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The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China
Kai Wang,Jinlong Ren,Hongman Chen,Zhitong Lyu,Xianguang Guo,Ke Jiang,Jinmin Chen,Jiatang Li,Peng Guo,Yingyong Wang,Jing Che
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (2): 189-218.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019238
Accepted: 27 March 2020

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We updated the checklists of extant, native amphibians and reptiles of China based on the previously published checklist of reptiles in 2015, the online checklist of amphibians on the database AmphibiaChina, newly published data as of December 2019, and previously uncollected literature prior to 2015. In total, the amphibian fauna of China consists of 515 species in 62 genera, 13 families, and three orders (Anura: 431 species in 47 genera and nine families; Caudata: 82 species in 14 genera and four families; Gymnophiona: one species in one genus and one family), while the reptilian fauna of China consists of 511 species in 135 genera, 35 families, and three orders (Crocodylia: one species in one genus and one family; Testudines: 34 species in 18 genera and six families; Squamata 466 species in 116 genera and 28 families [Serpentes: 256 species in 73 genera, 18 families; Lacertilia: 211 species in 43 genera and 10 families]). Specifically, for amphibians between 2015 and 2019, one family was recorded from China for the first time, two new genera were described, a genus was resurrected, a genus was recorded from China for the first time, 74 new, valid species were either described or resurrected, 18 recognized species were recorded from China for the first time, and six genera and eight species were considered as junior synonyms. For reptiles between 2015 and 2019, five subfamilies were elevated to the full family status, one new subfamily and a new genus were described, three genera were resurrected, three recognized genera were recorded from China for the first time, 35 new species were described, two species were resurrected from synonyms, six subspecies were elevated to the full species status, 10 recognized species were recorded from China for the first time, four genera and four species were considered as junior synonyms, and distribution records of one genus and four recognized species were removed from China. Furthermore, by reviewing literature before 2015, we make additional changes on the previous reptile checklist, including adding new records of three genera, elevating three subspecies to full species status, adding new records of three recognized species, synonymizing three genera and two species as junior synonyms, and removing the distribution record of a single recognized species from China. Lastly, we revise the Chinese common names of some reptilian groups with recomandations to maintain the stability of the Chinese common names. The number of new species and new national records for amphibians and reptiles between 2015 and 2019 in China accounts for 17.1% and 10.2% of the total number of species in each group, respectively. Because new species are described at considerable speed and given the constant changes in the taxonomy of China’s herpetofuna, it is crucial to update the checklists regularly and discuss the existing taxonomic problems, so that such information reflects the most current state of knowledge and are available for taxonomic researchers and conservation biologists alike.

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A conceptual framework and definition for the term “wild animal”
Yan Zeng Xiaoge Ping Fuwen Wei
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (5): 0-0.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020057
Accepted: 27 April 2020

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The term “wild animal” has different meanings not only in Chinese but in many languages all over the world. Here, we identify uses of the term “wild animal” through examining interpretations and applications in local, national, and international laws and language used in human controlled animal reproduction. We put forward a two-dimensional conceptual framework of “wild animals” that distinguishes 12 continuous states of animals from “wild” to “domesticated”. Animal groups that have not been artificially selected in the medium- and long-term were considered wild animals. Domesticated animals, whether or not they live under human control, such as domestic cats, dogs, poultry, livestock, and animal models or stray or feral were not considered “wild animals”. However, the management of some categories, such as tamed animals of wild species or exotic/invasive animals needs to base on ecological safety, species conservation, and legislative objectives. The Law on the Protection of Wildlife of the People’s Republic of China (LPW) shall apply to endangered animal species threatened by humans, whether they were found in the wild or under human control condition. For the management of other states of “wild animals”, existing laws should be strictly implemented, and new laws should be enacted with genetic resources, zoonotic diseases, animal welfare, and ecological safety in mind. We additionally make specific recommendations for the definition of “wild animal” for use under the LPW.
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The current status, problems, and policy suggestions for reconstructing the plant tree of life
Wei Wang,Yang Liu
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (2): 176-188.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019373
Accepted: 06 January 2020

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In 1859, Charles Darwin put forward the concept of the tree of life (TOL), a metaphor for charting relationships between organisms in space and time in his The Origin of Species. The TOL is a cornerstone in evolutionary theory and makes sense of all biology. Decades of research in plant molecular systematics has led to substantial progress in understanding many aspects of the plant TOL. Here, we summarized five major aspects of reconstructing the plant TOL, which are being studied at the present day and will continue to be goals moving forward. These include: (1) constructing genus- and species-level phylogenies for plant groups; (2) resolving deep-time and/or rapidly divergent phylogenetic relationships using genomic approaches; (3) updating classification systems by combining morphological and molecular data; (4) integrating fossil taxa into phylogenies derived from extant taxa; and (5) building big trees using supermatrix methods. We then outlined the current state of plant molecular systematics and highlight existing problems in the field, specifically in regard to China. Finally, we propose the corresponding guidelines and policy suggestions for the continued study of China’s reconstruction of the plant TOL.

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The origins and genetic evolution characteristics of domestic horses
Togtokh Mongke, Haige Han, Ruoyang Zhao, Tugeqin Bao, Manglai Dugarjaviin, Dongyi Bai
Biodiv Sci    DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020005
Accepted: 15 May 2020

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An overview on assessment systems for threatened plants in China
Zhangjian Shan,Lina Zhao,Yuchang Yang,Dan Xie,Haining Qin
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1352-1363.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019244
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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Endangered species conservation is an important part of biodiversity conservation, heavily helped by threatened species assessment guides. The assessment of threatened level has gradually evolved from being qualitative to quantitative with qualitative supplement. This paper reviews the research progress of the domestic threatened plant species quantitative assessment system, and introduces the mature IUCN Red List Assessment System, CITES Assessment System, and the National Natural Conservation Association Assessment System. Through this, we propose future development requirements of quantitative assessment criteria for threatened species should have the following characteristics: (1) a clear, unified, and reasonable definition of category setting, (2) quantitative, objective, and non-redundant criteria for endangered categories, (3) adaptation to different geographical range while simultaneously expressing threatened category over different ranges, (4) evaluation indicators contain the dynamic information of the species which can quantitatively analyze the change of the species through time. In addition, the domestic quantitative assessment system for threatened species should form a standardized outline with increased publicity to combine theoretical research with specific conservation actions. Lastly, China should adopt the widely-used endangered rating systems to assess species threatened level and integrate domestic biodiversity conservation work into the global scale.

