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Geographic patterns and environmental determinants of gymnosperm species diversity in China
Lisha Lü, Hongyu Cai, Yong Yang, Zhiheng Wang, Hui Zeng
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1133-1146.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018098
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How large-scale patterns of species diversity emerge is a central yet controversial issue in ecology and biogeography. Despite the long history of studies the mechanisms driving species diversity patterns in space remain poorly known. Using distribution data of all gymnosperm species in China, we assessed the influence of environmental factors on spatial patterns of species diversity in China. Further, we evaluated the proportion of gymnosperms in local floras. We found that species diversity of gymnosperms decreases along a south-north axis. Hengduan Mountains, with the highest species diversity, is a hotspot of gymnosperms. Species diversity patterns differ significantly between the gymnosperm subclasses. In particular, the species diversity pattern of Pinidae is similar to that of all species combined, while the species diversity of Gnetidae is highest in the drylands of northwestern China. In contrast, Cycadidae is restricted to southern China. Environmental heterogeneity and precipitation are the best predictors of species diversity patterns of all gymnosperms combined, followed by temperature anomaly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), elevational range and energy. That different factors predict species diversity patterns of different gymnosperm subclasses, may reflect the differences in their evolutionary history and physiological adaptions. The ratio of gymnosperm to angiosperm species diversity is lower in the warm and humid eastern and southern parts of China, and increases towards the drylands in western and northern parts. Environmental energy and precipitation were good predictors of the ratio of gymnosperms to angiosperms. Specifically, the ratio decreases with increase of energy and decrease of precipitation suggesting that angiosperms may have stronger competitive ability in warm and humid regions while gymnosperms adapt better to dry and cold environments.

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Strengthening the research on soil fauna diversity and their ecological functions using novel technology and field experimental facility
Shenglei Fu
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1031-1033.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018292
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Research trends and hotspots of Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network (CForBio): A bibliometric analysis
Ruiyu Fu, Hongxin Su, Zhonghua Zhang, Gang Hu
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1255-1267.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018265
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The research achievements of the Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network (CForBio), a comprehensive research platform for biodiversity science, are highly influential for promoting biodiversity-related research in China. A detailed assessment of CForBio’s publication growth, core research areas, and ability to foster cooperation will provide important information for the long-term development of CForBio and related ecological monitoring research. In order to understand CForBio’s impact on science, this study made a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of research papers produced by CForBio-associated scientists, published between 2007 and 2017, using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Web of Science databases. Since 2007, the number of papers published by CForBio has grown rapidly, from 3 in 2007 to 55 in 2017 , as has the number of papers published in journals included in the Science Citation Index (from 1 in 2007 to 34 in 2017). The top three most prolific authors are Guangze Jin (70 papers), Keping Ma (68 papers), and Zhanqing Hao (68 papers). The most active research institutions are the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (104 papers), the Institute of Applied Ecology of CAS (67 papers), and the South China Botanical Garden of CAS (59 papers). CForBio-associated institutions and scholars cooperate infrequently, and cross-unit collaborative research needs improvement. The core research topics of CForBio focus on patterns of tree spatial distribution, plant functional traits, tree density dependence, and community phylogeny; these topics provide a theoretical basis for elucidating the mechanisms of forest community assembly among the different climatic zones in China. In the future, CForBio should strengthen cooperation among institutions—both domestic and abroad, establish data sharing pathways, further emphasize new technologies and techniques such as near-surface remote sensing and multi-source data fusion, and continue to fund research on the multi-scale and multi-dimensional analysis of biodiversity patterns, plant-soil feedback mechanisms, and tree canopy and root structure function.

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Ecological functions of millipedes in the terrestrial ecosystem
Mengru Wang, Shenglei Fu, Haixiang Xu, Meina Wang, Leilei Shi
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1051-1059.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018086
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Millipedes (Diplopoda) are a highly diverse group of soil invertebrates and play vital roles in terrestrial ecosystems. Millipedes contribute to the cycling of carbon and nutrients through their feeding activities and gut processes that help decompose litter. However, the functions of millipedes have been poorly researched compared to other groups of soil animals such as earthworms. Here, we briefly summarize the ecological functions of millipedes: Millipedes can fragment, consume and transform litter to accelerate its decomposition. Millipedes prefer large amounts of semi-decomposed litter and the efficiency of millipedes in assimilating litter can vary with litter source, temperature and microbial biomass in the litter. Millipedes can regulate the cycling of soil carbon and other key nutrients through feeding and excretion activities. Nitrogen enters to the soil when litter is fragmented by millipedes, but there are different views on how millipedes affect the soil carbon cycle. Millipede faeces decompose more rapidly than the pre-ingested litter. Such a transformation of litters to faeces would accelerate carbon cycling. However, other studies have suggested a relatively low decomposition rate of millipede faeces when compared with un-ingested litter, which could contribute to soil carbon sequestration and stabilization. In addition, the survival of millipedes affects soil phosphorus cycle. They can increase the content of available phosphorus in soil. Millipedes interact with other soil animals such as earthworms and also can regulate the abundances of soil microorganisms. Our review indicates that further studies are required to better understand and document the role of millipedes in ecosystem functioning.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Spatial patterns and assembly rules in soil fauna communities: A review
Meixiang Gao, Lin Lin, Liang Chang, Xin Sun, Dong Liu, Donghui Wu
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1034-1050.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018122
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Identifying spatial patterns and assembly rules in communities is a central study topic in ecology. With the unprecedented rate at which biodiversity is decreasing, it is necessary to recognize the spatial patterns and assembly rules in communities in order to understand why biodiversity is being lost and to be able to protect it. However, previous studies have focused more on plant communities in above-ground terrestrial ecosystems, neglecting below-ground ecosystems, especially soil faunal communities. Indeed, soil faunal biodiversity is a crucial component of global biodiversity because soil faunal communities assist in the maintenance of important ecosystem structures and functions. Therefore, one important aim of identifying spatial patterns and assembly rules in soil faunal communities is to clarify mechanisms of maintaining soil faunal biodiversity at multiple scales, so as to promote these processes, which also maintain ecosystem structures and functions. Soil faunal communities usually form complicated spatial patterns at multiple spatial scales. Here, we propose spatial autocorrelation characteristics, and then show how the complicated spatial patterns are demonstrated by patches and gaps of soil faunal communities at multiple scales. These spatial patterns are mainly controlled by processes of biotic interactions, environmental filtering and random dispersal. Consequently, we discuss the impacts of these processes on soil faunal communities. Finally, we suggest that these three processes are essential to evaluate and construct a theoretical framework for soil faunal communities and should continue to be studied in the future. Because interest in spatial patterns and assembly rules of soil faunal communities is relatively new in China, we expect this review will promote the development of related research areas.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Mechanisms of earthworms to alleviate continuous cropping obstacles through regulating soil microecology
Yanmeng Bi, Zhenjun Sun
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1103-1115.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018159
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Obstacles to continuous cropping seriously affect crop yield and also lead to a series of microecological imbalance problems, such as the decline of soil biodiversity, the decrease of beneficial microbes, and the increase of pathogens. The imbalanced soil microecology affects plants and can lead to more serious disease and even greater reduction of crop yield. As soil ecosystem engineers, earthworms have important regulating effects on soil microecology. Earthworms can improve the soil environment and strengthen the function of soil biological communities through their activities (e.g. feeding, burrowing and creeping), thus providing a potential way to alleviate microecological obstacles to continuous cropping. This paper reviews the progress made in research on soil microecology, soil function maintenance, and earthworm regulation of soil biological function. Three mechanisms that earthworms employ to alleviate obstacles to continuous cropping through soil microecology regulation were identified: direct regulation of soil microbial communities, regulation of microbial colonies by changing allelochemical composition, and regulation of soil fauna communities. Through earthworm regulation of microbial communities, an imbalanced soil microenvironment in the rhizosphere is corrected, thereby alleviating obstacles to continuous cropping.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Preliminary survey on mammal and bird diversity at Siguniang Mountains National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China
Xixi Hu, Weichao Zheng, Jiaqi Li, Sheng Li, Han Yang, Xing Chen, Tianpei Guan
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1325-1331.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018260
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Knowledge of the abundance and distribution of biodiversity is vitally important to understand ecological processes, manage for conservation goals, and assess the impacts of global change. In order to investigate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mammals and birds in Siguniang Mountains National Nature Reserve, we deployed 60 camera traps from May to December 2017. With an extensive survey effort of 11,013 camera-days, we recorded 31 mammal and bird species belonging to 7 orders and 18 families. Among the recorded species, five are first class and ten are second class national protected wildlife, whereas two are listed as Endangered, five as Vulnerable, and three as Near Threatened by the IUCN Red List. In addition to providing a preliminary inventory of large mammals and birds in the reserve, we also assessed the abundance of each species using the relative abundance index. According to this index, the five most abundant mammal species were tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus), sambar (Rusa unicolor), Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and northern hog badger (Arctonyx collaris). The five most abundant avian species were blood pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus), white eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), giant laughing thrush (Garrulax maximus), chestnut-throated partridge (Tetraophasis obscurus) and chestnut thrush (Turdus rubrocanus). Comparison between Siguniang Mountains and the adjacent Wolong Nature Reserve revealed different community compositions, this was likely due to distinct differences in local climate, vegetation, and topography between the two regions. The data obtained in this study will provide an important basis for future wildlife research and conservation management, and also provides support for biodiversity monitoring and regional inventories of mammals and birds.

