争议和批判, 主要集中在: 稀释效应发生的普遍性、生物多样性-疾病关系实验研究的发表偏好性以及部分疾病生态学家对生物多样性和传染性疾病之间简单数字关系的过分关注。最后指出稀释效应与物种共存、全球变化对稀释效应的影响、进化与稀释效应、稀释效应在政策制定中的应用等领域可能是今后的主要研究方向。

关键词: 疾病生态学, 生态系统服务, 放大效应, 病原体, 宿主, 稀释效应

Abstract:

Current unprecedented declines in biodiversity have galvanized efforts to understand how changes in biodiversity affect disease risk. Empirical evidence is mixed in understanding the relationship between loss in biodiversity and disease. While some empirical research supports a dilution effect (i.e., disease risk decreases with increasing host biodiversity), many studies support an amplification effect, and in some cases no effect. In this review, we first summarize the research progresses in this area, and introduce key research topics that include: the shape of the biodiversity-disease relationship, spatial- and context dependence of dilution effect, and the phylogenetic dilution effect. Following our summary, we discuss the disputes and criticisms in this field of research. These controversies include: whether the dilution effect is prevalent, publication bias in experimental studies, and an excessive focus by some disease ecologists on the numeric relationship between biodiversity and disease. Finally, we highlight some open questions for future research looking at dilution effect that include: the relationship between dilution effect and species coexistence, the effects of global climate change on dilution effect, the relationship between dilution effect and evolution, and the implications this research can have on policy decisions.

Key words: disease ecology, ecosystem service, amplification effect, pathogen, host, dilution effect