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Breeding characteristics and artificial propagation of 14 species of Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP) in China
Sha Deng,Yanni Wu,Kunlin Wu,Lin Fang,Lin Li,Songjun Zeng
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (3): 385-400.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020045
Accepted: 30 April 2020

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Reproduction is an important part of plant population renewal and maintenance. Threatened species including the Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP), are the result of a combination of internal factors, such as declines in reproductive ability and evolutionary longevity, and external factors, such as artificial over-harvesting and habitat destruction. Efficient artificial reproduction of WPESP can be used for ex situ conservation, reintroduction, and, in some cases, meet the demands of the commodities market, which underscores the need for protection and sustainable use of their germplasm. Seed propagation is the most effective method for maintaining genetic diversity in these speices. However, cutting, grafting and tissue culture are effective supplements for these species that are especially difficult to propagate from seed. Here, we report on the breeding characteristics and propagation methods of 14 typical speices of WPESP selected by our National Key Research Projects of China, and the progress of seedling propagation. A total of 230,000 seedlings from 12 species were produced via sowing, 33,100 seedlings from 5 species via cutting, 2,415 seedlings from 3 species including Manglietiastrum sinicum, Pyrus hopeiensis and Sinojackia huangmeiensis via grafting, 24,850 plantlets from 9 species via tissue culture. The results of this study provide a basis for the protection and use of these 14 species, providing a reference for other WPESP in China.

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Insights on the legislation, law enforcement and management of zoonosis from the epidemic of new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19)
Zhigang Jiang
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (2): 256-261.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020053
Accepted: 02 March 2020

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Since the beginning of the 21st century, two major infectious diseases, SARS and new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), have shocked China as well as the world. Studies suggested bats, as well as pangolins may be the vectors of both epidemics, prompting calls for a ban on eating wild animals. In fact, the country has already legislated against the consumption of legally protected and illegally sourced wild animals. Market survey found no bats for sale in those markets in 16 major Chinese megacities after SARS. Therefore, how did SARS-CoV and the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) spread from wild animals to humans? What lessons should we learn from these two epidemics? Besides a total ban on consumption wild animal meets from illegal source, I suggest to perfect the legislation of zoonosis and to fill the gaps in the laws concern with the prevention of zoonosis; to amend the provisions of the existing law governing the managing of zoonosis contaminated areas. A permanent institution should be set up to cover the whole process of wildlife epidemic investigation and monitoring, human-wildlife interface, quarantine, immunization of susceptible populations, popularization of law and scientific knowledge, thus to realize early prevention, early detection and early treatment of zoonosis to ensure public health security. I also recommend that to establish a mechanism for the prevention and control of zoonosis, to identify wildlife hosts of zoonosis pathogens, to strengthen bat monitoring, and to issue red lines for the control of zoonosis. Additionally, we shall strengthen law enforcement to prevent zoonosis; improve animal production management, marketing, and quarantine procedures. I urge people to change their habit of pursuing fresh animal foods by killing animals on site in markets.

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The complexity-stability relationship: Progress in mathematical models
Guanghua Xu,Xiaoyu Li,Chunhua Shi
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1364-1378.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019138
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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In the 1970s, the intuition that complex communities are more stable than simple ones was challenged by mathematical models which gave diametrically opposing conclusions. Since then, this “paradox” has been heavily researched making the complexity-stability relationship of continued interest. Here, we analyzed the concepts of “complexity” and “stability” and classified the half-century of mathematical models generated by this field into linear approach and nonlinear approaches. The former is also referred to as community matrix, while the latter could be further classified into interaction matrix, numerical simulation of complex network, and food web module dynamics. Based on different community construction methods and adopting different stability criteria, together they provide a rich knowledge of how species interact and coexist, enabling us to reveal the vain of the paradox. In general, species diversity and connectivity play a negative role in the stability of randomly constructed community models. However, in models that mimic natural, empirical communities, several characteristics (including network topology, interaction intensity distribution, and interaction mode) provide mechanisms for maintaining stability, enabling these communities to reach higher levels of complexity. The study of complexity-stability is far from over. The complex interactions in natural communities is still beyond the reach of current models, and the concept of stability also needs to be expanded. The in-depth study of this topic will contribute both ecological theory and ecosystem management practice profoundly.

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Research progress in Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations in China
Runguo Zang
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (3): 263-268.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020119
Accepted: 22 April 2020

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Transformative changes and paths toward biodiversity conservation in China
Rui Yang,Qinyi Peng,Yue Cao,Le Zhong,Shuyu Hou,Zhicong Zhao,Cheng Huang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (9): 1032-1040.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019217
Accepted: 14 October 2019

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Earth is experiencing its sixth mass extinction, and in response to the severity of accelerated biodiversity loss, the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets. However, the IPBES global assessment showed that most of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets for 2020 will possibly be missed, because of which the IPBES called for transformative changes in nature conservation in its global assessment report. China has made significant progress in biodiversity conservation, put forward with completed eco-civilization system, try to develop a protected area system, stress the importance of biodiversity conservation by inspection and “Green Shield” action. In addition, up to 18% of territory has been designated as protected area. However, biodiversity is still declining at an accelerated rate, more species are threatened. Although a series of reforms to eco-civilization has started the transformative changes, such as mainstreaming biodiversity in central government, managing all the protected areas in one department, emphasizing the importance of biodiversity in national spatial planning and China Ecological Conservation Red Line (ECRL) designation, systematic strategies and actions are still in need for biodiversity conservation. It is important to further implement “mainstreaming” at different levels, establish a systematic legal system and effective conservation mechanism, guarantee enough funds, clarify the status of biodiversity in production and living space, and make ecosystem service possible to become economic benefits. Therefore, it is necessary for China to achieve transformative changes in terms of conservation awareness, spatial planning, and conservation actions by promoting balanced economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress. It is possible to mainstream conservation awareness, coordinate between conservation and utilization, and promote citizen-based conservation actions if China combines the forces of law, governance, market, technology, and society. This approach world form an efficient and integrated mechanism to achieve the ideal state of biodiversity conservation, “living in harmony with nature”.

