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The spatial overlapping analysis for China’s natural protected area and countermeasures for the optimization and integration of protected area system
Ma Tonghui, Lü Cai, Lei Guangchun
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (7): 758-771.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019087
Accepted: 21 August 2019

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The construction of natural protected area system is a biodiversity conservation strategy which has been highly emphasized by international communities. In recent years, China expresses its concerns about the overlapping and intersection of natural protected area and proposed Guidance on Establishing a Natural Protected Area System Dominated by National Parks. To implement the proposed strategy, it is important to conduct a systematic study on the relationship and spatial distribution of the natural protected areas. This study collected data from 8,572 natural protected areas in different categories and administrative levels, including coordinates, types of ecosystems, administrative regions and boundaries. Among them, 1,532 natural protected areas with spatial overlapping and cross-jurisdictions were selected. Geographic concentration index (G) was calculated, and ArcGIS software was adopted for Kernel density estimation. Finally, the spatial distribution patterns, overlap of protected areas in ecological and geographic zones, ecosystem types, agencies with crossing jurisdiction and province locations were obtained. The results showed that: (1) Natural protected areas were concentrated in mountainous areas in central Shandong, Taihang Mountain, Dabie Mountain, Tianmu-Huaiyu Mountain and Wanjiang region, across multiple wetlands and forest ecosystems (Mean > 6, Max > 8). Among 10 pilot national parks, only Giant panda, Nanshan and Qianjiangyuan were located in areas with high density of overlapping; (2) The former State Administration of Forestry and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development had the largest number of sites under cross-jurisdiction among all the former agencies; (3) The number of overlapping natural protected areas in Heilongjiang, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Hunan provinces are significantly higher than other provinces. The overlap between Shanxi-Hebei-Henan and Anhui-Hubei-Jiangxi provinces is higher, and there is moderate overlap in other provinces. The areas studied above could become key priority areas for reassembling and optimizing China’s protected area system. Based on overlap hot zones, priority zones for biodiversity conservation, and cultural ecosystem services, this paper proposes a framework for reassembling and optimizing overlapped protected areas. According to 3 new protected area categories including national parks, nature reserves and natural parks, suggestions are given prioritizing reassembling and associating the area with a new category, which would provide a reference scheme to the urgent needs of ongoing reform of China’s natural protected areas system.

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Red list assessment of macrofungi in China
Yijian Yao
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 1-3.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019152
Accepted: 24 September 2019

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Explaining the diversity and endemic patterns based on phylogenetic approach for woody plants of the Loess Plateau
Xuerui Dong, Hong Zhang, Minggang Zhang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1269-1278.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019224
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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The Loess Plateau is home to various vegetation types as it contains famous transitional forests, grasslands, and deserts. Due to natural resource limitation and intensive human activities, this natural environment faces serious conservation challenges. In order to effectively conserve this natural environment, spatial mapping of species diversity is key to conservation efforts. In this study, we first modeled the potential distribution of 293 woody species based on specimen records and climate data and then calculated the spatial patterns of species richness and weighted endemism. Secondly, we calculated phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic endemism and identified environmental drivers of the observed spatial patterns. Finally, we analyzed endemism types and tested their significance. Our results suggest that biodiversity hotspots are distributed on the southern edge of the Loess Plateau and are highly related to the flora of Qinling Mountains. The biodiversity patterns of this transitional region are driven by annual precipitation and minimum temperature of coldest month. Endemism hotspots were found on the southern edge of the Loess Plateau, which contain paleo-endemism and mixed-endemism, but no neo-endemism. We concluded that most woody species of the Loess Plateau originated in tropical or subtropical regions, and the species richness patterns of this region are maintained by dispersal rather than speciation. Our study indicated the importance of incorporating the evolutionary history in biodiversity conservation.

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An overview on assessment systems for threatened plants in China
Zhangjian Shan,Lina Zhao,Yuchang Yang,Dan Xie,Haining Qin
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1352-1363.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019244
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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Endangered species conservation is an important part of biodiversity conservation, heavily helped by threatened species assessment guides. The assessment of threatened level has gradually evolved from being qualitative to quantitative with qualitative supplement. This paper reviews the research progress of the domestic threatened plant species quantitative assessment system, and introduces the mature IUCN Red List Assessment System, CITES Assessment System, and the National Natural Conservation Association Assessment System. Through this, we propose future development requirements of quantitative assessment criteria for threatened species should have the following characteristics: (1) a clear, unified, and reasonable definition of category setting, (2) quantitative, objective, and non-redundant criteria for endangered categories, (3) adaptation to different geographical range while simultaneously expressing threatened category over different ranges, (4) evaluation indicators contain the dynamic information of the species which can quantitatively analyze the change of the species through time. In addition, the domestic quantitative assessment system for threatened species should form a standardized outline with increased publicity to combine theoretical research with specific conservation actions. Lastly, China should adopt the widely-used endangered rating systems to assess species threatened level and integrate domestic biodiversity conservation work into the global scale.

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Insights on the legislation, law enforcement and management of zoonosis from the epidemic of new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19)
Zhigang Jiang
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (2): 0-0.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020053
Accepted: 02 March 2020

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Since the beginning of the 21st century, two major infectious diseases, SARS and new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), have shocked China as well as the world. Studies suggested bats, as well as pangolins may be the vectors of both epidemics, ing calls for a ban on eating wild animals. In fact, the country has already legislated against the consumption of legally protected and illegally sourced wild animals. Market survey found no bats for sale in those markets in 16 major Chinese megacities after SARS. Therefore, how did SARS-CoV and the new coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS2-CoV) spread from wild animals to humans? What lessons should we learn from these two epidemics? Besides a total ban on consumption wild animal meets from illegal source, I suggest to perfect the legislation of zoonosis and to fill the gaps in the laws concern with the prevention of zoonosis; to amend the provisions of the existing law governing the managing of zoonosis contaminated areas. A permanent institution should be set up to cover the whole process of wildlife epidemic investigation and monitoring, human-wildlife interface, quarantine, immunization of susceptible populations, popularization of law and scientific knowledge, thus to realize early prevention, early detection and early treatment of zoonosis to ensure public health security. I also recommend that to establish a mechanism for the prevention and control of zoonosis, to identify wildlife hosts of zoonosis pathogens, to strengthen bat monitoring, and to issue red lines for the control of zoonosis. Additionally, we shall strengthen law enforcement to prevent zoonosis; improve animal production management, marketing, and quarantine procedures. I urge people to change their habit of pursuing fresh animal foods by killing animals on site in markets.
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The complexity-stability relationship: Progress in mathematical models
Guanghua Xu,Xiaoyu Li,Chunhua Shi
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1364-1378.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019138
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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In the 1970s, the intuition that complex communities are more stable than simple ones was challenged by mathematical models which gave diametrically opposing conclusions. Since then, this “paradox” has been heavily researched making the complexity-stability relationship of continued interest. Here, we analyzed the concepts of “complexity” and “stability” and classified the half-century of mathematical models generated by this field into linear approach and nonlinear approaches. The former is also referred to as community matrix, while the latter could be further classified into interaction matrix, numerical simulation of complex network, and food web module dynamics. Based on different community construction methods and adopting different stability criteria, together they provide a rich knowledge of how species interact and coexist, enabling us to reveal the vain of the paradox. In general, species diversity and connectivity play a negative role in the stability of randomly constructed community models. However, in models that mimic natural, empirical communities, several characteristics (including network topology, interaction intensity distribution, and interaction mode) provide mechanisms for maintaining stability, enabling these communities to reach higher levels of complexity. The study of complexity-stability is far from over. The complex interactions in natural communities is still beyond the reach of current models, and the concept of stability also needs to be expanded. The in-depth study of this topic will contribute both ecological theory and ecosystem management practice profoundly.