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Suitable habitat prediction and overlap analysis of two sympatric species, giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Liangshan Mountains
Meixiang He,Lixin Chen,Gai Luo,Xiaodong Gu,Ge Wang,Jianghong Ran
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1180-1189.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018167
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Understanding spatial distribution and habitat overlap of sympatric species is essential to developing integrated policies for conserving species and regional biodiversity. This study combined data from the 4th National Survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and long-term field survey. We used the Maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) to predict the distributions of two sympatric bears, the giant panda and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Liangshan Mountains. Based on spatial distribution of two species, we measured habitat fragmentation and spatial overlap of habitat use, and assessed environmental requirements of both species. Our results indicated that: (1) both species had similar distributions of suitable habitats, both were mainly distributed on the ridges of Liangshan Mountains. The suitable habitat area of giant panda and black bear were 1,383.84 km2 and 2,411.49 km2, respectively. (2) The habitats of both species were fragmented and separated into many patches. However, habitat connectivity for the black bear was better than for giant panda. (3) Niche overlap indices, calculated by ENMTools, showed that two species have high overlap in their ecological niche (D = 0.654 and I = 0.901). The overlapping habitat comprised 958.29 km2 of the study area, which contained 69.25% of giant panda habitat and 39.74% of black bear habitat. (4) We used permutation techniques to estimate the importance of environmental variables in the MaxEnt model. Distance to residents and altitude were the most influential predictors for both species. Vegetation types and mean temperature of coldest quarter were the third and fourth important predictor for giant panda, while annual maximum enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and distance to roads was important for the black bear. To protect these two species more effectively, a series of measures have to be adopted, such as strengthening vegetation restoration, controlling disturbance, and enhancing connectivity between habitat patches. We recommend that a systematic, multi-species conservation plan should be developed.