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Synopsis of Aristolochia L. and Isotrema Raf. (Aristolochiaceae) in China
Zhu Xinxin, Wang Jun, Liao Shuai, Ma Jinshuang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (10): 1143-1146.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019183
Accepted: 16 October 2019

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Aristolochia (s. l.) is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world, with monochlamydeous and tubular flowers, gynostemia, inferior ovaries, axile placentations, pluriovulate capsules, and others as the main characters. It is the largest genus in Aristolochiaceae, which consists of about 600 species. According to Flora of China, there are 45 species in China, 33 of which are endemic. In recent years, many new species have been discovered in China, especially in Yunnan and Guangxi. Additionally, some taxa were confirmed, reinstated, republished and revised. Isotrema, previously treated as a subgenus of Aristolochia, was recently reinstated as an independent genus based on molecular and morphological evidences. This genus has strongly curved calyxes, 3-lobed gynostemia with paired anthers on the outer surface of each gynostemium segment, and basipetally dehiscent capsules. Through extensive field work, careful examination of many specimens, digital photos and related literatures, an updated checklist and identification key of Aristolochia (s. s.) and Isotrema in China are presented here. Relevant discussions and distribution for the 17 species of Aristolochia, 58 species and one subspecies of Isotrema are also provided. Among them, I. mollis and I. neolongifolia are reinstated and illustrated, the relationship among A. gentilis, A. chuandianensis and A. gracillima, and the relationship between I. kunmingense and A. bonatii are discussed, knotty taxa, such as I. ovatifolium complex, I. cucurbitoides complex, I. griffithii complex, I. versicolor complex, I. dabieshanensis complex and suspected species I. saccata, are also discussed.

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Evaluation of the identification ability of eight commonly used plant identification application softwares in China
Zhanhui Xu,Shiyao Liu,Ying Zhao,Wenqin Tu,Zhaofeng Chang,Entao Zhang,Jing Guo,Di Zheng,Jun Geng,Gaoying Gu,Chunpeng Guo,Lulu Guo,Jing Wang,Chunyang Xu,Chuan Peng,Teng Yang,Mengqi Cui,Weicheng Sun,Jiantan Zhang,Haotian Liu,Chaoqun Ba,Heqi Wang,Jingchao Jia,Jinzhou Wu,Cui Xiao,Keping Ma
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (4): 524-533.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019272
Accepted: 12 May 2020

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Smart phone and artificial intelligence technology development has led to various plant recognition softwares on mobile applications. These applications have gradually entered all aspects of public life, popular science activities, and scientific research activities. Presently, there are many plant recognition apps in China, which have varying development purposes and application scopes. Among these differences include variation in software concerns, database sources, algorithms, and hardware which could implicate large discrepancies between apps, making it important to analyze and evaluate the accuracy, scope of application and potential use of each software. In this paper, eight apps were selected to identify 400 accurately identified plant photos, 100 photos being chosen from arid and semi-arid zones, temperate zones, tropical zones, and subtropical zones, respectively. In total, these photos belong to 122 families, 164 genera and 340 species, covering five growth forms of trees, shrubs, herbs, herbaceous vines and woody vines, as well as 23 national protected plant species. Accurate identification of species, genera and families was scored 4, 2 and 1 points, respectively. The software recognition ability was sorted according to total scores, and the results are as follows: HuaBangZhu, Baidu-Shitu, HuaBanLv, XingSe, Huahui-Shibie, Zhiwu-Shibie, Faxian-Shihua, Flower Recognition.

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Avian species census, richness patterns and faunal composition in the Altay Region, China
Na Li,Chenchen Ding,Dandan Cao,Hongjun Chu,Yingjie Qi,Chunwang Li,Xiaoge Ping,Yuehua Sun,Zhigang Jiang
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (4): 401-411.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019023
Accepted: 25 November 2019

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The Altay Region in China is located in North Xinjiang, in the border region of China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia. The region contains the Altai Mountains and the desert and riparian landscapes south of them, which constitutes the Altai-Sayan biodiversity hotspot and one of the Global 200 Biodiversity Ecoregions. Being composed of diverse habitat types, the Atlay region harbors a rich avian fauna. Though there are several field studies on a few avian species in the Altay Region, few studies have focused on broad-scale species diversity and distribution patterns across different habitats and landscapes. Thus, we completed a comprehensive census across various landscapes and habitats in the region. In this study, we recorded bird species in different types of habitats on the southern slope of the Altai Mountains and the plains area south of the Altay Region from 2013 to 2016. We also collected information from the literature and local citizen science records. The resulting bird species inventory allowed us to use MaxEnt models to predict distributions and diversity patterns of 77 bird species in the Altay Region. Four classes of environmental predictor variables, i.e. climatic factors, land cover type, human footprint index and terrain were incorporated into the models. We predicted all species’ distribution patterns and added all species’ distribution layers together to determine broad-scale diversity patterns. In total, 19 orders, 55 families, 149 genera and 344 bird species were represented in the Altay Region of China. Along the vertical vegetation belts, there were 24 species in high mountain-bare rock belt; 35 in alpine meadows; 172 in mountain forest belt; 130 in brush land in low mountains; 84 in desert belt; 173 in riparian belt; and an additional 92 species in wetland and water areas. In the Altay Region, Palearctic type birds dominated the avian fauna with 170 species (49.4%) and followed by widespread northern species (93 species; 27.0%). The Altai Mountains belonged to Palearctic Realm, Europe-Siberia Sub-realm, Altai-Sayan Region and Altai Sub-zoogeographical Region, while the plain areas belonged to Palearctic Realm, Central Asia Sub-realm, Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang Region and West Desert Subregion. The MaxEnt models predicted high species diversity in the riparian, plains, and middle and lower montane areas, congruent with previous field data. Protecting tall trees and young saplings and shrubs through eco-friendly economic development strategies and preventing habitat fragmentation will help maintain high species richness in the Altay Region and the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion.

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Bacterial diversity and its seasonal dynamics among different biological soil crusts in the southeast Tengger Desert
Xinying Jin Xiaochong Zhang Duo Jin Zhishan Ma Yun Chen Jingyu Li
Biodiv Sci    0, (): 0-0.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019298
Accepted: 21 May 2020

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Microbial diversity plays important roles in improving local soil environment and ecological functions of biological soil crusts in desert ecosystems. In this study, high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA was carried out to reveal the seasonal dynamics of bacterial diversity of algae crusts, moss crusts and their sublayer soils for four seasons during the evolution of biological soil crusts in the southeast Tengger Desert. The results showed that the bacterial richness of the sampled soils was significantly lower in summer than in the other three seasons. The main bacterial groups in the four soils were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Cyanobacteria, of which Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant groups. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was significantly higher in summer than that in spring, autumn and winter, while the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was significantly higher in the biocrust samples than that in the sublayers. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter, while the relative abundance of sublayers of biocrusts was significantly higher than that of biocrusts. The seasonal dynamics of bacterial diversity and relative abundance during the processes of biocrust succession indicate that it responds to changes in the local desert environment, which provides bacteria diversity data for understanding the ecological functions of biocrusts in the desert ecosystems.
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Camera-trapping survey of mammalian and avian biodiversity in Qianjiangyuan National Park, Zhejiang Province
Jianping Yu,Jiangyue Wang,Huiyun Xiao,Xiaonan Chen,Shengwen Chen,Sheng Li,Xiaoli Shen
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1339-1344.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019345
Accepted: 09 February 2020