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Red list assessment of macrofungi in China: Challenges and measures
Yi Li, Dongmei Liu, Ke Wang, Haijun Wu, Lei Cai, Lei Cai, Junsheng Li, Yijian Yao
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 66-73.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019178
Accepted: 17 December 2019

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On the International Day for Biological Diversity in 2018, the Red List of China’s Biodiversity—Macrofungi was officially released by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The List assessed the threatened status of 9,302 macro-fungal species. To better fit the evaluation of macrofungi, adjustments have been made to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This study assessed the main problems in the assessment, which can be summarized as follows: (1) taxonomic problems and the lack of available Chinese scientific names for part of species, (2) insufficient geographic distribution, population, and ecological information for various investigated species, (3) difficulty in IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria usage, and (4) uncertainty and missing data for threatening factors of macrofungi. For the mentioned problems, we suggest: (1) an improvement in fungal taxonomic studies, utilizing Chinese scientific names for fungal species, (2) encouragement for continuous field monitoring of fungal resources, (3) utilization of species distribution models to improve the IUCN Red List assessment for fungal red-listing, and (4) the use of public platforms to encourage communication and interaction to access information and increase the social impact of the List.
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Intraspecific variation of leaf functional traits along the vertical layer in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of Dinghushan
Ruyun Zhang,Yanpeng Li,Yunlong Ni,Xujun Gui,Juyu Lian,Wanhui Ye
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1279-1290.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019267
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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Exploring how functional traits vary along environmental gradients has always been one of the core issues of trait-based community ecology. While functional traits vary both among species and within species, little is known about how intraspecific variation changes along environmental gradients. We explored how intraspecific trait variations of four leaf functional traits (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf thickness, leaf area) varied along vertical layer within community using data for 2,820 individuals belonging to 16 species in a 1.44-ha plot in the south subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Dinghushan. First, we quantified the relative importance of intra- and interspecific trait variation within the canopy crane plot using linear random effect model. Trees were classified into three categories: shrub, subcanopy, canopy using the Kmeans method and investigated the patterns of intraspecific trait variation in different vertical layer using regression models. Finally, we explored whether intraspecific trait variation in different vertical layers depended on species differences using linear mixed effect models and a one-way analysis of variance. Results suggest that general intraspecific trait variation was lower than interspecific variation in the local community. Moreover, the pattern of intraspecific trait variation differed significantly among different vertical layer, and intraspecific trait variation was positively correlated with the vertical range. Intraspecific variation of leaf functional traits strongly depended on species differences, so species differences were relatively more important than microenvironment in explaining trait variation. In addition, intraspecific variation of different leaf functional traits showed different trends along vertical layer. Our study found the important role of intraspecific trait variation in species coexistence.

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Incorporating species distribution model into the red list assessment and conservation of macrofungi: A case study with Ophiocordyceps sinensis
Yi Li, Zhiyao Tang, Yujing Yan, Ke Wang, Lei Cai, Jinsheng He, Song Gu, Yijian Yao
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 99-106.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019158
Accepted: 24 December 2019

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China is rich in macrofungal biodiversity. However, many species have been threatened in recent years by human activity and climate change. Red list assessment is the first step towards species conservation. To protect this group of fungi, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China in 2016. A reasonable assessment largely relies on the sufficient information of species’ geographic information, population numbers and sizes and population dynamics, which is lacked in most of macrofungal species. It is therefore necessary to employ new approaches to find and utilize more information for the assessment. Among the assessed species, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, which is an edible and medicinal fungus endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions, has relatively abundant information. This species gained attention worldwide due to its obvious economic value and its importance to local societies. A species distribution modeling has also been an important component of its red list assessment. Here, we call on a previous study that aimed to predict the current potential distribution and to project the future distribution of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, and then we discuss how this modeling method can be employed in red list assessments to predict the current potential distribution and the range shifts of other macrofungal species in response to climate change. Challenges of using the model and possible solutions are also discussed. The species distribution modeling method is considered to have great potential for red list assessments and the subsequent conservation of macrofungi.
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China’s mammal diversity (2nd edition)
Zhigang Jiang, Shaoying Liu, Yi Wu, Xuelong Jiang, Kaiya Zhou
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (8): 886-895.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017098
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Due to recent modifications of mammalian taxonomy, discoveries of mammalogy in China, and conservation needs of the country, China’s mammal diversity inventory is in urgent need of an update. We collected new species and records of mammal species in China from the literature since March 2015, adopted the new taxonomy, incorporated our own research, and added mammalian species of the Zangnan Region, to renew the inventory of mammal diversity in the country. The major changes in the new version of the inventory are the elevation of the order Cetartiodactyla to the super order Cetartiodactyla and the split of the order Cetartiodactyla in Jiang et al (2015) into orders Cetacea and Artiodactyla, respectively. Chodsigoa hoffmanni C. furva and Mesechinus sp. were added to the order Eulipotyphla. In the order Chiroptera, Murina fanjingshanensis, Myotis rufoniger and Rhinolophus subbadius were added, while Myotis hirsutus and Miniopterus fuscus were deleted from the inventory. In the order Primates, Hoolock tianxing, Trachypithecus pileatus, Nycticebus coucang and Hoolock hoolock were added to the inventory. In the order Carnivora, Melursus ursinus, Canis aureus, Vulpes bengakensis, Herpestes edwardsii, and Felis viverrinus were added. We reclassified the species in the order Artiodactyla according to the taxonomy of the Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Vol. 2, Ungulates. Ovis ammon, O. collium, Budorcas taxicolor, and Muntiacus muntjak were added to the order. All sika deer in the country were grouped as a single species, Cervus nippon, and all moose were grouped as a single species, Alces alces. Cervus alashanicus and C. macneilli as well as the dwarf blue sheep, Psuodois sharferi, were deleted, and the species of the Tragulus in Xishuangbanna was listed as Tragulus sp. In the order Cetacea, Platanista gangetica was added while Delphinus capensis was deleted. In the order Rodentia, new species, Typhlomys nanus, Neodon medogensis and N. nyalamensis, Bandicota bengalensis as well as Myospalax cansus, Biswamoyopterus biswasi, Niviventer niviventer, Mus booduga; and one species, Typhlomys daloushanensis, which was elevated from the status of subspecies, were added to the inventory, however, Hadromys humei was deleted from the inventory. The taxonomy of Arvicolini of Cricetidae was renewed. Caprolagus hispidus and Lepus nigricollis were added to the order Lagomorpha and the taxonomy of Ochotona was renewed, with 5 species downgraded from the status of species to subspecies while 4 were elevated from subspecies to species. Altogether there are 29 pika species in China. However, O. princeps, O. collaris, O. hoffinanni, O. rufescens and O. pusilla are not found in the country. The new inventory of China’s mammals has 13 orders, 56 families, 248 genera and 693 species. Compared with that reported by Jiang et al (2015), there is now an additional order, family, three genera and 20 species in the new mammalian diversity inventory. Of the mammalian species in country, the statuses of 18 species, mostly rodents, are still in dispute amongst mammalogists. There are 146 endemic mammalian species in China, which accounted for 21% of the total mammal species in the country. Of those endemic species by order, the highest endemic rate is found in Lagomorpha (37%), followed by Eulipotyphla (35%) and Artiodactyla (25%). Overall, China has the richest mammal diversity in the world.

