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Biodiv Sci   
Classification and identification of plant species based on multi-source remote sensing data: Research progress and prospect
Kong Jiaxin, Zhang Zhaochen, Zhang Jian
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (7): 796-812.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019197
Accepted: 21 August 2019

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Species classification and identification is the basis of biodiversity monitoring, and is critical to deal with almost all ecological questions. In this paper, we aim to understand the current status and existing problems in plant species classification and identification using multi-source remote sensing data. We summarized the studies in this field since the year 2000, and found that most of these studies focus on temperate or boreal forests in Europe and North America, or African savanna. Airborne hyperspectral data is the most widely used remote sensing data source, and the LiDAR, as a supplementary data, significantly improves the classification accuracy through the information of single tree segmentation and three-dimensional vertical structure. Support vector machine and random forest are the most widely used non-parametric classification algorithms with an average classification accuracy of 80%. With the development of computer technology and machine learning, artificial neural network has developed rapidly in species identification. Based on the literature-based analysis, we propose that the current research in this field is still facing some challenges, including the complexity of classification objects, the effective integration of multi-source remote sensing data, the integration of plant phenology and texture characteristics, and the improvement in plant classification algorithm. The accuracy of plant classification and identification could be greatly improved by using the high-frequency data collection over time, the integration of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, the use of specific spectral information such as short-wave infrared imagery, and the development of novel deep learning techniques.

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Identification of functional zones and methods of target management in Sanjiangyuan National Park
Mengdi Fu,Junliang Tian,Yanpeng Zhu,Yu Tian,Zhiping Zhao,Junsheng Li
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (1): 71-79.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016098
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Functional zones are the key link for the master planning and scientific management of national parks. We established an evaluation index system to comprehensively analyze regional ecological and environmental features in our study area, the source region of the Yellow River in the Sanjiangyuan National Park. The evaluation index system contains 13 evaluation indices, which include ecosystem services, potential habitat for key species, ecological sensitivity, and ecological pressure classes. By using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and experts marking methods and combining the requirements of management and control measures, the study area was divided into four primary functional zones, including a core reserve area, ecological restoration area, traditional utilization area, and residential and recreational service area. The protection gradation for each zone is reduced in turn, and the gradation of utilization and public accessibility is enhanced. This functional zones method laid a solid foundation for the effective planning of Sanjiangyuan National Park, while at the same time, our study provides new insight into the functional zones of national parks.

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Cited: CSCD(2)
Red List of China’s Vertebrates
Zhigang Jiang,Jianping Jiang,Yuezhao Wang,E Zhang,Yanyun Zhang,Lili Li,Feng Xie,Bo Cai,Liang Cao,Guangmei Zheng,Lu Dong,Zhengwang Zhang,Ping Ding,Zhenhua Luo,Changqing Ding,Zhijun Ma,Songhua Tang,Wenxuan Cao,Chunwang Li,Huijian Hu,Yong Ma,Yi Wu,Yingxiang Wang,Kaiya Zhou,Shaoying Liu,Yueying Chen,Jiatang Li,Zuojian Feng,Yan Wang,Bin Wang,Cheng Li,Xuelin Song,Lei Cai,Chunxin Zang,Yan Zeng,Zhibin Meng,Hongxia Fang,Xiaoge Ping
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (5): 500-951.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016076
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Cited: Baidu(10) CSCD(40)
Families and genera of Chinese angiosperms: a synoptic classification based on APG III
Bing Liu,Jianfei Ye,Su Liu,Yuan Wang,Yong Yang,Yangjun Lai,Gang Zeng,Qinwen Lin
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (2): 225-231.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015052
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Angiosperms constitute the most diverse lineage of higher plants and are represented by ca. 300,000 living species that dominate the vegetation of terrestrial ecosystems. Number and composition of families, genera, and species are important to understanding global and regional biodiversity. Due to the rapid development of molecular systematics, circumscriptions of many traditional angiosperm families and genera have been revised. This study investigates circumscriptions of families and genera of native and introduced angiosperms in China according to the APG III classification system and recent phylogenetic studies. Results showed that there are 258 native and 55 introduced families (including 6 naturalized families), and 2,872 native and 1,605 introduced genera (including 152 naturalized genera) in China. A brief introduction to the historical and recent changes of circumscriptions of families and genera occurring in China was also provided. Our list included 115 newly recorded families and 1,729 newly recorded genera when compared to Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, and 85 newly recorded families and 1,531newly recorded genera when compared to Flora of China.