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From May 2014 to April 2019, we conducted camera-trapping surveys in the Qianjiangyuan National Park, Zhejiang Province. We divided the park into a grid containing 267 1 km × 1 km plots, with 3 fixed survey stations (> 300 m apart from each other) in each plot. One camera trap was set up in each plot and rotated among the stations within the plot every four months. In the Gutianshan section of the park, the cameras were running for 14 rotations from 2014-2019. The survey started in Hetian, Qixi and Changhong in 2018, and the cameras were rotated once in Qixi and twice in Hetian and Changhong. With a survey effort of 140,413 camera-days from 741 stations in 253 grids, we obtained 268,833 pictures/videos resulting in 74,368 independent detections. The survey recorded 21 wild mammalian and 72 avian species, as well as 5 domestic animal species. Among the species, two (black muntjac Muntiacus crinifrons and Elliot’s pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti) are Class I, and seventeen are Class II national protected animals, accounting for 20.4% of total recorded wild species. Five species are red-listed by the IUCN as Vulnerable and four as Near Threatened, accounting for 9.7% of the total recorded wild species. One species is red-listed as Endangered, nine as Vulnerable and ten as Near Threatened by Red list of China’s vertebrates, accounting for 21.5% of the total recorded wild species. The most detected mammal species was Reeve’s muntjac Muntiacus reevesi, and the most detected bird species was silver pheasant Lophura nycthemera. Our results provide reliable baseline information on the species composition, their spatial distribution, and relative abundance of mammals and birds in the Qianjiangyuan National Park.

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Explaining the diversity and endemic patterns based on phylogenetic approach for woody plants of the Loess Plateau
Xuerui Dong, Hong Zhang, Minggang Zhang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1269-1278.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019224
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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The Loess Plateau is home to various vegetation types as it contains famous transitional forests, grasslands, and deserts. Due to natural resource limitation and intensive human activities, this natural environment faces serious conservation challenges. In order to effectively conserve this natural environment, spatial mapping of species diversity is key to conservation efforts. In this study, we first modeled the potential distribution of 293 woody species based on specimen records and climate data and then calculated the spatial patterns of species richness and weighted endemism. Secondly, we calculated phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic endemism and identified environmental drivers of the observed spatial patterns. Finally, we analyzed endemism types and tested their significance. Our results suggest that biodiversity hotspots are distributed on the southern edge of the Loess Plateau and are highly related to the flora of Qinling Mountains. The biodiversity patterns of this transitional region are driven by annual precipitation and minimum temperature of coldest month. Endemism hotspots were found on the southern edge of the Loess Plateau, which contain paleo-endemism and mixed-endemism, but no neo-endemism. We concluded that most woody species of the Loess Plateau originated in tropical or subtropical regions, and the species richness patterns of this region are maintained by dispersal rather than speciation. Our study indicated the importance of incorporating the evolutionary history in biodiversity conservation.

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Progress and prospects of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework
Yijia Geng,Yu Tian,Junsheng Li,Jing Xu
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (2): 238-243.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019363
Accepted: 23 December 2019

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The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework is one of the main focuses of current negotiations for the Convention on Biological Diversity. This paper outlines the background of the “Framework,” introduces the OEWG-1 negotiation process, comprehensively analyzes the views of the Parties in the relevant consultation processes, introduces the current consensuses and differences of the Parties on the various elements of the “Framework,” assesses the progress of the “Framework,” and puts forward four suggestions on the design of the “Framework”. These suggestions include: (1) Clarify the specific implementation path of transformational change; (2) Balance the three major objectives of the CBD; (3) Strengthen collaboration with other global governance processes; (4) Strengthen the “Framework” assessment and review of global and the Parties' progress in compliance. Finally, we put forward suggestions for China: (1) Update the domestic NBSAP in a timely manner; (2) Strengthen the coordination of domestic biodiversity work; (3) Continue to strengthen the ecological environmental law enforcement and responsibility mechanism. These recommendations provide a reference for the Parties to better participate in the “Framework” development process and gain insight into the framework and its progress in order to provide useful feedback for the formulation of the “Framework.”

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Structure and spatial distribution pattern of a native Metasequoia glyptostroboides population in Hubei
Xiao Huang,Jiang Zhu,Lan Yao,Xunru Ai,Jin Wang,Manling Wu,Qiang Zhu,Shaolin Chen
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (4): 463-473.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019283
Accepted: 23 December 2019

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Metasequia glyptostroboides is an endemic and endangered species in China, and has therefore been heavily researched. M. glyptostroboides’ distribution seems to have a recognizable spatial pattern, with a clear potential mechanism. To test this, we analyzed the structure and diameter classes and height level classes from survey data of parent M. glyptostroboides trees with a pairwise correlation function g (r) and three null models (complete spatial randomness, heterogeneous Poisson process, and antecedent condition) in a point pattern analysis. The results of the spatial distribution patterns showed that: (1) There was 5,661 individuals of the native M. glyptostroboides population in the study area. Within this population, 31 of which were dead, 40 trees were on the verge of death, and 465 trees were classified as “weak”, with morphological characteristics and growth conditions associated with these trees such as shoot breakage, ant damage, and lightning strike. (2) Both the diameter-class structure and the height-class structure were spindle-shaped, with poor natural renewal; (3) Based on Complete Spatial Randomness, the native M. glyptostroboides population showed a random distribution at all scales, the middle- aged trees showed an aggregation distribution on a small scale (r < 3,300 m), and the adult trees and the older trees appeared an aggregation distribution on a larger scale (r < 4,700 m). The aggregation scales of the population and the different age groups were 0-3,000 m, 0-2,100 m, 0-2,900 m and 0-2,500 m, respectively, and followed a weak random distribution and uniform distribution. (4) Based on Complete Spatial Randomness, there were positive correlations between the three growth stages at all scales that weakened when habitat heterogeneity was excluded (only a positive correlation between 0-2,800 m). In summary, the M. glyptostroboides population is decreasing gradually with poor population regeneration. The population is presented mainly as cluster distribution with positive relationship among all age classes, due to habitat heterogeneity, diffusion limitation and intra-species competition according to the existing spatial pattern.