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Recent progress and future directions of soil nematode ecology in China
Xiaoke Zhang, Wenju Liang, Qi Li
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1060-1073.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018082
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Investigations into soil nematode ecology mainly focus on the relationship between soil nematode communities and their surrounding environment, both biotic and abiotic. This paper reviews a recent string of publications on soil nematode ecology by scholars in China. Research progress has been made on the distribution, composition, ecological function, diversity and drivers of soil nematode communities, as well as on their relationship with global climate change. Developments in new analysis methods for soil nematode ecology are also reviewed here. The developments in soil nematode ecology in domestic and international studies are compared and analyzed, and then the importance of nationwide monitor network construction is put forward. Future research directions of soil nematode ecology in China are also presented. In conclusion, more studies are needed on soil nematode ecology at a small scale within soil micro-food webs and at a large scale under global climate change, and new related technology and methods should continue to be developed.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Application of earthworms on soil remediation in southern China
Chi Zhang, Bo Zhou, Jialong Wu, Meirong Lv, Xufei Chen, Zhongyou Yuan, Ling Xiao, Jun Dai
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1091-1102.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018151
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A key soil invertebrate, earthworms significantly affect soil quality and the broader ecosystem. In this paper, we review the ecological characteristics of earthworm species Amynthas corticis, A. morrisi, A. robustus, A. aspergillum, Pontoscolex corethrurus and Eisenia fetida in southern China and their effects on soil pH, enzyme activity, metal accumulation and availability, the formation of soil pores and micro-aggregates, and the decomposition of organic waste. In sum: (1) Earthworms in southern China can survive in soil with a wide range of pH (3.8-7.9), and their survival rates are related to soil type, organic matter content, soil contamination level and earthworm species; (2) Enzyme activity in earthworm guts, castings and drilosphere indicate the appetite of different earthworm species, the process of soil nutrient cycling and soil microbial characteristics, respectively; (3) Earthworms are capable of accumulating different metals and altering their availability, but this capability varies depending on earthworm species, element and soil type; (4) Earthworm activity and cast production can change soil structure, increase the amount of soil pores and affect the size, amount and distribution of soil aggregates. Moreover, we highlight the potential application of earthworms toward resolving the acidification of red soil, nutrient imbalance in tea gardens, soil metal contamination, the compaction and destruction of soil during expressway construction, and the utilization of agricultural and urban organic waste. At present, due to insufficient investigations into the physiological characteristics of earthworms and a lack of Amynthas sp. breeding technology, earthworm applications are scarcely conducted at medium and large scales. Hence the promotion of earthworm technology is especially limited in southern China. It will be necessary to explore the potential of earthworms in soil restoration further and to analyze the mechanisms earthworms employ during soil construction and management in order to develop technologies to perform the functions currently occupied by earthworms.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
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Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 0-0.  
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Threat assessments, problems and countermeasures of China’s macrofungi
Dongmei Liu,Lei Cai,Ke Wang,Junsheng Li,Tiezheng Wei,Yijian Yao
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1236-1242.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018230
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The IUCN red list assessment lays the foundation for developing effective conservation strategies and action plan for biological species based on sound science. Since 2000, Chinese mycologists have assessed the threat status of macrofungi in China by using methods that incorporated but did not fully integrate IUCN categories and criteria. Because the number of species evaluated was limited and the geographical coverages were often relatively narrow, those assessments did not accurately reflect the overall status of Chinese macrofungi. To correct this gap, a nationwide Red List assessment of macrofungi was organized and the first national Red List of 9,302 species in 1,298 genera and 227 families was announced recently. More than 140 experts throughout the country took parts in the assessment. The results showed that 97 species of macrofungi were threatened. Based on the assessment results, combined with the current status of the conservation of macrofungi in China, five major measures were suggested to strengthen the conservation of these fungi: (1) Enforce the legislation of laws, speed up the establishment of regulations and improve the policy-making system; (2) Optimize the network system for in situ protection of macrofungi and enhance ex situ protection capability; (3) Further investigate the status of macrofungi and establish a monitoring program; (4) Strengthen outreach and education about mcrofungi in the popular science domain, i.e., raising public awareness of conservation of important fungal resources; (5) Increase funds for fungal conservation and to improve the supportive capability of science and technology.

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Origin and evolution of earthworms belonging to the family Megascolecidae in China
Jibao Jiang, Jiangping Qiu
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1074-1082.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018105
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A total of 579 Megascolecidae species have been reported in China through 2017. Most belong to the genera Amynthas and Metaphire. The family’s rich diversity merits further investigation into its evolutionary history. The arc of research indicates that analysis based on taxonomical and molecular methods reveals the evolutionary history of the family Megascolecidae in China. This paper summarizes updated findings regarding origin, speciation and dispersal of Megascolecidae in China, and discusses the evolution of major familial characteristics (e. g. spermathecal pores, caeca). Several analyses suggest that the ancestors of Megascolecidae in China may have come from the Indo-China Peninsula. Speciation radiation likely occurred after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene mass extinction, and species richness increased rapidly during the Cenozoic period. Ancestral range reconstruction analysis shows that species-groups are polyphyletic and that evolutionary reversal often resulted in sharp evolution of caeca, so we suggest that the current taxonomic system of Megascolecidae, which is based on a few morphological characters, should be reconstructed. We also note that the specific mechanism of evolution in Megascolecidae has not been studied. Hence, future research to reveal the specific evolutionary mechanism of Megascolecidae earthworms requires more systematic sampling of this family, combined with morphological research, phylogeny construction and analysis of geographical patterns, geological history and environmental factors.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Algal diversity and their importance in ecological processes in typical mangrove ecosystems
Yu Gao,Guanghui Lin
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1223-1235.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018080
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Algae are important flora in mangrove ecosystems. Algae can be divided into three ecological groups, namely phytoplankton, benthic microalgae, and macroalgae in mangrove ecosystems, which play important roles in organic carbon production and nutrient cycle. Despite the importance of algae for ecosystem function, studies of mangrove ecosystems have focused on higher plants and animals, with few studies of algae. Due to their abundance in mangrove ecosystems, studies of algae can broaden our understanding about the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems. In this review, we first briefly introduce algal groups and their ecological importance in mangrove ecosystems. Then, we emphasize species composition and geographical distribution of phytoplankton, benthic diatoms and macroalgae, and their importance in key ecological processes such as primary production, water pollution, element cycle, and carbon stock dynamics in mangrove ecosystem. The researches have showed that the species number of phytoplankton and benthic diatoms in mangroves varied from dozens to hundreds, and diatoms are dominant both in species composition and abundance, which are important primary producer, animal food, and pollution indicator. Macroalgae are mainly composed of red algae, green algae, brown algae and blue-green algae. Green algae are dominant in species richness whereas red algae are abundant in quantity. Algae contribute significantly to the carbon pool by sequestering and cycling carbon. We propose that future studies should focus on algal diversity and its role in ecological processes in mangrove ecosystems. Furthermore, we suggest that studies of algae should be part of comprehensive investigations on long-term ecosystem dynamics. The influence of continental runoff and tidal patterns on algal diversity and blue carbon dynamics in mangrove areas also deserve more attention, on account of being directly related to nutrient replenishment and dynamics. Since algal diversity in mangrove sediment is influenced by physico-chemical and biological condition of the system, it could be used as an indicator of climate change and effects of anthropogenic activity on mangrove ecosystems.