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Cited: CSCD(3)
Red List of China’s Vertebrates
Zhigang Jiang, Jianping Jiang, Yuezhao Wang, E Zhang, Yanyun Zhang, Lili Li, Feng Xie, Bo Cai, Liang Cao, Guangmei Zheng, Lu Dong, Zhengwang Zhang, Ping Ding, Zhenhua Luo, Changqing Ding, Zhijun Ma, Songhua Tang, Wenxuan Cao, Chunwang Li, Huijian Hu, Yong Ma, Yi Wu, Yingxiang Wang, Kaiya Zhou, Shaoying Liu, Yueying Chen, Jiatang Li, Zuojian Feng, Yan Wang, Bin Wang, Cheng Li, Xuelin Song, Lei Cai, Chunxin Zang, Yan Zeng, Zhibin Meng, Hongxia Fang, Xiaoge Ping
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (5): 500-551.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016076
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Cited: CSCD(40)
Camera-trapping survey of mammalian and avian biodiversity in Qianjiangyuan National Park, Zhejiang Province
Jianping Yu,Jiangyue Wang,Huiyun Xiao,Xiaonan Chen,Shengwen Chen,Sheng Li,Xiaoli Shen
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1339-1344.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019345
Accepted: 09 February 2020

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From May 2014 to April 2019, we conducted camera-trapping surveys in the Qianjiangyuan National Park, Zhejiang Province. We divided the park into a grid containing 267 1 km × 1 km plots, with 3 fixed survey stations (> 300 m apart from each other) in each plot. One camera trap was set up in each plot and rotated among the stations within the plot every four months. In the Gutianshan section of the park, the cameras were running for 14 rotations from 2014-2019. The survey started in Hetian, Qixi and Changhong in 2018, and the cameras were rotated once in Qixi and twice in Hetian and Changhong. With a survey effort of 140,413 camera-days from 741 stations in 253 grids, we obtained 268,833 pictures/videos resulting in 74,368 independent detections. The survey recorded 21 wild mammalian and 72 avian species, as well as 5 domestic animal species. Among the species, two (black muntjac Muntiacus crinifrons and Elliot’s pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti) are Class I, and seventeen are Class II national protected animals, accounting for 20.4% of total recorded wild species. Five species are red-listed by the IUCN as Vulnerable and four as Near Threatened, accounting for 9.7% of the total recorded wild species. One species is red-listed as Endangered, nine as Vulnerable and ten as Near Threatened by Red list of China’s vertebrates, accounting for 21.5% of the total recorded wild species. The most detected mammal species was Reeve’s muntjac Muntiacus reevesi, and the most detected bird species was silver pheasant Lophura nycthemera. Our results provide reliable baseline information on the species composition, their spatial distribution, and relative abundance of mammals and birds in the Qianjiangyuan National Park.

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On key issues and possible solutions related to nature reserve management in China
Keping Ma
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (3): 249-251.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016082
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Cited: CSCD(6)
Methods and procedures of the red list assessment of macrofungi in China
Ke Wang, Dongmei Liu, Lei Cai, Haijun Wu, Yi Li, Tiezheng Wei, Yonghui Wang, Hongmei Wu, Xiaodan Wei, Binbin Li, Junsheng Li, Yijian Yao
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 11-19.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019172
Accepted: 13 December 2019

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In The Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China project, the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria were adjusted according to differences in biological characteristics among plants, animals, and macrofungi. The adjustments are as follows: (1) population fluctuation and mature population members were estimated according to visible distribution and fruiting bodies, (2) a certain time period (rather than generation time) was used to calculate population change, (3) Possibly Extinct was added as an additional threatened category. The assessed data was based on the Checklist of Fungi in China database, fungal taxonomy literature, and expert consultation. Lastly, the Red List of China’s Biodiversity—Macrofungi was compiled via task assignment, data collection, assessed species verification, initial assessment, expert assessment, and red list compilation.
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Distribution patterns and environmental interpretation of beetle species richness in Helan Mountain of northern China
Guijun Yang,Min Wang,Yichun Yang,Xinyun Li,Xinpu Wang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1309-1319.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019184
Accepted: 14 January 2020

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Spatial patterns of species richness and mechanism are vital to biodiversity conservation. Based on the distribution of beetles and combined the climate and habitat heterogeneity, we explored the distribution patterns and effect factors of beetle species richness of overall and six dominant families in Helan Mountain of northern China. The results showed that species richness and fauna differentiation intensity of beetles were the highest in the middle of Helan Mountain, the southern section was higher than the northern section, and the western section was higher than the eastern section. After clustering analysis of species distributed in 183 grids, the distribution of beetles could be classified into three groups (xerophilic landscape beetle groups in the northern section, semi-hygric landscape beetle groups in the middle-western section, and semi-xerophytic beetle groups in the middle-east and south section). The mean annual temperature and precipitation were the most significant factors on beetle distribution by analyzing of RDA. Meanwhile, water and energy factors together explained 57.1% of the spatial variation in overall beetle species richness, only 5.9% and 7.1% separately, followed by habitat heterogeneity (35.2%) and only 1.8% separately. The relative effect of dominant species richness were inconsistent with climatic and habitat heterogeneity, but water and habitat heterogeneity have significant effect on beetle species richness in southern and northern of Helan Mountain. Water and energy factors dominantly impacted beetle spatial distribution, and habitat heterogeneity increased the species richness. Therefore, we suggested that topographic and soil factors may also have an important influence on beetle species richness in Helan Mountain according to the unexplained proportion.