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Intraspecific variation of leaf functional traits along the vertical layer in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of Dinghushan
Ruyun Zhang,Yanpeng Li,Yunlong Ni,Xujun Gui,Juyu Lian,Wanhui Ye
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1279-1290.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019267
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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Exploring how functional traits vary along environmental gradients has always been one of the core issues of trait-based community ecology. While functional traits vary both among species and within species, little is known about how intraspecific variation changes along environmental gradients. We explored how intraspecific trait variations of four leaf functional traits (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf thickness, leaf area) varied along vertical layer within community using data for 2,820 individuals belonging to 16 species in a 1.44-ha plot in the south subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Dinghushan. First, we quantified the relative importance of intra- and interspecific trait variation within the canopy crane plot using linear random effect model. Trees were classified into three categories: shrub, subcanopy, canopy using the Kmeans method and investigated the patterns of intraspecific trait variation in different vertical layer using regression models. Finally, we explored whether intraspecific trait variation in different vertical layers depended on species differences using linear mixed effect models and a one-way analysis of variance. Results suggest that general intraspecific trait variation was lower than interspecific variation in the local community. Moreover, the pattern of intraspecific trait variation differed significantly among different vertical layer, and intraspecific trait variation was positively correlated with the vertical range. Intraspecific variation of leaf functional traits strongly depended on species differences, so species differences were relatively more important than microenvironment in explaining trait variation. In addition, intraspecific variation of different leaf functional traits showed different trends along vertical layer. Our study found the important role of intraspecific trait variation in species coexistence.

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Spatial variation in ant-tree network organization in the Xishuangbanna natural conservation area
Jian Wang Yiyi Dong Libin Ma Bo Pan Fangzhou Ma Hui Ding Yaping Hu Yanqiong Peng Xiaobing Wu Bo Wang
Biodiv Sci    DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020019
Accepted: 18 May 2020

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Control international trade in wildlife and protect the earth’s biodiversity—Commentary on the 18 th Conference of the Parties of CITES
Yan Zeng,Jie Zhou,Qi Dong,Xiaoge Ping,Zhigang Jiang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (9): 1041-1045.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019286
Accepted: 19 September 2019

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The 18 th Conference of the Parties of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was held in Geneva, Switzerland from August 17 to 28, 2019. The Parties discussed 56 proposals for amendment of the Appendix of the Convention and 140 working documents, continuing the trend of the amendment of the Appendix in recent years. However, the trend of including more species in the Appendix slowed down at this Convention. The Parties clarified the annotations, application, interpretation and implementation of the Appendix, established new regulatory resolutions and adopted the CITES Strategic Vision post-2020. At the meeting, China established a positive image as a responsible country that attaches importance to the construction of ecological civilization, and all five proposals for amendments of the CITES Appendix proposed or jointly proposed by China have been adopted by the Parties.

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Structural stability: concepts, methods, and applications
Chuliang Song
Biodiv Sci    DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020110
Accepted: 18 June 2020

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Red list assessment of macrofungi in China
Yijian Yao
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 1-3.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019152
Accepted: 24 September 2019

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Sex ratio and spatial pattern of Taxus fuana, a Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations in Tibet
Yaobin Song,Li Xu,Junpeng Duan,Weijun Zhang,Xiaolu Shentu,Tianxiang Li,Runguo Zang,Ming Dong
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (3): 269-276.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019102
Accepted: 16 October 2019

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Dioecious plant populations possess sex ratio and gender distribution of individuals, which are important for individual reproduction, population viability, natural regeneration and maintenance of genetic diversity. This is particularly true for rare and endangered dioecious ones. In China, Taxus fuana is among the 120 Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP) and observed only in the Jilong County of Tibet Autonomous Region. However, little has been reported about its population ecology, especially about its sex ratio and gender spatial distribution pattern of individuals. We did a field investigation for six T. fuana populations in Jilong and recorded 1,651 male and 1,231 female individuals in total, whereby its sex ratio and gender spatial distribution pattern of individuals per population were analyzed. Our results showed that Jipu (male/female = 1.89) and Kaire (male/female = 1.39) populations tended to be male-biased (P < 0.001), but male and female individuals from the six populations showed weak spatial association. Individuals of smaller size of Jilong and Kaire populations showed significantly male-biased, while male biased occurred medium size of Jipu population. In summary, T. fuana populations were different in size structure distribution, sex ratio, size structure of male and female individuals, and their spatial patterns. Our study suggests that it is necessary to carry out targeted conservation considering different population characteristics, disturbance types, and environmental factors.

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Path analysis of zooplankton diversity and environmental factors in the water sources rivers, Zhejiang Province
Gongguo Li,Ping Li,Hangying Xu,Haiyan Yu,Jian Yu
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (2): 166-175.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019319
Accepted: 08 March 2020

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In order to understand zooplankton diversity and their relationship with water environmental factors, we monitored zooplankton abundance as a measure of water quality. Forty samples were collected at two sampling stations (H1 and H2) of water sources rivers, Zhejiang Province in the winter (January), spring (April), summer (July) and autumn (October), annually from 2010 to 2014. We also measured environmental variables at the stations. The average abundance of zooplankton in stations H1 and H2 were 1,387.4 ind./L and 873 ind./L, respectively. The abundance of small zooplankton (rotifer + copepod nauplii) accounted for 92.8% of the abundance at station H1 and 91.5% at station H2. Dominant species of Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda in the two sampling stations were Polyarthra trigla, Diaphanosoma brachyurum and Thermocyclops sp., respectively. Multivariate stepwise regression and path analysis showed that N∶P was the limiting factor for Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') of rotifers in winter and had indirect effects (+) on the rotifers mainly through TP. N∶P was also the deciding factor for H' of rotifers in spring and could have greater indirect effects (+) on rotifers in autumn through TN. The content of NH4 +-N and TN were the deciding and limiting factors, respectively, for size diversity index (Hs) of crustaceans in winter. DO was a limiting factor for species richness of total zooplankton (d) in summer, having a large indirect effect (+) mainly through pH. We believe this to be due to significant increases in H' of rotifers with the rising DO (P < 0.01), while the Hs index of crustacean declined significantly (P < 0.05). The relationship between water environmental factors and zooplankton diversity in water source rivers provides the possibility for ecological monitoring of water sources.

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The use of Checklist of Fungi in China database in the red list assessment of macrofungi in China
Ke Wang,Mingjun Zhao,Jinhe Su,Liu Yang,Hong Deng,Yonghui Wang,Haijun Wu,Yi Li,Hongmei Wu,Xiaodan Wei,Tiezheng Wei,Lei Cai,Yijian Yao
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 74-98.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019163
Accepted: 13 December 2019

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Taxonomic research has, to date, mainly been published in peer-based journals and books. Recently, with the development of emerging technology, document digitization has become a new trend and a variety of databases have been established to provide useful information for scientific research, government decisions, resource protection and utilization, and science communication. During the Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China project, The Checklist of Fungi in China and Index Fungorum were used for data mining and programming methods to compile the Red List of China’s Biodiversity—Macrofungi. Both Latin and Chinese scientific names of assessed species were revised and corrected, providing a useful example for established database importance in taxonomic research, evaluation, and biological conservation.