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Cited: Baidu(8) CSCD(7)
The spatial overlapping analysis for China’s natural protected area and countermeasures for the optimization and integration of protected area system
Ma Tonghui, Lü Cai, Lei Guangchun
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (7): 758-771.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019087
Accepted: 21 August 2019

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The construction of natural protected area system is a biodiversity conservation strategy which has been highly emphasized by international communities. In recent years, China expresses its concerns about the overlapping and intersection of natural protected area and proposed Guidance on Establishing a Natural Protected Area System Dominated by National Parks. To implement the proposed strategy, it is important to conduct a systematic study on the relationship and spatial distribution of the natural protected areas. This study collected data from 8,572 natural protected areas in different categories and administrative levels, including coordinates, types of ecosystems, administrative regions and boundaries. Among them, 1,532 natural protected areas with spatial overlapping and cross-jurisdictions were selected. Geographic concentration index (G) was calculated, and ArcGIS software was adopted for Kernel density estimation. Finally, the spatial distribution patterns, overlap of protected areas in ecological and geographic zones, ecosystem types, agencies with crossing jurisdiction and province locations were obtained. The results showed that: (1) Natural protected areas were concentrated in mountainous areas in central Shandong, Taihang Mountain, Dabie Mountain, Tianmu-Huaiyu Mountain and Wanjiang region, across multiple wetlands and forest ecosystems (Mean > 6, Max > 8). Among 10 pilot national parks, only Giant panda, Nanshan and Qianjiangyuan were located in areas with high density of overlapping; (2) The former State Administration of Forestry and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development had the largest number of sites under cross-jurisdiction among all the former agencies; (3) The number of overlapping natural protected areas in Heilongjiang, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Hunan provinces are significantly higher than other provinces. The overlap between Shanxi-Hebei-Henan and Anhui-Hubei-Jiangxi provinces is higher, and there is moderate overlap in other provinces. The areas studied above could become key priority areas for reassembling and optimizing China’s protected area system. Based on overlap hot zones, priority zones for biodiversity conservation, and cultural ecosystem services, this paper proposes a framework for reassembling and optimizing overlapped protected areas. According to 3 new protected area categories including national parks, nature reserves and natural parks, suggestions are given prioritizing reassembling and associating the area with a new category, which would provide a reference scheme to the urgent needs of ongoing reform of China’s natural protected areas system.

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Development of foreign ecological protected areas and linkages to ecological protection redline delineation and management in China
Dong Liu,Naifeng Lin,Changxin Zou,Guangyong You
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (6): 708-715.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015131
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Ecological protection redline (EPR) is a new concept recently put forward in the Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China and the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Policy regarding the implementation of protection is strictest in EPR areas. Although there was no EPR worldwide previously, most countries had established protected areas, a similar practice to EPR, in natural or near natural areas, aiming at protecting species, habitats and ecosystems. In this paper, we summarize the ecological protection systems and their management practice executed by IUCN and in other foreign countries (USA, EU, Russia, Japan, etc.) based on relevant literature. Ecological protection areas range from 5% to 40% for most countries. In these countries, a specific management system is either governed by a special protection management department or a multi-sectoral management division. Different management and control measures are decided according to the human activity intensities. Based on gap analysis research in China’s presently protected areas and problems in classification management of protected areas, we suggest integrating and optimizing different types of protected areas by evalua- ting their importance and sensitivity. Land with important ecological service, biodiversity and habitat protection functions should be preferentially included in EPR. The area ratio assigned to EPR should be up to 30% of the total land area. We propose that unified supervision and management by China’s environmental protection departments should be strengthened, establishing EPR management laws and regulations, and implementing different management measures according to its classifications.

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Cited: Baidu(1) CSCD(8)
The categorization and analysis on the geographic distribution patterns of Chinese alien invasive plants
Xiaoling Yan,Quanru Liu,Haiyang Shou,Xianfeng Zeng,Yong Zhang,Li Chen,Yan Liu,Haiying Ma,Shuyan Qi,Jinshuang Ma
Biodiv Sci    2014, 22 (5): 667-676.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14069
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We used the literature, field investigations, specimen records and taxonomic research to categorize 515 alien invasive plant species from 72 families and 285 genera reported from China according to their biological and ecological characters, extent of spread within China, and amount of damage caused. Each species was put into one of 5 categories: malignant invasion (34 species), serious invasion (69 species), local invasion (85 species), general invasion (80 species), and species requiring further observation (247 species). According to our analyses of geographic distributional patterns, Chinese alien invasive plants were highly concentrated in the southwestern and eastern coastal provinces of China, and were rapidly spreading to inland China. These categories and distributional patterns of alien invasive plants could help to assess and control their invasive risk. Our results provide baseline information on Chinese alien invasive plants; and, at the same time, we put forward preliminary suggestions for further study, public education and the management of the important alien invasive plants in China.