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Effects of oasis expansion regimes on ecosystem function and dominant functional groups of soil biota in arid regions
Jiliang Liu, Fengrui Li
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1116-1126.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018130
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Rapid human populations growth in inland arid regions of northwestern China has resulted in rapid oasis expansion, mainly through transforming natural grasslands to arable land, afforested forest and shrub plantations. However, little is known about how different oasis expansion regimes affect soil biodiversity and ecosystem function. In this study, we measured the abundance of nine dominant functional groups of soil biota across multiple trophic levels, including soil macrofauna (oligochaetes, ants, predatory arthropods and herbivorous insects), soil mesofauna decomposers (Oribatida and Collembola) and soil microbial decomposers (bacteria and fungi) in natural grasslands (NG), arable lands (AL), tree (Populus gansuensis) plantations (TP) and shrub (Haloxylon ammodendron) plantations (SP). The study was performed in Zhangye Oasis in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China. We measured the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), as well as the activities of four soil enzymes (catalase, urease, sucrase and phosphatase). The results showed the following important findings. First, the land conversion of NG to SP significantly lowered the abundance of Oribatida and herbivorous insects, while increasing the abundance of Collembola, predatory mites and fungal OTU numbers. However, converting NG to TP significantly increased the abundance of predatory arthropods, herbivorous insects, Collembola, Oribatida, predatory mites and numbers of both bacterial OTUs and fungal OTUs, whereas converting NG to AL significantly increased the abundance of all the above plus oligochaetes. Second, converting NG to either TP or SP significantly enhanced SOC and TN stocks, whereas converting NG to AL significantly enhanced the above plus TP stocks. Finally, converting NG to either SP, TP or AL significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, urease, sucrase and phosphatase, but these four soil enzymes show significantly higher activity in AL and TP sites with irrigation than in SP sites without irrigation. Our results suggest that different oasis expansion regimes significantly and differentially affect the structure and diversity of the desert soil food web, which in turn, cascades down to ecosystem functioning. Understanding the responses of both different soil food web components and of different ecological function variables to changes in land use and management level is essential for developing novel and more effective strategies for oasis ecosystem management in arid regions worldwide. Overall, this study provided key insights into the assessment of the functional stability of the oasis ecosystem.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Wildlife monitoring in Weishan Qinghua Green Peafowl Nature Reserve using infrared cameras, Yunnan Province
Binqiang Li, Pengying Li, Jiawei Yang, Hongjun Zi, Xingquan Li, Xihuan Duan, Xu Luo
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1343-1347.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018164
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Between October 2016 and September 2017, we deployed 28 infrared cameras (6,377 camera trapping days) to detect bird and mammal species in Weishan Qinghua Green Peafowl Nature Reserve. We obtained 1,692 effective images (mammals n = 563; birds n = 1,129). From these images, we identified 13 mammal species from 5 orders and 11 families and 58 bird species from 9 orders and 23 families. Among these, Syrmaticus humiae and Moschus berezovskii are listed as national first-class protected species, and Martes flavigula, Accipiter virgatus, Buteo japonicus, Chrysolophus amherstiae, Lophuar nycthemera, Otus lettia, Strix aluco are listed as national second-class protected species. Of the species identified, 1 species is evaluated as Critically Endangered (CR) and 3 species as Vulnerable (VU) in the Red List of China’s Vertebrate. One species is also listed in Appendix I and 7 other species are in Appendix II of CITES. We found that Garrulax pectoralis had the highest relative abundance (5.68 effective images per 100 trap-days), followed by Callosciurus erythraeus (2.81) and Muntiacus muntjak (1.68). Our results provided the first record of large and mid-sized mammals and terrestrial birds from this nature reserve, thereby providing primary baseline data of wildlife resources for future management of biodiversity.

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Establishing a national indicator system in China for the assessment of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity
Dongmei Liu, Dayuan Xue, Lei Cai, Junsheng Li, Nengwen Xiao
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1350-1357.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018257
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More data needs to be collected to assess the wide range of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity to identify the key pressures on diversity today and also highlight protection gaps for decision makers in biodiversity conservation. An indicator system is a useful tool in scientific assessments, yet few studies have made use of them. An indicator system to assess traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity was preliminarily established at a regional and national scale based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model, taking into account major players, species threats, existing measures for protection and transmission of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. Through expert consultation, 30 indicators were identified, including 7 pressure indicators, 14 status indicators and 9 response indicators. These indicators could be used for a comprehensive assessment of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity, and also could also be applied to a separate assessment concerning the basic status of threats to biodiversity, current protections, the transmission of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity and relevant genetic resources. Moreover, “The National Technology and Methodology System for Surveying Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity” was developed based on the results of “The National Survey on Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity”, which combined interviews with key figures, questionnaire responses and participatory observations and was supplemented by scientifically-derived biological and ecological knowledge. Interviewees were identified from target groups using snowball sampling. This system was developed according to parameters drawing on the results of surveys on ethnobotanical and traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity at home and abroad. The system was then piloted and modified accordingly.

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Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 0-0.  
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IPBES thematic assessment on land degradation and restoration and its potential impact
Boya Zhang,Yuxue Pan,Jing Xu,Yu Tian
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1243-1248.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018117
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With increasing international concern for biodiversity and human well-being, land degradation has increasingly become the foci of international conventions and processes. In the 2014-2018 Work Program of Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), “Land degradation and restoration” was included as one of the three major thematic assessment activities. The assessment report was completed by three hundred experts around the world in three years and adopted at the sixth plenary meeting of IPBES in March 2018. This article outlines the main contents and conclusions of the assessment, discusses possible impacts on other international processes, and proposes future work within our country. Based on the conceptual framework of IPBES, the assessment report comprehensively clarified the impact of land degradation on human life quality, the status and progress of land degradation, the role of direct and indirect drivers on land degradation, the relationship between land degradation and human well-being, and proposed suggestions for mitigating land degradation and promoting restoration. The assessment will provide policy makers in various countries with effective technical support for formulating policy tools and scientific references for negotiation of relevant international processes. As a country with rich biodiversity, China should accord importance to IPBES assessment mechanism and actively participate in strengthening the promotion of scientific achievements in the field of conserving biodiversity, initiate assessment on key domestic issues related to biodiversity and ecosystem services in a timely manner, to promote the construction of ecological civilization in our country, adopt a holistic approach to conserving our mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, and grasslands, achieve the construction goal of beautiful China.

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Biodiversity monitoring and research are basis of national park conservation
Mi Xiangcheng
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (1): 1-4.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019047
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Population genetic structure of Gonionemus vertens based on the mitochondrial COI sequence
Qingqing Liu,Zhijun Dong
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1204-1211.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018044
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Gonionemus vertens is widely distributed throughout the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and is one of venomous jellyfish species in China. To investigate the population genetic structure of G. vertens, we sequenced the mtDNA COI gene in 104 individuals collected from four geographic locations along the coast of the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and the homologous sequences of other 182 individuals which were obtained from GenBank were also analyzed. A total of 52 polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the 286 individuals, which defined 14 haplotypes. The overall haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.743 ± 0.012 and 1.046% ± 0.097%, respectively. Compared with several other giant jellyfish species, the genetic diversity of G. vertens was at the higher level. AMOVA analysis indicated that extremely significant difference existed among the groups, within populations and among the populations within groups, with 60.17% molecular variation among the groups, 13.37% molecular variation within populations, and 26.46% molecular variation among the populations within groups. Pairwise fixation index (Fst) values showed that significant population structure existed between the G. vertens population collected in Xiamen waters with other populations collected from Laoting, Dongying, Yantai, and Dalian waters, and the population structure throughout Dalian with Dongying, or with Yantai were also significant. Phylogeographic analysis of the COI region revealed two lineages. The results indicated that the complex life cycle characteristics, dispersal ability, geographic isolation, together with the prevailing ocean currents in this region, may be important factors influencing the genetic structure of G. vertens.