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Species diversity of freshwater fish and assessment on watershed health in the Irtysh River and Ulungur River basins in Xinjiang, China
Xuejian Li,Peiyao Jia,Chengyi Niu,Yingchun Xing,Haolin Li,Haibo Liu,Wenqiao Tang,Yahui Zhao
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (4): 422-434.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019071
Accepted: 21 May 2020

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We conducted yearly field surveys between 2013 and 2016 in Altay Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to understand the current status of fish species diversity and its change in the Irtysh River and the Ulungu River basins. The Margalef richness index, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and the Pielou evenness index were applied to assess the species diversity and temporal and spatial variation of freshwater fishes, based on the data collected from our field investigations, museum collection, and research literature. There were 23 native fish species distributed in the Irtysh River and the Ulungu River basins. And 19 of them were collected with 15 exotic species during our surveys. The fish fauna is dominated by cyprinid fishes. High proportions of endemic and endangered fish are distinct characteristics of fish composition in Altay Prefecture. Our results showed that the fish diversity in the basins was generally stable between 2013 and 2016. Species richness in the Irtysh River was higher than one in the Ulungu River. Additionally, the Fish Index of Biological Integrity (F-IBI) of 34 sampling sites indicated that the river health of most sites in the Irtysh River basin was at the “sub-health” or “general” level, while that of most ones in the Ulungu River basin was “healthy”. Water infrastructures, exotic species, and overexploitation of fish resources were key factors to influence freshwater fishes in the region. Aiming at the protection of fish biodiversity and improvement of river healthy, several ways should be applied in future including ecological scheduling of multi-scale coupling of reservoir group, construction of fish pass, scientific management of aquaculture to control the exotic species, artificial enhancement and releasing of endemic and endangered fish, and in situ conservation.

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Freshwater fish diversity in the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River
Li Xueqing, Sun Heying, He Dekui, Chen Yifeng
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (10): 1090-1100.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019195
Accepted: 14 October 2019

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The Lancang-Mekong River is the longest river in Southeast Asia, and is one of the richest areas of freshwater biodiversity in the world. Because it is an international river through six countries and holds extremely high fish biodiversity, there is a lack of systematic understanding of freshwater fish diversity. Over the past two decades, this team systematically compiled a list of freshwater fish species in 32 sub-basins or tributaries in the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River. Now in this paper, the species composition and distribution of fish have been analyzed, and the species diversity of the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River has been evaluated using the taxonomic diversity index. The results showed that 745 species of freshwater fish were recorded in the middle and upper reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River. These fish belong to 229 genera, 63 families, 17 orders and 2 classes. Of these, 451 species of Cypriniformes fish accounted for 60.5% of the species. The taxonomic diversity index showed that, from the source to the middle reaches of the river, the taxonomic distribution of freshwater fish became increasingly more even, the relationships were increasingly further apart, and the fish diversity gradually increased. Cluster analysis (CA) and multi-dimensional scaling analysis (MDS) results showed that the 32 sub-basins could be divided into three groups (Jaccard similarity coefficient=8.69), and the analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated that the composition of freshwater fish differed significantly between the groups (R = 0.877, P = 0.001). Similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER) results indicated that Cypriniformes and Siluriformes were the main fish that differed among the three groups, and the species composition of groups presented distinctive changes at the family and species levels with the altitude rising. With the rapid population growth and economic development of the countries in the river basin in recent decades, the fish diversity and fishery resources of the Lancang-Mekong River face serious threats. Thus, it is urgent that countries in the river basin cooperate and formulate a scientific protection plan at the basin scale.

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Distribution patterns and environmental interpretation of beetle species richness in Helan Mountain of northern China
Guijun Yang,Min Wang,Yichun Yang,Xinyun Li,Xinpu Wang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1309-1319.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019184
Accepted: 14 January 2020

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Spatial patterns of species richness and mechanism are vital to biodiversity conservation. Based on the distribution of beetles and combined the climate and habitat heterogeneity, we explored the distribution patterns and effect factors of beetle species richness of overall and six dominant families in Helan Mountain of northern China. The results showed that species richness and fauna differentiation intensity of beetles were the highest in the middle of Helan Mountain, the southern section was higher than the northern section, and the western section was higher than the eastern section. After clustering analysis of species distributed in 183 grids, the distribution of beetles could be classified into three groups (xerophilic landscape beetle groups in the northern section, semi-hygric landscape beetle groups in the middle-western section, and semi-xerophytic beetle groups in the middle-east and south section). The mean annual temperature and precipitation were the most significant factors on beetle distribution by analyzing of RDA. Meanwhile, water and energy factors together explained 57.1% of the spatial variation in overall beetle species richness, only 5.9% and 7.1% separately, followed by habitat heterogeneity (35.2%) and only 1.8% separately. The relative effect of dominant species richness were inconsistent with climatic and habitat heterogeneity, but water and habitat heterogeneity have significant effect on beetle species richness in southern and northern of Helan Mountain. Water and energy factors dominantly impacted beetle spatial distribution, and habitat heterogeneity increased the species richness. Therefore, we suggested that topographic and soil factors may also have an important influence on beetle species richness in Helan Mountain according to the unexplained proportion.

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Determination of key species in the food web and their impact on the robustness
Wang Fengzhen, Tang Yi
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (10): 1132-1137.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019208
Accepted: 12 November 2019

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Understanding key species and their roles and impacts within communities plays a vital role in protecting key species within communities. Species relationship indicators, i.e., betweenness centrality (BC), closeness centrality (CC), and degree centrality (DC) measured food web connectivity among a community of 49 species. Once indicators were calculated, a clustering analysis analyzed species influences on connectivity robustness among different species classes. In addition to clustering analysis, node removal was tested to measure connectivity robustness under removal modes. Based off of clustering results, species were divided into three food web classes: (1) Class I species have relatively higher BC, CC, and DC values. (2) Class II species have relatively lower BC, CC, and DC values while (3) Class III species are intermediate between Class I and Class II species. In our analyses, it appeared that Class I species are more important for food web processes and are therefore considered key species, contributing to our understanding of how to quantify key food web species. Besides, the connectivity robustness decreased along with the increase in removed nodes under the ascending order removal mode. In the descending order and random removal modes, the connectivity robustness slightly increased after a continuous decrease along with the increase in removed nodes. It indicates that removal modes significantly affect the connectivity robustness. Moreover, under the three removal methods, the significant change in the connectivity robustness corresponds to almost the same number of removed nodes. It suggests key species play an essential role in maintaining the connectivity robustness of the food web.