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Cited: Baidu(21) CSCD(19)
Current research and development trends in floristic geography
Hang Sun,Tao Deng,Yongsheng Chen,Zhuo Zhou
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (2): 111-122.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016253
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This paper summarizes the research status, existing issues, and trends in floristic geography. There is now a wealth of research accumulation on floristic investigations, distribution types of genera, floristic regions, and regional floristic analysis. It is also noted that most of these studies utilize simple statistical analyses, comparative studies, traditional methods, and single subjects, to provide a basic understanding and description of the floristic phenomenon, which is lacking spatial pattern formation processes and detailed exploration of formation mechanisms. Additionally, there are still some weak and non-existent areas of botanical investigation. Many existing specimens lack detailed or accurate information and the precise identification of plant species also needs to be much improved. At the same time, when analyzing the development trends of floristic geography, with the rapid development of related disciplines, including the development of biogeography and analysis methods and improvements, floristic geography research is an area of multidisciplinary integration, comprehensive research, and analysis. On the one hand, using database information, and combining ecology, paleobotany, and geology can allow us to probe into spatial pattern formation. On the other hand, combining phylogenetics, the tree of life, and molecular biogeography allow us to reveal floristic origins and evolution. The rapid development of various disciplines has given rise to a large amount of data, meanwhile, the emergence and application of new analytical methods and theories incorporate big data into floristic geography research, which will enhance qualitative understanding and description, and allow us to further explore the mechanisms of formation quantitatively.

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Cited: Baidu(1) CSCD(2)
Visual analysis of hotspots and emerging trends in traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity
Ding Lubin, Ma Nan, Wang Guoping, He Siyuan, Min Qingwen
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (7): 716-727.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019130
Accepted: 21 August 2019

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Research on traditional knowledge has become increasingly more popular for biodiversity conservation research, as it has a great impact on a wide range of fields such as biological resource management, ecosystem services, community sustainable development and more. In order to understand how research on traditional knowledge is changing, this paper uses Web of Science (WoS) and applies WoS’s statistical analysis function and visualization analysis software CiteSpace III to search for key co-occurrence analysis, emergent word analysis, literature co-citation analysis, and other methods to understand research hotspots and evolution of traditional knowledge research systematically. The number of research papers on traditional knowledge research is increasing yearly. Research institutions such as the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, the Indian Council for Agricultural Research and the University of California system have shown strong scientific research strength; Africa, Brazil, Bolivia and India are hotspots for traditional knowledge research. We found that Albuquerque UP, Singh R and Xue DY have published a substantial quantity of academic papers in this field. Additionally, papers published by Berkes F, Drew JA, Gómez-Baggethun E and other scholars have laid a solid foundation for this field and the promotion of related research. Studies on traditional knowledge related to biological resource management, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services, and policy management represent important directions in this field in the future.