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Flora and species composition similarity of the uninhabited islands in the nearshore Xiamen
Lan Xiao,Linting Zhang,Shengchang Yang,Zhihan Zheng,Degang Jiang
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1212-1222.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018124
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To find out the main plant community types of uninhabited islands in the nearshore Xiamen, in mid-to-late October 2017, we recorded 360 vascular plant species, including 78 trees, 109 small trees or shrubs, 23 vines and 150 herbs. We also found 49 invasive alien species, 10 of which have been identified as the most serious invasive. Compositional analysis showed that vegetation in these 12 uninhabited islands were of tropical and sub-tropical types. Consistent with the subtropical geography of these islands, vegetation mainly consisted of pan-tropical species and its variants. Generally, the islands had similar species composition. Herbaceous plants dominated the flora of these islands. Power and logarithm functions best described the species-area relationships of island vascular plants. Area had the largest effect on species richness of these islands followed by other spatial parameters such as the ratio of shoreline length, elevation, and perimeter area. Habitat diversity and island edge affected similarity of vascular plant species among different islands. Except for Wuyu Isle, we did not find evidence for small island effects in these surveys.

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Progress in negotiations on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework and suggestions for Chinese government
Wenjing Liu, Jing Xu, Yijia Geng, Yu Tian, Senlu Yin
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1358-1364.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018188
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The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework is currently the focus of negotiation at the Convention on Biological Diversity. Understanding the progress of the negotiation will have a positive impact on the success of the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) which will be held in China. Based on the progress of the negotiation, this paper analyzes the views of the main parties involved and makes suggestions to the government of China on how to prepare for international negotiations and promote the development of the framework as the host country. Results show that the main parties involved have reached a relatively unanimous consensus on timetable, procedures and general principles for the formulation of the framework. They believe that the procedures and the timetable for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework should be confirmed as soon as possible. Additionally, the main parties have expressed the following views on the formulation of the framework. Firstly, the framework should be based on experience gained by implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Target, scientific conclusions and extensive sources of information. Secondly, negotiation should be linked with the Sustainable Development Goals and other international processes. Thirdly, scenarios and models should be used. Fourthly, support should be extended for more stakeholders’ participation in the formulation process. Involved parties also believe that the framework should mainly include land use, measures to protect and restore biodiversity, address underlying causes of biodiversity loss, mainstreaming, capacity building, resource mobilization, and national commitments. In order to prepare for international negotiations, it is suggested that China put forward the following viewpoints at the conferences of the convention on negotiations in a timely manner: accord importance to achieving the goals on sustainable use; improving the rationality of the evaluation index system; making measures scientific. In addition, it is suggested that China should promote the development of the framework by making full use of the international high-level meeting to increase political attention to the framework, actively collaborate with major international processes to promote in-depth discussion of the framework, and make it a priority to mobilize the enthusiasm of stakeholders.

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Population structure and genetic divergence in Firmiana danxiaensis
Xingtong Wu,Lu Chen,Minqiu Wang,Yuan Zhang,Xueying Lin,Xinyu Li,Hong Zhou,Yafeng Wen
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1168-1179.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018223
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Firmiana danxiaensis is an endemic plant species which is narrowly distributed in the northern parts of Shaoguan, Guangdong, China. To devise appropriate conservation strategies for this rare species, we examined the population structure and estimated the demographic history of nine natural populations using 18 EST-SSR markers. The results revealed a moderate degree of total genetic diversity (Ht = 0.631) at the species level but high genetic diversity within populations (Hs = 0.546). Strong genetic differentiation existed between two groups of Danxiashan and Nanxiong (FST = 0.150). This current pattern might have arisen from prolonged geographical isolation and human disturbances. STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated that whole population can be divided into two distinct gene pools, closely related by their geographic location and having experienced independent evolutionary routes. The genetic background of Danxiashan was more complicated than that of Nanxiong. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) analysis indicated that divergence time between the two groups could be 100,000 years BP, and their effective population size were 7,290 and 5,550 individuals, respectively. Combining the information of genetic variation with niche modelling, we inferred that F. danxiaensis might have been widely distributed around the Nanling Mountain in the Quaternary period. Populations located in the northern of Nanling Mountain likely became extinct due to climate change. Danxiashan and Nanxiong provided the main refuges for the species during the last ice age. Being a rare species with small population sizes, better ecological investigation of natural populations and in situ conservation and implementation of restoration strategy are important measures to conserve this species.

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Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 0-0.  
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Forest soil fauna ecology in Northeast China: Review and prospect
Xiuqin Yin, Yan Tao, Haixia Wang, Chen Ma, Xinchang Kou, Huan Xu, Dong Cui
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1083-1090.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018102
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Soil fauna have a crucial influence on nutrient cycles and energy flows in ecosystems. In recent years, soil fauna ecology has become a hot topic and frontier in ecology, though it has been studied for more than 60 years at the international level. By contrast, in China, it wasn’t until the late 1970s that significant soil fauna ecology studies were performed in the Changbai Mountains. This article summarizes the three periods of soil fauna ecological studies in the forests of northeastern China and reviews the progress made in research in the last decade. Studies from the last decade can be divided into three categories: distribution patterns and diversity, responses to environmental factors, and ecological function. This article provides a reference for further development of soil fauna ecology in the forests of northeastern and other areas of China. Future investigations of soil fauna ecology in the forest of northeastern China should focus on the interaction between soil fauna and microbiota, the responses of soil fauna to global changes, the interaction between aboveground and underground ecosystems, and the application of molecular biology technology in soil biological research.