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Applications of molecular markers in conserving endangered species
Yuanyuan Li,Chaonan Liu,Rong Wang,Shuixing Luo,Shouqian Nong,Jingwen Wang,Xiaoyong Chen
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (3): 367-375.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019414
Accepted: 08 March 2020

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Molecular markers have been widely applied in the conservation of endangered species for revealing their population genetic variation and evolutionary history, providing essential information for making conservation strategies and conducting restoration practices. Here, we introduced the applications of molecular markers at different stages of conservation efforts: (1) Molecular markers can be used to elevate the precision of identifying conservation units such as excluding the influence of cryptic species and hybridization. (2) Phylogenetic relationships are useful for distinguishing conservation priorities for biodiversity hotspots and discerning species and populations. (3) Molecular markers can contribute to instruct the strategies in ex situ conservation programs. (4) Dynamic monitoring and assessment of conservation activities can be achieved with molecular markers. Finally, we discussed the prospects of applying molecular markers for improving conservation strategies considering global change, including long-term monitoring of genetic dynamics, the use of conservation genetics in conservation management, and the development conservation genomics.

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Population viability analysis of Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP): Methods, problems and prospects
Dongdong Chen,Zhenqing Li
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (3): 358-366.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019179
Accepted: 14 January 2020

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Environmental change and anthropogenic disturbance have a significant impact on population persistence. Therefore, it is essential to predict population dynamics under multiple stresses. Population viability analysis (PVA) is an effective method for assessing threats, extinction risk and bottlenecks, and the likelihood of recovery. By combining data and models, PVA accommodates different types of variables and can offer appropriate advice for conservation. However, demographic parameters of Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations are difficult to estimate, which makes the statistical power of these models quite low. Here, we offer some underlying PVA methods for Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations using non-statistical theory with small sample sizes and population adaptive potential analysis. Methods based on the non-statistical theory can enhance the accuracy of parameter estimation in small populations, while the eco-evolutionary elements help to uncover mechanisms of population adaptation and predict population dynamics. These methods provide more appropriate guidance for the conservation of Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations.

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Informing conservation strategies with genetic diversity in Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations: A review on gymnosperms
Jinyuan Su,Yu Yan,Chong Li,Dan Li,Fang K. Du
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (3): 376-384.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019116
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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Genetic diversity is an important component of biodiversity. However, the overexploitation of natural resources and habitat fragmentation have severely degraded the genetic diversity of many affected species. Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP) are in urgent need of rescue, their genetic diversity are of great significance for studying the endangerment mechanism and providing conservation strategies. Habitat fragmentation might reduce genetic diversity, increase genetic differentiation among populations or limit gene flow. However, biological and ecological factors of threatened species, such as the reproductive characteristic and the demographic history, may also impact the genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation. For gymnosperms, genetic composition can be quite stable when facing habitat fragmentation because of their lengthy generation time. However, in the long term, the loss of genetic diversity will be unrecoverable. In this review paper, we survey genetic studies of threatened gymnosperms, summarize endangerment mechanisms under habitat fragmentation, and finally recommend conservation strategies for gymnosperms. The findings of this paper indicate that a comprehensive understanding of the endangerment mechanisms through genetic diversity studies is important for effective and efficient conservation of Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations.

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Ratifying Bonn Convention, promoting global conservation of migratory animals
Zhigang Jiang,Zhengwang Zhang,Runzhi Zhang,Zhijun Ma,Hongjun Chu,Yiming Li,Changqing Ding,Yahui Zhao,Jiliang Xu,Xiaoge Ping,Yan Zeng,Shaopeng Cui,Na Li,Dandan Cao,Supen Wang,Jing Xu,Yingjie Qi,Chunwang Li
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1393-1395.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019379
Accepted: 06 January 2020

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Incorporating species distribution model into the red list assessment and conservation of macrofungi: A case study with Ophiocordyceps sinensis
Yi Li,Zhiyao Tang,Yujing Yan,Ke Wang,Lei Cai,Jinsheng He,Song Gu,Yijian Yao
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 99-106.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019158
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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China is rich in macrofungal biodiversity. However, many species have been threatened in recent years by human activity and climate change. Red list assessment is the first step towards species conservation. To protect this group of fungi, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China in 2016. A reasonable assessment largely relies on the sufficient information of species’ geographic information, population numbers and sizes and population dynamics, which is lacked in most of macrofungal species. It is therefore necessary to employ new approaches to find and utilize more information for the assessment. Among the assessed species, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, which is an edible and medicinal fungus endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions, has relatively abundant information. This species gained attention worldwide due to its obvious economic value and its importance to local societies. A species distribution modeling has also been an important component of its red list assessment. Here, we call on a previous study that aimed to predict the current potential distribution and to project the future distribution of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, and then we discuss how this modeling method can be employed in red list assessments to predict the current potential distribution and the range shifts of other macrofungal species in response to climate change. Challenges of using the model and possible solutions are also discussed. The species distribution modeling method is considered to have great potential for red list assessments and the subsequent conservation of macrofungi.

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Camera-trapping survey of mammals and birds in the Foping National Nature Reserve, China
Yisheng Ma,Qingqing Ma,Nianjun He,Dapeng Zhu,Kaihui Zhao,Hongcai Liu,Shuai Li,Liang Sun,Liubin Tang
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (2): 226-230.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019240
Accepted: 14 January 2020

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From January 2015 to December 2017, 130 camera traps were installed on 57 transects to investigate mammals and avian diversity in the Foping National Nature Reserve, Shaanxi Province. After an extensive survey effort of 101,220 camera-days, we recorded 36,100 independent images including 30,563 of mammals and 3,244 of birds. We recorded 29 wild mammal species belonging to 15 families and 6 orders. The 5 most detected mammal species were Budorcas bedfordi (RAI = 11.53), Sus scrofa (RAI = 4.80), Muntiacus reevesi (RAI = 4.35), Ailuropoda melanoleuca (RAI = 1.81) and Hystrix hodgsoni (RAI = 1.13). A total of 54 wild bird species belonging to 14 families and 8 orders were identified, and the 5 most detected birds were Chrysolophus pictus (RAI = 0.97), Tragopan temminckii (RAI = 0.74), Myophonus caeruleus (RAI = 0.51), Urocissa erythrorhyncha (RAI = 0.13) and Garrulax pectoralis (RAI = 0.12). We recorded four new bird and one new mammal species in the Foping National Nature Reserve, including Geokichla sibirica, Turdus obscurus, Zoothera dixoni, Butastur indicus and Meles leucurus. Our results provide basic information on the community structure, spatial distribution and relative abundance of terrestrial wild mammals and birds in the Foping National Nature Reserve, with guidelines for reserve management and long-term monitoring of Foping.