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Threatened species list of China’s macrofungi
Yijian Yao, Jiangchun Wei, Wenying Zhuang, Tiezheng Wei, Yi Li, Xinli Wei, Hong Deng, Dongmei Liu, Lei Cai, Junsheng Li, Ke Wang, Haijun Wu, Binbin Li, Yonghui Wang, Xiaodan Wei, Hongmei Wu, Mingjun Zhao, Liu Yang, Jinhe Su, Xi Zhong
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 20-25.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019174
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Gap distribution patterns in the south subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of Dinghushan
Dandan Sui, Yue Wang, Juyu Lian, Jian Zhang, Jianbo Hu, Xuejun Ouyang, Zongji Fan, Honglin Cao, Wanhui Ye
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (4): 382-392.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017027
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Studying the dynamic characteristics, species coexistence and biodiversity conservation mechanisms of subtropical forest ecosystems is important in the study of the quantitative characteristics and spatial gap distribution patterns. Based on census data from the 20 ha dynamics plot of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Dinghushan in 2015, we analyzed the geometric characteristics and spatial distribution pattern of gaps in the plot by combining aerial image processing technology of unmanned aerial vehicles and GIS. Results show that the gap fraction is 13.72%, the gap density is 35.75 no./ha, and the average gap area is 38.37 m2. Results also show that: (1) The number of gaps in the area is negatively exponentially distributed with the increase of gap area, that is, the gap is small and the marginal effect is not significant. (2) The average area of ??forest gaps in over-mature forest stands is larger than that in mature forests, while the mature forest is more likely to have more small gaps and fewer large gaps. (3) In different habitats, the distribution of gaps in each habitat shows the same pattern as that found in the whole plot. However, the difference in the valley is significant when compared with other habitats, and gap area and gap density in the valley are larger than other habitats. The ridge gap is also distinctive, and its gap density is lower than other habitats. (4) Gap area is significantly correlated with topographic factors. It was significantly negatively correlated with altitude and convexity, and had a significantly positive correlation with aspect and gradient. Based on these comparative analyses, a monitoring system of forest canopy changes and patterns can be established using drones, to dynamically monitor forest gaps and the undergrowth community.

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Integrative taxonomy resolved species delimitation in a fern complex: A case study of the Asplenium coenobiale complex
Siqi Liang, Xianchun Zhang, Ran Wei
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (11): 1205-1220.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019316
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Due to wide hybridization and polyploidization, there are numerous species complexes with taxonomic challenges in the fern genus Asplenium. Integrative taxonomy using evidence of morphology, cytology and molecular phylogeny provides one of the best ways for the discovery and delimitation of species. The Asplenium coenobiale complex represents one of the spleenwort complexes, which are morphologically variable and difficult in species delimitation. Owing to the lack of comprehensive sampling and systematic study, the taxonomy of this complex remains unresolved. In this study, we selected representative individuals of this complex covering differences in morphology and geography. We conducted a palynological study to explore reproductive characteristics, and inferred the ploidy level through flow cytometry. Furthermore, based on the phylogenetic evidence from chloroplast and nuclear genomes, we discussed the evolutionary relationship and origin of this complex. Our results showed that: (1) The development of 64 spores within a single normal sporangium is indicative of the ability of sexual reproduction, although abortive sporangia are common in the Asplenium coenobiale complex. (2) Ploidy variation is found in this complex, i.e. A. cornutissimum is diploid, whereas other members are all tetraploid. (3) The maternally inherited chloroplast phylogeny supported four clades within this complex, and this was incongruent with the nuclear phylogeny; therefore, it was inferred that hybridization could be an important driving force during the formation of the complex. Based on our analyses, we conduct a revision to the A. coenobiale complex, i.e. one newly discovered autotetraploid species (A. maguanense sp. nov.), one diploid species (A. cornutissimum), and two allotetraploids with reciprocal origins (A. coenobiale and A. pulcherrimum).

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The use of Checklist of Fungi in China database in the red list assessment of macrofungi in China
Ke Wang, Mingjun Zhao, Jinhe Su, Liu Yang, Hong Deng, Yonghui Wang, Haijun Wu, Yi Li, Hongmei Wu, Xiaodan Wei, Tiezheng Wei, Lei Cai, Yijian Yao
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 74-99.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019163
Accepted: 13 December 2019

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Taxonomic research has, to date, mainly been published in peer-based journals and books. Recently, with the development of emerging technology, document digitization has become a new trend and a variety of databases have been established to provide useful information for scientific research, government decisions, resource protection and utilization, and science communication. During the Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China project, The Checklist of Fungi in China and Index Fungorum were used for data mining and programming methods to compile the Red List of China’s Biodiversity—Macrofungi. Both Latin and Chinese scientific names of assessed species were revised and corrected, providing a useful example for established database importance in taxonomic research, evaluation, and biological conservation.
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Diversity in benthic and environmental characteristics on alpine micro-waterbodies and stream ecosystems in northwest Yunnan
Shuoran Liu,Daode Yang,Xianfu Li,Lu Tan,Jun Sun,Xiaoyang He,Wenshu Yang,Guopeng Ren,Davide Fornacca,Qinghua Cai,Wen Xiao
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1298-1308.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019157
Accepted: 13 December 2019

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Due to the small area and the cascaded structure formed by surface water, alpine micro-waterbodies are often considered to have similar habitats to alpine streams. However, due to the differences between the environmental factors and the benthic diversity, the functions of these two habitats in the ecosystem may be completely different. Northwest Yunnan hosts one of the richest global biodiversity hotspots where alpine micro-waterbodies and streams are densely concentrated. These two fresh water ecosystems have important functions in regional benthic biodiversity maintenance, however, these peculiar freshwater ecosystems have barely received research attention. In order to compare the similarities and differences of environmental factors and biodiversity between these two habitats and their maintenance effects on benthic diversity, in this study, benthic biodiversity and the environmental factors of 27 alpine micro-waterbodies and a stream in the same region (9 sample sites within an altitude gradient of 500 m) were investigated in an alpine valley of Gongshan County, Nujiang, Yunnan Province in June of 2015. Results showed that: (1) The common characteristics of benthic communities in alpine micro-waterbodies and the stream were that the dominant taxa have large population size, while, the rare taxa had higher richness but small population size. (2) However, the environmental factors, species diversity, functional diversity and community structures were quite different between the alpine micro-waterbodies and the stream, the alpine stream had higher species richness, species diversity and functional diversity than alpine micro-waterbodies. (3) the benthic biodiversity and formation of community structure in alpine stream were related to the elevation and aquatic environmental factors relating to flow rate regulation, while, the aquatic environmental factors of alpine micro-waterbodies did not act as the drivers for the distribution of benthic biodiversity. Therefore, these findings suggest that alpine micro-waterbodies and streams are distinct ecosystems that each feature has very different characteristics, they cannot be regarded as similar ecosystem types. Both of them play an important role in the maintenance of regional benthic biodiversity and ecosystem functions.