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Biodiv Sci   
Estimating population abundance and utilization of Rhinogobio ventralis, an endemic fish species in the upper Yangtze River
Fei Xiong,Hongyan Liu,Xinbin Duan,Shaoping Liu,Daqing Chen
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (3): 304-312.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015268
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Rhinogobio ventralis, an endemic species in the upper Yangtze River, has been threatened by overfishing and dam construction. To understand its population dynamics after the Three Gorges Reservoir was built and before the Xiangjiaba and Xiluodu reservoirs were built, we employed body length-frequency data to estimate growth and mortality parameters, population abundance and utilization of the fish based on surveys in the Jiangjin and Yibin sections of the upper Yangtze River conducted from 2007-2009. Fish ranged from 52 to 250 mm in length and 2.7 to 307.2 g in weight, with an average length of 150.8 ± 40.7 mm and an average weight of 72.3 ± 49.7 g. The average size of the fish in the Jiangjin section of the Yangtze River (168.6 ± 29.5 mm) was significantly larger than that in Yibin section (125.6 ± 41.2 mm). The length-weight relationship of R. ventralis was well-fit with a power function, W = 6.06 × 10-6 L3.20 (R2 = 0.98, P < 0.01, n = 436). Asymptotic length (L) and growth constant (k) were estimated using length frequency data as 338 mm and 0.24/yr, respectively. Average natural mortality was comprehensively estimated as 0.43 using three empirical formulas proposed by Pauly, Gunderson & Dygert, and Jensen, respectively. The total mortalities were estimated using a length-converted catch curve analysis as 2.26 in the Jiangjin section and 2.09 in the Yibin section of the Yangtze River. The observed exploitation rates were 0.81 in the Jiangjin section and 0.79 in the Yibin section, which were higher than the maximum exploitation rates of 0.57 in the Jiangjin section and 0.62 in the Yibin section that were estimated using Beverton & Holt Y′/R analysis. Population abundance of R. ventralis in the Jiangjin section was estimated by length-structured virtual population analysis as 68,247 in 2007, 67,432 in 2008, and 176,266 in 2009, respectively, with an average of 103,982; while abundance in the Yibin section was estimated as 22,953 in 2007, 46,340 in 2008, and 34,021 in 2009, respectively, with an average of 34,438, indicating the population abundance was higher in the Jiangjin section than the Yibin section. We conclude that overfishing is occurring in these stocks of R. ventralis and recommend a longer period of monitoring in order to understand population dynamics of R. ventralis. We further suggest that management authorities establish a longer closed period for fishing and undertake habitat restoration to protect the endemic fish species.

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Phylogeography of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants: current progress and future prospects
Yingxiong Qiu,Qixiang Lu,Yonghua Zhang,Yanan Cao
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (2): 136-146.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016292
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In this review, based on recent studies of population genetics and phylogeographics of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants, we have outlined the main phylogeographic patterns and processes. We also summarize common geographic and environmental factors which may contribute to the phylogeographic patterns of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants and present future challenges and research prospects. There are four recurrent phylogeographic scenarios identified by different case studies, including: (1) the global cooling and aridification during the Middle and Late Miocene induced recent speciation, with climate change during the Late Pliocene and Pleistocene accounting for their intra-specific lineage divergence, genetic diversification and demographic expansion/contraction. The latitudinal contraction/expansion can lead to the formation of “suture zone” for some relict plants; (2) the effects of the formation of the glacial East China Sea land bridge, as a “corridor” or “filter”, have to account not only for habitat preferences per se but also for other biological features of different relict plant species; (3) the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) during the Late Pliocene and the intensification of East Asian monsoon system (EAMS) are the most suggestive factors responsible for the major phylogeographic break between the western and eastern lineages across the Sichuan Basin and northwestern arid regions; and (4) some Tertiary relict plants migrated southward to Taiwan from mainland China or Japan before the Pleistocene under global climatic cooling and aridification since the Late Miocene, and refugial isolation that occurred between Taiwan and mainland Asia accelerated vicariant lineage diversification and speciation. Overall, both historical and contemporary geography and environment have affected the distribution, genetic diversity, lineage divergence and speciation of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants. Finally, we emphasize notable gaps in our knowledge due to the long-term application of simple molecular clock based on very limited genetic markers, and outline future research prospects for disentangling the evolution and biogeographic history of East Asia’s Tertiary relict flora. We present the utilization of genome data and biogeography models and integrative phylogeographic research of multi-taxon communities as possible future directions.

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Cited: Baidu(1) CSCD(1)
Perspectives and prospects of unmanned aerial vehicle in remote sensing monitoring of biodiversity
Qinghua Guo,Fangfang Wu,Tianyu Hu,Linhai Chen,Jin Liu,Xiaoqian Zhao,Shang Gao,Shuxin Pang
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (11): 1267-1278.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016105
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During the past decade, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing has been increasingly used in the fields of vegetation inventory, natural resource management, and biodiversity conservation, due to its low cost and high flexibility. In this study, we present a reference for the selection of UAV platforms and remote sensing sensors, by introducing a UAV classification system and summarizing applicability in biodiversity monitoring using remote sensing techniques. For each UAV platform category, we also introduce the characteristics and capabilities of different remote sensing sensors that can be supported. Moreover, through the combination of a case study which collected high-fidelity UAV-based remotely sensed data, we discuss current research progress using UAV-borne remote sensing data to derive direct and indirect biodiversity parameters. Finally, we discuss the current limitations of UAV-based remote sensing platforms for biodiversity monitoring, such as the existing gap between hardware and software, the high cost of certain components (e.g. the initial measurement unit), incomplete laws and regulations, and the disconnect with traditional biodiversity monitoring methods. In summary, we believe that UAV-based remote sensing platforms can greatly help to fill the gaps between terrestrial measurements and aerial/spaceborne measurements, and can increase the accuracy and reliability of upscaling point-based terrestrial measurements to the regional scale. There is a need to launch more projects that address building a UAV-based biodiversity monitoring network, and therefore improve our capability to analyze and forecast biodiversity changes in hotspots.