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Cited: CSCD(1)
Effects of annual precipitation pattern variation and different cultivation modes on the growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Glycine max
Baiwen Jiang,Jing Li,Rui Chen,Ping Lu,Qi Li,Tongyu Xiao,Yamei Bai,Xianfeng Zhang,Yiqi Li
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1158-1167.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018213
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Global climate change will alter temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation patterns. The effects of precipitation changes on crop seed germination and growth have been previously investigated, however, there has been limited research on effects of precipitation changes on how invasive weeds compete with crops. Exploring competition between exotic weeds and native crops under different annual precipitation patterns and cultivation modes will provide a theoretical basis to control alien weeds with impending changes to the global climate. In this study, we assessed how precipitation alters competitive dynamics between two plants, Amaranthus retroflexus, a widespread invasive weed in agricultural ecosystem in Northeastern China, and Glycine max, one of the most important native crops in China. We conducted pot experiments under three patterns of annual precipitation: the average annual precipitation pattern (the average total precipitation amount of growing season of the recent 30 years), the deficient annual precipitation pattern (20% lower than the average value), and the plentiful annual precipitation pattern (20% higher than the average value). The pots were placed underneath a rainout shelter, and the two plants were seeded as two plants of the same species per pot (sole species) or two plants of different species per pot (mixed species). We found that the plant height and total biomass of A. retroflexus and G. max in the average precipitation annual pattern were higher than those of deficient precipitation annual pattern, but lower than those of the abundance precipitation annual pattern. The root to shoot ratio of the two plants at the early growing season were all highest in the deficient precipitation annual pattern, indicating that both plants could adapt to the arid environment by increasing the root biomass allocation and decreasing the shoot biomass allocation. Under all the annual precipitation patterns, plant height, relative growth rate and total biomass of mixture G. max were significantly less than sole planted G. max, while A. retroflexus showed the opposite trend. These results indicate that interspecific competition significantly inhibited the growth of G. max, but promoted the growth of A. retroflexus, suggesting asymmetric competition between the species. In general, the competitive ability of G. max increased with higher precipitation, while that of A. retroflexus increased when precipitation declined. The results indicated that A. retroflexus can successfully invade G. max cropland under all three precipitation scenarios, and maintain a high plant height, relative growth rate, and biomass over a wide range of annual precipitation variation. These biological characters of A. retroflexus may allow it to become a successfully globally invasive weed, and drought may favor its invasion of G. max cropland.

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Composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in a secondary forest in montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China
Junqi Cai,Dapeng Liu,Shuyuan Zhang,Guo Zong,Jia Liu,Xuejiao Bai
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1147-1157.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018135
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To explore the composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in the montane region of eastern Liaoning Province in China, we established 1,600 seedling quadrats of size 5 m × 5 m (25 m2) within a 4-ha plot to monitor forest dynamics. We analyzed species composition, height-class structure, interannual dynamics and spatial distribution of tree seedlings from three censuses (2014 to 2016). We recorded a total of 22 species of tree seedlings during the survey period. The species composition of tree seedlings did not vary significantly among years, but varied greatly among quadrats. Species that dominated as seedlings largely reflected the dominant species among adults. Tree seedling numbers varied significantly among different tree species across years, with Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Acer mono and Juglans mandshurica accounting for 75.6% of the total seedlings in the three censuses. The abundances of F. rhynchophylla and J. mandshurica seedlings varied greatly among three years, while the other species varied little. Similarly, seedling density also varied greatly among different species. We also found interspecific and interannual variation in new seedling recruits and those that died. Recruit abundance during 2014-2015 (3,888) was higher than 2015-2016 (1,710), and the seedling mortality rate was also higher in 2014-2015 (23.7%) than 2015-2016 (12.7%). The mortality rate of recruited seedlings (18.8%) was higher than that of existing seedlings (8.1%) during 2015-2016. Finally, we found that the dominant seedlings showed spatially clustered distributions and the spatial pattern of seedling distributions was consistent with that of adults of the species.

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Summary comments on assessment methods of ecosystem integrity for national parks
Dai Yunchuan,Xue Yadong,Zhang Yunyi,Li Diqiang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (1): 104-113.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018142
Accepted: 21 February 2019

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National parks are one of the foundations of global biodiversity conservation and help protect the ecological environment and biodiversity. Assessing ecosystem integrity in national parks can help understand ecosystem balance, health, and biodiversity status. We introduce three methods to assess ecosystem integrity of national parks: IBI (Index of Biotic Integrity), TLA (Three Level Approach) and EIAF (Ecosystem Integrity Assessment Framework), respectively. IBI relies on high intensity field survey and laboratory analysis. Albeit expensive, time consuming and requiring high level of biological expertise in identifying species, the results are accurate and reliable. TLA, including Remote Assessment, Rapid Assessment and Intensive Assessment, offers great flexibility to assess the integrity of complex ecosystems. EIAF combines the advantages of IBI and TLA, expands the use of indicator species and optimizes scoring statistics. Hence, EIAF is one the most sophisticated assessment methods of ecosystem integrity for national parks. We also discuss some issues such as incomplete assessment indices, single assessment form and subjectivity of assessment methods in current studies. We propose that research on ecosystem integrity of national parks should combine the processes that join nature, economy and society. Such an interdisciplinary approach requires integrated research on sustainable socio-economic development and human health, and explore the relationship between invasive species and ecological environment. We also suggest the need to look for new indicator species that can reflect the state and change trend of ecosystem integrity and thus help develop a standardized assessment system for national parks.

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Camera-trapping survey of wild mammals and birds in Daiyunshan, Fujian Province
Kaimiao Lin, Jianguo Xu, Wenzhou Li, Yaqiong Huang, Bin Chen, Jinhui Guo
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1332-1337.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018216
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To investigate the biodiversity of wild mammals and birds in Daiyunshan National Nature Reserve and Shiniushan Forest Park (located in Dehua County, Fujian Province), 60 camera-traps were established and monitored from February 2017 to March 2018. A total of 3,499 independent photographs were collected with a sampling effort of 19,924 camera-days. This effort identified 18 wild mammal species belonging to 4 orders, 10 families, and 17 genera; 24 wild bird species belonging to 5 orders, 11 families and 21 genera; and 3 domestic animal species. Two of the species are listed as Class I Nationally Protected Wildlife, and 5 species are listed as Class II. One new species, Syrmaticus ellioti, was recorded at the Daiyunshan National Nature Reserve. Based on the relative abundance index, the five most abundant wild mammal species are Muntiacus reevesi, Sus scrofa, Muntiacus vaginalis, Callosciurus erythraeus, Arctonyx collaris, and the five most abundant bird species are Lophura nythemera, Myophonus caeruleus, Garrulax pectoralis, Arborophila gingica, Bambusicola thoracica. In addition, the detection rates of poultry, livestock and local villagers were rather high, which indicates high levels of anthropogenic disturbance across the study area. The results of this study provide a comprehensive baseline of the wild mammals and birds in the Daiyunshan and Shiniushan areas, fill the gaps in the observations of large and medium-sized mammals in central Fujian Province, and establish the basis for follow-up protection management and long-term monitoring.