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Development of red list assessment of macrofungi in China
Yijian Yao, Jiangchun Wei, Wenying Zhuang, Lei Cai, Dongmei Liu, Junsheng Li, Tiezheng Wei, Yi Li, Ke Wang, Haijun Wu
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 4-10.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019173
Accepted: 24 October 2019

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Macrofungi are important with both their ecological and socioeconomic values. Due to environmental pollution, climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation, and over-exploitation of resources, the diversity of macrofungi is under serious threatened. To evaluate the threatened status of macrofungi nationwide in China, the project of “Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China” was officially launched in 2016 by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (formerly the Ministry of Environmental Protection) in conjunction with the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Based on extensive and comprehensive collection of literature on the occurrence and distribution of macrofungi in China, and referring to the categories and criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Species, the evaluation methods and process of the Red List of China's macrofungi were formulated according to the biological features of macrofungi and the current understanding of macrofungi in China. Experts on macrofungi around China were mobilized and organized to assess the threatened status of 9,302 species of macrofungi reported in China. Ninety-seven species are considered under threatened (including Possibly Extinct, Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable), accounting for 1.04% of the total number of species assessed; 101 species are Near Threatened, 2,764 species are Least Concern and 6,340 species are Data Deficient, occupying 1.09%, 29.71% and 68.16%, successively, of the species assessed. The assessment, which brings together the wisdom of more than 140 experts all over the country, is the first nationwide attempt to assess the threaten status of macrofungi in China, involving the largest number of macrofungal species, the widest range of macrofungal groups, the widest coverage of distribution area and the largest number of expert participants at home and abroad. It is of great significance to the conservation and management of the diversity of macrofungi in China.
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Some scientific questions for ecosystem services
GUO Zhong-Wei, GAN Ya-Ling
Biodiv Sci    2003, 11 (1): 63-69.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2003009
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Ecosystem services and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth′s life supporting system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. Four scientific quastions about the functions of ecosystem services are discussed in this paper. They are: 1) study of the integration, amount and spatial location of functions of ecosystem services; 2) the spatial transfer of functions of ecosystem services; 3) the relationship between ecosystem service and ecological security; and 4) the sustainable use of ecosystem services. The heterogeneity in the structure of ecosystem's results in heterogeneity of their functions. Consequentially, there is spatial heterogeneity in the functions of ecosystem services. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the functions of ecosystem services by qualitative, quantitative and spatial means. Some functions of ecosystem services can be transferred spatially by various methods, and produce benefits at areas far removed from their habitats and range of suitable conditions. This phenomenon is called spatial transfer of ecosystem services. Thus, characteristic ecosystem services can bring economic values to a region of larger area than that covered by the ecosystem′s habitats. Ecosystem services provide supporting system for humans, and their strengths depend on ecological capital stock. Ecological capital stock illustrates the capability of sustainable development of a country. Ecological capital stock of an ecosystem relies in turn on the function and the structure of the ecosystem. Endangerment of ecosystem service raises a question for ecological security. In many regions ecological resources are rare. To use ecological resources sustainably, local communities should be urged to develop their economies by means of managing ecosystem services, i.e., to industrialize the management of ecosystem services. These four scientific questions for ecosystem services are related to each other. The aim of discussing them is to focus study on ecosystem services in the future.
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Cited: CSCD(38)
Threat status of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes in China and its threatening factors
Wenying Zhuang, Yi Li, Huandi Zheng, Zhaoqing Zeng, Xincun Wang
Biodiv Sci    2020, 28 (1): 26-40.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019153
Accepted: 16 October 2019

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On May 22, 2018, the 25th International Day for Biological Diversity, a “China Biodiversity Red List—Macrofungi” was officially released by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The List included 870 species of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes (as “macro-ascomycetes” below). A total of 24 species were listed as threatened including 1 Possibly Extinct, 6 Critically Endangered, 3 Endangered and 14 Vulnerable, accounting for 2.76% of the species assessed. Besides, 189 macro-ascomycetes were assessed as Least Concern and 616 as Data Deficient, accounting for 21.72% and 70.80%, respectively. The evaluation method, assessment process and results were presented herein; and the status of the China’s macro-ascomycetes, geographic distribution of the threatened species and major threatening factors were analyzed. The conservation actions and advices were also proposed. Fungal taxonomy is fundamental of and essential for evaluation of biodiversity red list of threatened species. In a relatively long period of time, field investigations and taxonomic studies are critical tasks and need continuous financial support from different sources. Future evaluations of threatened species of macrofungi in China rely on co-operations among taxonomists, workers in nature reserves, ecologists and amateurs.
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Ratifying Bonn Convention, promoting global conservation of migratory animals
Zhigang Jiang,Zhengwang Zhang,Runzhi Zhang,Zhijun Ma,Hongjun Chu,Yiming Li,Changqing Ding,Yahui Zhao,Jiliang Xu,Xiaoge Ping,Yan Zeng,Shaopeng Cui,Na Li,Dandan Cao,Supen Wang,Jing Xu,Yingjie Qi,Chunwang Li
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1393-1395.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019379
Accepted: 06 January 2020

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China’s key protected species lists, their criteria and management
Jiang Zhigang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (6): 698-703.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019089
Accepted: 08 July 2019

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China’s key protected species lists include the List of State Key Protected Wild Animals (LSKPWA), the List of Terrestrial Wildlife with Important Ecological, Scientific and Social Values, and the lists of local key protected wild animals. After the amendment and implementation of the Wild Animal Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China in 2017, the revision of the LSKPWA is on the agenda. In order to revise the list of the state key protected species, the relationship between these lists should be delineated to reflect the priority of protection and to facilitate administration and to divide the responsibility of protection between the central and local governments. It is recommended to determine the level of key protected wildlife species according to their attributes of endangerment, endemism, rareness, preciousness and management requirement. By adopting the Principle of Clump Listing, related species or the higher taxa such as a whole genus even a whole family should be included in the lists of protected species as far as possible. It is also practical to list a subspecies or a population as a management unit on the species protection list. In addition, to reflect the new provisions of the amended Wild Animal Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China, it is necessary to distinguish domesticated and wild populations, those populations which have been artificially successfully bred with mature technology and stable production traits should be exempted from the listing. Thus, using the Principle of Splitting Listing to solve the real problems in conservation. In addition, taxonomic changes should be closely tracked and species list should be updated in time. It is also necessary to formulate criteria for protection levels, to develop guidelines for species recovery plan after their listing and to design amendment procedure for the list. It is important to formulate populations and habitats recovery plan for each key protected species. Through periodic evaluation of the listed species, the listed species are upgraded, downgraded, deleted or maintain its status for the needs of dynamic management of rare and endangered wild animals.