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Cited: Baidu(1) CSCD(5)
Threatened Species List of China’s Higher Plants
Haining Qin, Yong Yang, Shiyong Dong, Qiang He, Yu Jia, Lina Zhao, Shengxiang Yu, Huiyuan Liu, Bo Liu, Yuehong Yan, Jianying Xiang, Nianhe Xia, Hua Peng, Zhenyu Li, Zhixiang Zhang, Xingjin He, Linke Yin, Yulin Lin, Quanru Liu, Yuantong Hou, Yan Liu, Qixin Liu, Wei Cao, Jianqiang Li, Shilong Chen, Xiaohua Jin, Tiangang Gao, Wenli Chen, Haiying Ma, Yuying Geng, Xiaofeng Jin, Chaoyang Chang, Hong Jiang, Lei Cai, Chunxin Zang, Jianyong Wu, Jianfei Ye, Yangjun Lai, Bing Liu, Qinwen Lin, Naxin Xue
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (7): 696-744.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017144
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Cited: Baidu(1) CSCD(6)
Action research on Tibetan sacred nature sites (SNS) conservation in Tibetan community in NW Yunnan
Yang Lixin, Pei Shengji, Zhang Yu
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (7): 749-757.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019081
Accepted: 21 August 2019

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The Tibetan sacred nature sites (SNS) encompass culturally significant, ritually protected sites in the Baima National Nature Reserve. Animistic and Tibetan Buddhist custodians of these sites have used traditional knowledge to conserve these sites for generations. Here, we assess how the Tibetan traditional eco-conservation culture conserves biodiversity, promotes community-based conservation, and restores forest ecosystems using methods of applied ethnobotany and ethnoecology. In particular, we applied strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analyses and community participatory approaches in three Tibetan SNS: Bazhu, Kegong, and Zhuida in Baima National Nature Reserve and its surrounding area in Shangrila County of Deqin Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province.Our results show that the driving force for community conservation of biodiversity comes from the established, traditional cultures and the dependence of community livelihoods on biodiversity. We conclude that community conservation on Sacred Nature Sites is an important way to protect biological and cultural diversity, as well as livelihood development at the community level. The Tibetan community's long-term compliance with, and practice of, SNS conservation has been a significant contribution to biodiversity conservation throughout the region.

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Biodiv Sci   
Additional remarks on “Three ‘What’: mission of a botanic garden”
De-Yuan Hong
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (9): 917-917.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017176
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China’s mammalian diversity
Zhigang Jiang,Yong Ma,Yi Wu,Yingxiang Wang,Zuojian Feng,Kaiya Zhou,Shaoying Liu,Zhenhua Luo,Chunwang Li
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (3): 351-364.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014202
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China’s mammalian fauna is unique: it possesses the endemic species and genera of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; it has the relic families, Ailuropodidae and Lipotidae, of the Tertiary Period; more than half of the species of the Ochotonidae in the country are endemic; furthermore China is also the country with world most abundant ungulate diversity. In the new millennia, changes to the taxonomy of mammals of world were proposed. New mammalian species and new mammals were reported in China. Thus it is necessary to renew the inventory of China’s mammal diversity. During the compiling of The Red List of Endangered Species in China: Mammals, we collected the available data on China’s mammals (including those of Taiwan) and formed The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015. For taxonomy of orders, we followed the existing theory using molecular phylogeny whereas for the classification of families and the taxa below family level, we followed the A Complete Checklist of Mammal Species and Subspecies in China: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wang (2003) and Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wilson & Reeder (2005). We also adopted Ungulate Taxonomy by Groves & Grubb (2011) to classify the ungulates in China. The initial list included species recorded in taxonomic books and field guides, new species and new records in literature before March 31, 2015. After five evaluation meetings and two rounds of evaluation by correspondence, we finalized The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015, which includes 12 orders, 55 families, 245 genera and 673 species. Among those species, 18 new species (including 11 discovered with molecular biology methods, the validity of the species are still in dispute among zoologists), 18 new species records in country, and 60 subspecies were elevated to the status of species were added to the checklist. According to literature and expertise, we deleted 52 species which are not found in China. Of them, specimens of some species were collected only once, and then never been found again during following surveys. Taxonomists hold different opinions on 20 Glires, and those species need further investigation. Compared with the data of IUCN Red List (2014), the number of mammal species in China recorded in the study is surpassed that of Indonisia (670), China became the country with the most abundant mammal species in the world. The mammals in China accounted for 12.3% of the world total numbers of mammalian species. There are 150 endemic mammals in China, which accounted for 22.3% of the national total. 43% of the species in Lagomorpha are endemics to the country. The endemic ratio of Ochotonidae is even higher, 52% of the total. Endemic ratio of Eulipotyphla is 35%. About one fifth of Primates, Chiroptera and Rodentia in China are also endemics, including 12 new bat species discovered in the country during recent decade. The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015 provides the most updated baseline information for biodiversity research and conservation.