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The response of diverse soil fauna communities to elevated CO2 concentrations in Sanjiang Plain
Yining Wu, He Wang, Haixiu Zhong, Nan Xu, Jinbo Li, Jifeng Wang, Hongwei Ni, Hongfei Zou
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (10): 1127-1132.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018081
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The effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations was investigated on soil fauna communities, controlling the concentrations at 370, 550 and 700 ppm in open top chambers in Sanjiang Plain. Samples were taken and separated by Tullgren or Baermann funnel methods in autumn 2017. Our results showed that: (1) 6,268 individuals belonging to seven classes and 15 orders were collected. Oribatida was the dominant group, accounting for 88.13% of the total individuals. Collembola and Diptera larvae were the other most common groups, accounting for 9% in total, respectively. Different groups varied in their responses to elevated CO2 concentrations. Oribatida was the dominant group. Collembola and Diptera larvae were the most common groups in AC, EC1 and EC2, but rare groups also differed in AC, EC1 and EC2. (2) The elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the density of Oribatida, but reduced the density of Collembola. However, no other soil fauna were significantly affected. (3) The Shannon-Wiener index and the Pielou index of soil fauna exhibited the order of AC > EC1 > EC2, the Simpson index showed the order of EC2 > EC1 > AC, and the Margalef index showed the order of AC > EC2 > EC1. Our results indicate that the soil fauna community composition and diversity might be affected by climate change.

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Learning from international experience to promote the Global Partnership between Business and Biodiversity (GPBB) in China
Yang Zhao,Yuanyuan Wen,Lirong Yang,Hongtao Li
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (11): 1249-1254.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018111
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The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward for the first time a new requirement that China should spearhead the construction of ecological civilization on global scale, of which biodiversity protection is an integral part. This paper systematically summarizes the major international experiences in promoting the Global Partnership for Business and Biodiversity (GPBB) advocated by the Convention on Biological Diversity, and gives policy proposals for China to promote the GPBB (or China Business and Biodiversity Partnership, CBBP). By analyzing GPBB practices in Germany, India, Canada, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Japan and South Korea, we find the main experience of these countries as follows: (1) the governments have important and varied roles, including management and providing funds or goods; (2) the patterns of organization are diverse, but usually they set up cross department decision-making bodies and secretarial offices; (3) membership generally requires signing agreements; some agreements focus on specific industries, some accord importance to institutional members; (4) the government generally provides legal and policy interpretation, knowledge and information dissemination, policy guidance and other services; (5) regarding funding, some mainly rely on the collection of membership dues while others rely on donations in kind or voluntary service, and some rely on PPP projects. We also draw the following conclusions: (1) a large number of enterprises are motivated and willing to participate in the Biodiversity Partnership Initiative; (2) the international resource network for promoting enterprise participation has been established; (3) limited by scale and capital, the participation of the vast enterprises requires more guidance and support of government. In 2015, China formally joined the GPBB. Although China has carried out several related activities to promote the GPBB, it still faces many challenges. First of all, the relevant documents have not been approved. Therefore, although many enterprises are willing to partner with China, there is a need to establish rules to follow. Secondly, China has not yet established a sound organizational mode and financial mechanism to promote GPBB. Finally, the 15th conference of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will be held in Beijing in 2020, which creates an urgent need to manage China’s partnership for business and biodiversity. In this regard, this paper suggests that the China Business and Biodiversity Partnership (CBBP) initiative should implement the two step strategy: (1) establish and launch the CBBP alliance initiative, and (2) increase the support of international conventions and state performance negotiations.

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Spatial distribution and environmental interpretation of wild Sinojackia xylocarpa communities based on self-organizing map (SOM)
Guodong Yang, Xinyue Ji, Lin Chen, Yuqian Zhong, Feifei Zhai, Xiangui Yi, Xianrong Wang
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1268-1276.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018019
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A self-organizing map (SOM) based on field investigations was adopted to analyze the numerical classification and ordination of wild Sinojackia xylocarpa communities in the Nanjing Laoshan Forest Park in hopes of illuminating the relationship between the wild communities and environmental conditions. The results show that the 100 quadrats were divided into five associations, spatially reflecting the successional trend of wild S. xylocarpa communities. The association boundary, community structure and species composition differed significantly among communities. Through visualizing environmental gradients, the altitude, slope position and soil thickness were found to be the main factors affecting the growth and distribution of S. xylocarpa in this area, though the relationships differed among dominant species. The SOM removes the restrictive assumptions of many quantitative techniques so that the neural network is attractive to the community ecological characteristics and the interrelationship between community and environment can be explored. Based on the potential of SOM for vegetation data classification and, to a lesser extent, ordination, the SOM can aid in the conservation of endangered plants across different community types.

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Classification and identification of plant species based on multi-source remote sensing data: Research progress and prospect
Kong Jiaxin, Zhang Zhaochen, Zhang Jian
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (7): 796-812.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019197
Accepted: 21 August 2019

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Species classification and identification is the basis of biodiversity monitoring, and is critical to deal with almost all ecological questions. In this paper, we aim to understand the current status and existing problems in plant species classification and identification using multi-source remote sensing data. We summarized the studies in this field since the year 2000, and found that most of these studies focus on temperate or boreal forests in Europe and North America, or African savanna. Airborne hyperspectral data is the most widely used remote sensing data source, and the LiDAR, as a supplementary data, significantly improves the classification accuracy through the information of single tree segmentation and three-dimensional vertical structure. Support vector machine and random forest are the most widely used non-parametric classification algorithms with an average classification accuracy of 80%. With the development of computer technology and machine learning, artificial neural network has developed rapidly in species identification. Based on the literature-based analysis, we propose that the current research in this field is still facing some challenges, including the complexity of classification objects, the effective integration of multi-source remote sensing data, the integration of plant phenology and texture characteristics, and the improvement in plant classification algorithm. The accuracy of plant classification and identification could be greatly improved by using the high-frequency data collection over time, the integration of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, the use of specific spectral information such as short-wave infrared imagery, and the development of novel deep learning techniques.

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Species diversity and vertical distribution characteristics of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains, southwestern China
Zihong Chen, Xiaona Yang, Ningjing Sun, Ling Xu, Yuan Zheng, Yuming Yang
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1308-1317.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018131
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Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan Province, China have diverse ecological systems and biological resources. To understand the diversity and the vertical distribution of Metarhizium species at different elevations in this area, Metarhizium resources were investigated in seven typical vegetation types (i.e., I, dry-hot valley; II, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest; III, warm coniferous forest; IV, mod-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest; V, mountain moss dwarf forest; VI, cold shrubs of meadow; and VII, rocky beach sparsely vegetation) along an elevation gradient (600-3,800 m). Strains of Metarhizium were isolated from soils of the vegetations at different elevations and identified using multi-gene (nrSSU, nrLSU, EF-1α, RPB1, and RPB2) phylogenetic analysis. Our result indicated that the species of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains were abundant and the obtained 161 strains represented 12 Metarhizium species, namely, M. rileyi, M. viridulum, M. lepidiotae, M. brunneum, M. pingshaense, M. anisopliae, M. robertsii, M. guizhouense, M. indigoticum, M. pemphigi, M. campsosterni, and Metacordyceps neogunnii, and most of them (8 species) belonged to M. anisopliae complex. Additionally, Nigelia martiale, a taxon close to Metarhizium was also found in this area. M. indigoticum is new to China. Fungi of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains were widely distributed in six vegetation types at elevation between 600 m and 3,400 m, but not in type VII at the elevation of 3,600-3,800 m. The vegetations at the low and middle elevations (I-IV) harbored larger number of strains (≥ 23) and higher species diversity (4-9 species), whereas those at high elevations (V-VI) possessed fewer strains (2-8) and relatively limited species (1-2 species). Metarhizium resources were the most abundant in evergreen broad-leaved forests at the middle elevation. The monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (vegetation type II) possessed the largest number of Metarhizium strains (52 strains, 32.3% of the total) and species (9 species), while mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest (vegetation type IV) (47 strains, 29.2% of the total) was the next. The superior species phenomenon of Metarhizium was remarkable in Gaoligong Mountains, M. brunneum being the most dominant, at 46.6% of the total strain numbers. It widely exists in six vegetation types (I-VI) with very different habitat conditions, suggesting that this species has the highest ecologic adaptability.