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Beta-diversity partitioning: methods, applications and perspectives
Xingfeng Si, Yuhao Zhao, Chuanwu Chen, Peng Ren, Di Zeng, Lingbing Wu, Ping Ding
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (5): 464-480.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017024
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Beta diversity describes the variation in species composition among communities within a region and it is determined by two antithetic processes: species turnover (or species replacement), and nestedness (or difference in richness). Beta-diversity partitioning aims to separate these two processes when examining species composition among communities, and to reveal their underlying mechanisms. Since 2010, the partitioning methods were proposed following two dominant frameworks: the BAS method proposed by Andrés Baselga in 2010 (partitioning overall beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components) and the POD method proposed by János Podani and Dénes Schmera in 2011 and José C. Carvalho et al. in 2012 (partitioning overall beta diversity into species replacement and richness difference components). With the continuous debate on the nature of the BAS and POD methods, studies on beta-diversity partitioning have developed rapidly worldwide. We reviewed journal articles in the field of beta-diversity partitioning since 2010. Results showed that the number of publications and citations using the BAS method were greater than those using the POD method (75% vs. 20%). In those publications, most of study sites were located in Europe (45%) and research taxa were dominated by animals (64%). Here, we introduce the history and development of beta-diversity partitioning, potential applications in studying biodiversity distributions across spatial-temporal scales (latitudinal/altitudinal gradients, habitat fragmentation, seasonal and annual dynamics), multiple-faceted diversity (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity), and comparisons among various biological taxa. We point out the following directions in the field of beta-diversity partitioning in the future: (1) the synthesis and comparative analysis of the methods of beta-diversity partitioning; (2) examining patterns of overall beta diversity and its components by incorporating species abundance; and (3) testing the generality of results yielded from beta-diversity partitioning across large scales.

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The outstanding universal value and conservation of the Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site
Zongqiang Xie, Guozhen Shen, Youbing Zhou, Dayong Fan, Wenting Xu, Xianming Gao, Yanjun Du, Gaoming Xiong, Changming Zhao, Yan Zhu, Jiangshan Lai
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (5): 490-497.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016268
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World Natural Heritage site is recognized globally as the pinnacle of natural protected areas that are the cornerstones of biodiversity conservation. The World Natural Heritage of Shennongjia represents one of the worldwide biodiversity hotspots. But, until now, it has not been clear how outstanding the universal value of Shennongjia is worldwide, and this study presents one of the most compelling challenges to conservation efforts. Here, we compiled literature and conducted additional field surveys in the Shennongjia region to illustrate the outstanding universal value of Shennongjia World Natural Heritage Site using World Heritage criteria (ix) and (x), following the operational guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Results show that the heritage of Shennongjia offers an outstanding example of the ongoing ecological processes occurring in the development of intact subtropical mixed broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. This region presents a typical example of mountain altitudinal biological zones in the Oriental Deciduous Forest Biogeographical Province. Shennongjia is also a vital origin location for global temperate flora, and harbors the highest concentration of global temperate genera of trees. Moreover, the heritage of Shennongjia displays exceptional biodiversity and is a key habitat for numerous relic, rare, endangered and endemic species. The richness of deciduous woody species in Shennongjia is the highest in the world. Our study provides great insight into protecting, monitoring and managing the outstanding world heritage in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Cited: CSCD(7)
Comparison of growth, photosynthesis and phenotypic plasticity between invasive and native Bidens species under different light and water conditions
Yumei Pan, Saichun Tang, Chunqiang Wei, Xiangqin Li
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (12): 1257-1266.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016366
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To explore the traits related to the invasiveness of exotic Bidens species in China, we compared the morphology, growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, and phenotypic plasticity of two invasive Bidens species (B. pilosa and B. frondosa) with two native congeners (B. biternata and B. tripartita) under different light and water conditions in a common garden. The results showed that the invasive and native species displayed similar plant heights and total biomass under unfavorable conditions (i.e. low light and low water treatment). However, under favorable light and water conditions (i.e. high light and high water treatment), the invasive species showed significantly greater plant height and total biomass than the native congeners. Furthermore, in high light treatments, the relative growth rate of the invasive species was higher than that of the native species. The invasive species allocated more resources to root biomass at high light levels compared to low light levels, while they allocated more resources to leaf biomass at low light levels compared to high light levels. Specific leaf area of the invasive species was greater than that of the native congeners under low light conditions. These traits may enhance the abilities of invasive species to capture and utilize resources, enabling them to withstand adverse environmental conditions or to respond more positively to favorable conditions. The phenotypic plasticity indices of invasive and native species for morphology, growth, and photosynthetic parameters were low for water availability and high for light intensity. However, for most variables, invasive species showed a higher phenotypic plasticity index than native congeners, and this may contribute to their invasion success. In addition, there were no significant differences for photosynthetic parameters between invasive and native Bidens species under any treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that morphology, growth, biomass allocation, and phenotypic plasticity may play more important roles than photosynthetic parameters in the success of invasive Bidens species.

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A method for assessing species diversity conservation value of nature reserves
Ziliang Guo,Shaohua Xing,Guofa Cui
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (3): 312-324.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016350
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In order to provide a scientific basis for upgrading the level of a nature reserve (NR) and selecting the appropriate management type, the conservation priority of NRs should be identified. How to objectively identify conservation priorities has become a key problem. We propose a mathematical method to comprehensively assess species diversity conservation values by comparing existing evaluation indexes and methods, consulting experts and processing indexes quantitatively. This evaluation method includes the following indices: the wild plant diversity conservation value index; wild animal diversity conservation value index; rare and endangered wild plant diversity conservation value index; and the rare and endangered wild animal diversity conservation value index of a NR. Meanwhile, 39 NRs in North China Warm Temperate Region and 67 NRs in Northeast China Temperate Region were selected as case studies to verify methods, based on species diversity data of the NRs. The evaluation results revealed that some provincial NRs could be recommended for an upgrade to national NRs, due to high species diversity conservation values, including the Nandagang Wetland and Liaohe River Source NRs of Hebei, Wuling Mountain NR of Beijing in the North China Warm Temperate Region, the Jingpo Lake, Dajia River, and Cuibei Wetland NRs of Heilongjiang in the Northeast China Temperate Region. The computation method showed a great advantage in comparing species (various groups) diversity conservation values for different NRs and determining the conservation priority sequence. Moreover, there were significant differences in the species diversity conservation value of NR among different natural conservation geographical areas, and types of NRs.