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Adaptive strategies of functional traits of Metasequoia glyptostroboides parent trees to changing habitats
Jun Chen,Lan Yao,Xunru Ai,Jiang Zhu,Manling Wu,Xiao Huang,Siyi Chen,Jin Wang,Qiang Zhu
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (3): 296-302.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019099
Accepted: 27 September 2019

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Functional trait variability and phenotypic plasticity are the main mechanisms plants use to respond to heterogeneous habitats. These can determine how well a plant grows and where it is distributed. In the Xingdoushan National Nature Reserve, we assessed the response of the functional traits of a population of Metasequoia glyptostroboides parent trees to tree morphology, terrain factors and human disturbance. We found that the leaf area (LA), leaf dry weight (LDW) and specific leaf area (SLA) had large variation and great plasticity, while leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and twig dry matter content (TDMC) were more stable. Human disturbance and the four terrain factors together explained 5%-20% of variance for each functional trait, and crown size explained 38% and 76% of the variation in TDMC and LDMC, respectively. The five functional traits were mainly affected by altitude, slope aspect and human disturbance. The SLA responded slightly to environmental factors and disturbance pattern, while LA and LDW generally increased with strong disturbance. LDMC and TDMC were most sensitive to change in slope aspect. Taken together, the population of M. glyptostroboides parent trees demonstrated significant plasticity in response to the environment through its variability in functional traits. Because human disturbance had a great influence on the growth of these trees, artificial regeneration is recommended, and the impact of agriculture and human construction needs to be reduced.

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Floristic of agarics and boletus in the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains
Tolgor Bau, Xueshan Wang, Peng Zhang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (8): 867-873.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019048
Accepted: 20 June 2019

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The species diversity and geographical component of Agarics and Boletus in the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains were studied from 2014 to 2016. A total of 3,363 fungal specimens were collected and identified into 661 species belonging to 1 phylum, 4 classes, 18 orders, 61 families and 180 genera. Among them, 185 species were edible, 92 species were medicinal, and 110 species were poisonous. There were 16 dominant families (containing equal and more than 10 species), accounting for 27.87% of the total number of families, and 519 species accounting for 78.51% of the total number of all Agarics and Boletus species. There were 45 families(containing less than 10 species), with 142 species accounting for 21.48% of the total number of species. There were 29 dominant genera which contain equal and more than 5 species, accounting for 16.11% of the total number of genera, and 412 species accounting for 62.33% of the total number of species. In the respect of the floristic composition, this region was mainly composed of the species belonging to north temperate zone distribution, world-wide distribution and Eurasia continent distribution. Among them, 216 species were only distributed in the north temperate zone occupying 32.68% of all species, 167 species were world-wide distribution occupying 25.26% of all species, and 161 species were only distributed in the Eurasia continent occupying 24.36% of all species in the Greater and Lesser Khinggan mountains.

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The reproductive characteristics of core germplasm in a native Metasequoia glyptostroboides population
Manling Wu,Lan Yao,Xunru Ai,Jiang Zhu,Qiang Zhu,Jin Wang,Xiao Huang,Jianfeng Hong
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (3): 303-313.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019194
Accepted: 14 January 2020

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In order to explore the reproductive characteristics of Metasequoia glyptostroboides, we explored a native population of original Metasequoia glyptostroboides. We investigated the core germplasm of 40 individuals of native Metasequoia glyptostroboides and collected data on habitats, parent trees and seed traits. We used field experiment to analyze reproductive characteristics. We detected differences in seed traits, germination rate and seedling growth characteristics among different parent trees using ANOVA. The effects of individual traits on seeds, germination rate and seedling growth were analyzed with correlation and linear regression models. The results showed that: (1) There were only 7 strains from 40 mother trees, the seed yield rate was 17.50%, and the difference in seed yield of 7 original mother trees was significant (P < 0.05). (2) There were significant differences in seed weight (1,000 grain), seed germination rate, seedling survival rate and base diameter growth among individuals of different parent trees (P < 0.05). (3) The average germination rate of seeds from seven mother trees was 19.73%, and the average survival rate of seedlings was 73.42% (inter-individual rates were also significantly different (P < 0.05). (4) Diameter at breast height (DBH) was negatively correlated with seed weight and germination rate (P < 0.05), while seed germination and seed weight (P < 0.05), seed germination and seedling survival (P < 0.001), and tree height and seedling survival (P < 0.05) were positively correlated. (5) The height of mother tree was positively correlated to seedling survival rate (P < 0.05), and DBH was negatively correlated to seed germination rate (P < 0.05); and (6) Seedling growth (height and base diameter) conforms with logistic growth (R 2 ≥ 0.928).

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Interspecific association of woody plant species and community stability in the Eleutharrhena macrocarpa habitat
Shuaifeng Li,Xuedong Lang,Xiaobo Huang,Wande Liu,Jianrong Su,Chonghua Xu,Zhihong Li,Fandi Xu
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (3): 350-357.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019094
Accepted: 01 June 2019

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Eleutharrhena macrocarpa, an endangered liana species, experiences population regeneration barriers in natural environments. Due to its endangered status, this species has been heavily researched to understand the mechanisms behind its rarity. In this study, we studied E. macrocarpa populations in the tropical seasonal rainforest of Taiyanghe Provincial Nature Reserve in Pu’er City, Yunnan Province to find successful protecting methods for a wild plant species with extremely small populations. Utilizing various community stability and interspecific competition metrics (the Godron stability index, Chi-square analysis, Pearson correlation), the results showed that the woody plant populatios of tree layer indicated significant positive correlation based on the value of variance ratio more than one (test statistic W > χ0.05(29)). Similarly, the woody plant populations of shrub layer indicated that no significant negative correlation and the variance ratio is less than 1 (χ0.95(29) < W < χ0.05(29)). Further, Chi-square test indicated that no association species pairs represented the most populations in the tree and shrub layer, and the ratios of positive and negative correlations were 0.238 and 0.279, respectively. Simultaneously, association coefficient suggested that significant and extremely significant negative species pairs were more than positive species pairs, while Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that the ratios of the positive and negative correlation were 0.376 and 0.511, respectively. We found that the association relationship of most species pairs showed no significant correlation, which mean a relative stronger interspecific independence. Eleutharrhena macroarpa population has similar adaptive niche with most woody plant populations in the tree layer, and they survived together through effective resource utilization. However, Eleutharrhena macrocarpa population had stronger competition with some species in the shrub layer. In addition, intersection point of community stability (33.92, 66.07) in the vegetative community of Eleutharrhena macrocarpa habitat suggested that the community displayed a better stability. The stronger interspecific competition between dominant species and other species also suggested the vulnerability of tropical seasonal rain forest. Therefore, strict protection of the habitat was crucial to the regeneration of Eleutharrhena macrocarpa population and biodiversity conservation.

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