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Camera-trapping surveys of the large and medium-sized mammal and understory bird diversity in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve, Anhui Province
Lei Zhou, Yaqiong Wan, Xin Hong, Heng Zhang, Lifu Qian, Chencheng Wang, Zheng Kong, Kai Zhao, Jiaqi Li, Baowei Zhang
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1338-1342.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018166
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Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve is located on the southern slope of the Dabie Mountains. To describe the diversity of large and medium-sized mammal and understory bird diversity in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve, from 2014 to 2017 a baseline survey was conducted using a camera-trapping approach. Over 16,658 camera trapping days at 72 camera locations, 2,142 usable images were obtained. Nine mammal species and 15 bird species were identified, belonging to 8 orders and 15 families. One species, Moschus anhuiensis, is listed as national first-class protected wild animal, whereas two species, Pucrasia macrolopha and Syrmaticus reevesii, were listed as national second-class protected wild animals. The top five mammals in relative abundance were Muntiacus reevesi, Sus scrofa, Callosciurus erythraeus, Arctonyx collaris and Sciurotamias davidianus, and the top five birds in relative abundance were S. reevesii, P. macrolopha, Garrulus glandarius, Turdus hortulorum and Urocissa erythrorhyncha. We also found evidence of intensive human activities in the reserve, which may have potential impacts on wildlife. This study provides basic information on the species composition of terrestrial mammals and understory birds in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve; it will form the foundation of future monitoring research and will provide data information to wildlife management and protection efforts.

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Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (1): 0-0.  
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Genetic diversity and population demographic history of Ochetobius elongatus in the middle and lower reaches of the Xijiang River
Jiping Yang, Ce Li, Weitao Chen, Yuefei Li, Xinhui Li
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1289-1295.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018121
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Ochetobius elongatus used to be an economically important fish species in many rivers of China. However, due to environmental destruction and human disturbance the resources of this fish species have reduced rapidly, and its populations are in a critically endangered condition. At present, it is very difficult to obtain specimens of O. elongatus, which limits research on this species. We obtained specimens of O. elongatus via larva and adult fish collection. Two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes were used to explore the genetic diversity and population demography of O. elongatus in middle and lower Xijiang River. Results showed that the genetic diversity of O. elongatus was low and is in recession, suggesting that O. elongatus might have undergone a genetic bottleneck event. Additionally, population demographic analyses revealed that O. elongatus population expanded during the Late Pleistocene (0.06 and 0.13 Million years ago), following the glacial retreat of the Middle Pleistocene glaciations (0.78-0.126 Million years ago). The results also revealed that Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have influenced the population demography of O. elongatus. Due to its potential as an important spawning ground for O. elongatus, sections of middle and lower Xijiang River should be considered as candidates for creating nature reserves to conserve and restore its genetic resources.

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On the Chinese name for genus Docynia (Rosaceae)
Huajie Liu, Jinshuang Ma, Su Liu, Bing Liu
Biodiv Sci    2018, 26 (12): 1348-1349.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018254
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Seasonal variation in the distribution of Elliot’s pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve
Ren Peng,Yu Jianping,Chen Xiaonan,Shen Xiaoli,Song Xiao,Zhang Tiantian,Yu Yongquan,Ding Ping
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (1): 13-23.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018193
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Here we studied the seasonal variation in the distribution pattern of Elliot’s pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, in Zhejiang Province, China. From May 2014 to April 2016, Elliot’s pheasants were monitored with camera traps as part of the grid monitoring system. Elliot’s pheasants were detected in 44 1 km × 1 km survey blocks, 211 independent times. The observed sex ratio was F : M = 1 : 1.64. These results showed that Elliot’s pheasant is mainly distributed in the buffer and experimental zones. Within the reserve, the detection rate of Elliot’s pheasant decreased over the gradient from mixed evergreen and deciduous broad leaf forest, Cunninghamia lanceolata forest, mixed coniferous and broad leaf forest to artificial Camellia oleifera forest and evergreen broad leaf forest. Elliot’s pheasant mainly lived at altitudes of 600-800 m. In winter and spring, their activity intensity was lower and the active area of Elliot’s pheasant was relatively smaller compared with the summer and autumn. In short, the distribution between altitudinal intervals (F4,12 = 3.76, P < 0.05) and seasons (F3,12 = 3.34, P < 0.05) differed significantly. Performing a regression analysis on altitudinal intervals and climatic factors showed that the daily average temperature and altitudinal intervals both significantly influenced the presence of Elliot’s pheasant (P < 0.01). Both the monthly detection rate of Elliot’s pheasant and the altitude at which Elliot’s pheasant was detected had a significant positive correlation with the monthly mean temperature (P < 0.001), but had no significant linear relationship with the monthly mean rainfall (P > 0.05). These results showed that the presence of Elliot’s pheasant was largely influenced by altitude and temperature. Elliot’s pheasants tended to move to higher altitude as the average monthly temperature increased. According to the results of model selection and multimodel inference, the optimal model only included by the variable “source of water within 100 meters”, and the suboptimal model was “source of water within 100 meters × altitude”, with weights of 0.18 and 0.14. This means that “source of water within 100 meters” and “altitude” were important factors affecting the distribution of Elliot’s pheasant, whose importance values were 0.82 and 0.51, respectively. Overall, the distribution of Elliot’s pheasant was determined by various environmental variables, rather than one and/or several environmental variables. In addition, the changes in temperature and the range of altitudinal intervals led to the differing seasonal distribution pattern of Elliot’s pheasant.

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