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Alien invasive species in China: their damages and management strategies
WAN Fang-Hao, GUO Jian-Ying, WANG De-Hui
Biodiv Sci    2002, 10 (1): 119-125.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2002014
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The impacts and invasion method of alien invasive species (AIS), and prevention and management of biological invasion are discussed. Biological invasion is becoming one of the most important factors threatening biodiversity and stability of various ecological systems in China. The impacts of these biological invasions are becoming a more serious problems with development and increase of global trade, transportation, international travel and ecological tourism. Harmful AIS often leads to irreversible species extinction, and results in substantial economic losses within managed and natural ecosystems, including agriculture, forestry, fishery and animal production. Newly invading weeds, insect pests and plant diseases frequently result in large scale outbreaks and persistent use of chemical pesticides. Successful invasion and spread of some major insect pests and weeds in China were caused by man made factors. These include decision mistakes and unintentional introduction of some plants, such as water hyacinth and alligator weed as pig food, irresponsible introduction actions taken by individual/group without any ecological concerns, and lack of rapid response mechanism for eradicating potentially AIS as soon as they appear. China is an agricultural country. Any biological invasion will be a "big bomb" for our agriculture and inevitably result in ecological and economic losses in specific ecosystem and specific geographic regions. Prevention of biological invasion is an important aspect for safeguarding the state′s ecological safety. Development and researches should focus on building the state capacity, research capacity, and management capacity for addressing AIS problem. Based on the urgent situation of AIS in China, priority for research and action plans concentrate on: developing methods to identify the origin and pathways of invasive population; understanding the biological and ecological bases of AIS; developing environmentally friendly methods for control of AIS; developing environmental impact assessment and risk analysis methods for AIS; and developing methods for the recovery of habitats after control of AIS.
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Cited: CSCD(125)
Advances in species coexistence theory
Chengjin Chu, Youshi Wang, Yu Liu, Lin Jiang, Fangliang He
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (4): 345-354.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017034
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How species coexist locally is a fundamental question in community ecology. Classical coexistence theory underscores the importance of niche differentiation between species and focuses on specific coexistence mechanisms. Studies on these specific coexistence mechanisms have profoundly contributed to understanding species coexistence at the local scale and inspired ecologists to create a more general contemporary coexistence theory. Under the contemporary coexistence theory, species differences are categorized into two groups: niche differences and average fitness differences. Niche differences serve as stabilizing mechanisms that promote species coexistence, whereas average fitness differences are related to equalizing mechanisms that drive competitive exclusion. In this paper we provide a detailed review of contemporary coexistence theory, including its definition and theoretical models, empirical tests of these models and their applications to biodiversity studies. Coexistence theory has applications in a number of other areas including biodiversity conservation and management in a changing world beyond the basic concept of how communities are structured. We show how contemporary coexistence theory has advanced the niche-based classic coexistence theory, helping us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of community assembly and biodiversity maintenance.

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Insight into evolution of land plants from living ferns and lycopods
Yuehong Yan, Ran Wei, Jiangping Shu, Xianchun Zhang
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (11): 1165-1171.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019423
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All Papers in This Issue
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (11): 0-0.  
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Community composition and diversity of cultivable endophytic bacteria isolated from Dongxiang wild rice
Zhiyuan Chen,Jun Liu,Xingpeng Yang,Meng Liu,Ya Wang,Zhibin Zhang,Du Zhu
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (12): 1320-1329.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019219
Accepted: 22 February 2020

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Endophytic bacteria are essential to the growth and metabolism of their host plants. To better understand the community structure and diversity of endophytic bacteria on plants, we isolated 94 strains of endophytic bacteria from the roots, stems and leaves of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). Subsequent 16S rRNA sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the 94 strains could be categorized into 17 genera of 14 families in 3 phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes).Bacillus and Microbacterium, accounting for 27.7% and 20.2% of the diversity, respectively, were the two most dominant genera. The distribution and diversity of endophytic bacteria differed across different tissues of Dongxiang wild rice: the roots contained the most endophytic bacteria strains (n = 34, 36.2%), followed by leaves (n = 32, 34.0%), and stems (n = 28, 29.8%). Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′ = 2.52), Simpson dominance index (D = 0.88) and Pielou evenness index (E = 0.72) were higher in the roots than in the stems or leaves. Meanwhile, the Jaccard similarity index between roots and stems (C = 0.29) was lower than that between roots and leaves (C = 0.47), or that between stems and leaves (C = 0.45). Our efforts to uncover the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Dongxiang wild rice confirms that roots contain the most diverse strains but that the composition of endophytes varies across tissues.

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Molecular diversity of glutamate receptors and its molecular mechanism
LIU Zhi-Min, CHEN Jun-Jie, YANG Shao-Hua,
Biodiv Sci    1999, 07 (1): 52-59.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.1999008
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Glutamate is an important neurotransmitter that initates synaptic excitation by binding to corresponding cell membrane receptors in the central nervous system ,resulting in the change of permeating cations of cell membrane and metabolic change of cell by coupling to Gproteins. Over past few years , the research in glutamate receptors and their genes suggested that glutamate receptors are diversified in structure and function due to multiple genes ,alternative splicing , RNA editing and heteromeric formation. It should be expected that investigation in glutamate receptors and their genes will provide instructive suggestion to molecular mechanism of many important brain functions and drug design for the neurodegenerative diseases related to these receptors.
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Multi-disciplinary integration and multi-scale exploration: a new trend in the study of Floristic Geography
Hang Sun
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (2): 109-110.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017035
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Advances and challenges in resolving the angiosperm phylogeny
Liping Zeng,Ning Zhang,Hong Ma
Biodiv Sci    2014, 22 (1): 21-39.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13189
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Angiosperm phylogenetics investigates the evolutionary history and relationships of angiosperms based on the construction of phylogenetic trees. Since the 1990s, nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been widely used for this and angiosperm phylogenetic analysis has advanced from using single or a combination of a few organellar genes to whole plastid genome sequences, resulting in the widely accepted modern molecular systematics of angiosperms. The current framework of the angiosperm phylogeny includes highly supported basal angiosperm relationships, five major clades (eudicots, monocots, magnoliids, Chloranthales, and Ceratophyllales), orders grouped within these clades, and core groups in the monocots or eudicots. However, organellar genes have some limitations; these involve uniparental inheritance in most instances and a relatively low percentage of phylogenetic informative sites. Thus, they are unable to resolve some relationships even when whole plastid genome sequences are used. Therefore, the utility of biparentally inherited nuclear genes with more information about evolutionary history, has gradually received more attention. Nevertheless, there are still some plant groups that are difficult to place in the angiosperm phylogeny, such as those involving the relative positions of the five major groups as well as those of several orders of eudicots. In this review, we discuss the applications, advantages and disadvantages of marker genes, the deep relationships that have been resolved in angiosperm phylogeny, groups with uncertain positions, and the challenges that remain in resolving an accurate phylogeny for angiosperms.

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Cited: CSCD(3)
Location determination of ecologically vulnerable regions in China
Junhui Liu,Changxin Zou,Jixi Gao,Su Ma,Wenjie Wang,Kun Wu,Yang Liu
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (6): 725-732.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015147
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Ecologically vulnerable regions in China are not only the most serious areas of environmental degradation, but also the most poverty-stricken regions. However, these regions are still undefined. Three typical factors including land desertification, soil erosion and rocky desertification were selected to establish an evaluation model of eco-environmental sensitivity by using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. We conducted a comprehensive research on eco-environmental sensitivity to reveal its spatial features in a quantitative way in China, and redefine the location of ecologically vulnerable regions integrated with the existing relevant government documents and the previous research. Results are demonstrated as follows: the extremely sensitive areas are distributed in northwestern, southwestern, southeastern parts of China and loess hilly regions; the highly sensitive areas are located in the Altai Mountains, the Tianshan Mountains, the southern part of Yinshan Mountains, the Horqin Sandy Land, the Hulun Buir Sandy Land, the western part of Chang Tang Plateau, the Hengduan Mountains and the hilly mountains regions in Southeast China. A total of 18 ecological vulnerable regions in China were defined, comprising a total area of 2.4 million km2. The name, type, area, spatial distribution and the main ecological problems of each region were characterized. The spatial distribution map of ecologically vulnerable regions in China can be used as a base map for the redline delimitation of national ecological protection.

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Cited: CSCD(5)
China’s mammalian diversity
Zhigang Jiang,Yong Ma,Yi Wu,Yingxiang Wang,Zuojian Feng,Kaiya Zhou,Shaoying Liu,Zhenhua Luo,Chunwang Li
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 351-364.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014202
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China’s mammalian fauna is unique: it possesses the endemic species and genera of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; it has the relic families, Ailuropodidae and Lipotidae, of the Tertiary Period; more than half of the species of the Ochotonidae in the country are endemic; furthermore China is also the country with world most abundant ungulate diversity. In the new millennia, changes to the taxonomy of mammals of world were proposed. New mammalian species and new mammals were reported in China. Thus it is necessary to renew the inventory of China’s mammal diversity. During the compiling of The Red List of Endangered Species in China: Mammals, we collected the available data on China’s mammals (including those of Taiwan) and formed The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015. For taxonomy of orders, we followed the existing theory using molecular phylogeny whereas for the classification of families and the taxa below family level, we followed the A Complete Checklist of Mammal Species and Subspecies in China: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wang (2003) and Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wilson & Reeder (2005). We also adopted Ungulate Taxonomy by Groves & Grubb (2011) to classify the ungulates in China. The initial list included species recorded in taxonomic books and field guides, new species and new records in literature before March 31, 2015. After five evaluation meetings and two rounds of evaluation by correspondence, we finalized The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015, which includes 12 orders, 55 families, 245 genera and 673 species. Among those species, 18 new species (including 11 discovered with molecular biology methods, the validity of the species are still in dispute among zoologists), 18 new species records in country, and 60 subspecies were elevated to the status of species were added to the checklist. According to literature and expertise, we deleted 52 species which are not found in China. Of them, specimens of some species were collected only once, and then never been found again during following surveys. Taxonomists hold different opinions on 20 Glires, and those species need further investigation. Compared with the data of IUCN Red List (2014), the number of mammal species in China recorded in the study is surpassed that of Indonisia (670), China became the country with the most abundant mammal species in the world. The mammals in China accounted for 12.3% of the world total numbers of mammalian species. There are 150 endemic mammals in China, which accounted for 22.3% of the national total. 43% of the species in Lagomorpha are endemics to the country. The endemic ratio of Ochotonidae is even higher, 52% of the total. Endemic ratio of Eulipotyphla is 35%. About one fifth of Primates, Chiroptera and Rodentia in China are also endemics, including 12 new bat species discovered in the country during recent decade. The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015 provides the most updated baseline information for biodiversity research and conservation.

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Cited: CSCD(3)
Seasonal variations in macrobenthic communities in the subtidal zones of Jiaozhou Bay
Mei Yang,Xinzheng Li,Yong Xu,Hongfa Wang,Baolin Zhang
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (7): 820-830.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015264
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Jiaozhou Bay is a semi-enclosed bay at the southern shore of Shandong Peninsula and has abundant macrobenthic species. In present study, the seasonal variation of the macrobenthic community in this bay was analyzed based on data collected from four cruises in February (winter), May (spring), August (summer) and November (autumn) of 2014. A total of 199 macrobenthic species were identified, of which, 79 species were Polychaeta, 47 were Crustacea, 40 were Mollusca, 17 were Echinodermata, and the remaining 16 species belong to other animal groups. The composition of dominant species seasonally varied, however, most of them were species belong to Polychaeta. The average abundance of the macrobenthos from the four cruises was 209.85 ind./m2, with the highest abundance found in the autumn cruise and the lowest in the spring cruise. The average biomass from the four cruises was 79.22 g/m2, with the highest biomass found during the summer cruise and the lowest found during the spring cruise. The Shannon-Wiener index (H') of the macrobenthic community varied from 2.16 to 2.86, the species richness index (D) varied from 2.79 to 3.72 and the species evenness index (J) varied from 0.58 to 0.82. The Bray-Curtis similarity cluster analysis and NMDS ordination analyses indicated that the similarity among macrobenthic community groups was low and the distribution pattern of microbenthic animal groups showed seasonal characteristics. In recent years, with the rapid economic development of coastal zones and the continuous impact of human activities, the stability of the benthonic community in Jiaozhou Bay is threatened, therefore, long-term monitoring is recommended and effective comprehensive management measures need to be explored to result in the healthy and sustainable development of the marine ecosystem in Jiaozhou Bay.

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