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Cited: Baidu(13) CSCD(3)
Biodiv Sci   
Pattern of species richness along an altitudinal gradient on Gaoligong Mountains, Southwest China
WANG Zhi-Heng, CHEN An-Ping, PIAO Shi-Long, FANG Jing-Yun
Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (1): 82-88.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004010
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Patterns of species richness along altitudinal gradients have become a focus of ecological research. We explored the patterns of seed plants richness along an altitudinal gradient on Gaoligong Mountains, Southwest China. Information on seed plants and their distribution ranges was collected from Flora of Gaoligong Mountains, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) was derived from a topographical map of this region. Using these datasets, altitudinal patterns of richness and species density of all seed plant species and plants of three different life forms (trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants), as well as their relationship with topographic parameters were studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) the species richness increased rapidly first and then decreased with increasing elevation, peaking at the altitudes of between 1500 m and 2000 m; (2) similar to the altitudinal pattern of species richness, species, genus and family densities (number of taxa per unit area) also showed a humped pattern along the altitudinal gradient. Species density reached a maximum between 1500 m and 2000 m, with an average of 1653 m, while genus and family densities peaked between 900-1500 m, with an average of 1089 m,and (3) energy and moisture represented by elevation, as well as hard boundaries of species distribution were possible factors determining the patterns of species richness and density.
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Cited: CSCD(40)
Responses of spatial pattern of woody plants’ basal area to topographic factors in a tropical karst seasonal rainforest in Nonggang, Guangxi, southern China
Yili Guo,Bin Wang,Wusheng Xiang,Tao Ding,Shuhua Lu,Fuzhao Huang,Shujun Wen,Dongxing Li,Yunlin He,Xiankun Li
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (1): 30-39.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015207
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Spatial patterns of aboveground biomass are important aspect of species distribution patterns, whereas the environmental heterogeneity caused by the topographical differences in the scope of local scales is the environmental basis for the formation and evolution of this pattern in natural forest systems. In this study, we examined the spatial patterns of total basal area of woody plants, to quantitatively analyze the response mechanisms of the spatial patterns of total basal area to the seven topographic factors using a generalized additive model in a fully mapped 15 ha permanent plot in a northern tropical seasonal rainforest in a karst landscape in southern China. We used the total basal area of all the individuals and each DBH class in each 20 m × 20 m quadrat as a standard to measure the value of aboveground biomass of woody plants. Results showed that the hillside had the highest total basal area but the lowest was found at the ridge of the three habitat types. The total basal area of the ridge was significantly different between the hillside and the depression. Topographic factors had definite effects on the total basal area of woody plants, with the following sequence: elevation > aspect > convexity > rock-bareness rate (RBR) > altitude above channel (ACH) > slope > topographic wetness index (TWI). All topographical factors were statistically significant with the exception of the TWI and slope showing marginally significant. The relationships between the spatial variation of total basal area of woody plants and topographic factors reflected the response mechanisms and growth strategies of woody plants in a tropical seasonal rainforest under the effects of the redistribution of soil, water and light conditions.

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Cited: Baidu(1) CSCD(8)
Camera-trapping survey on mammals and birds in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China
Zhang Mingming,Yang Zhaohui,Wang Cheng,Wang Jiaojiao,Hu Canshi,Lei Xiaoping,Shi Lei,Su Haijun,Li Jiaqi
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (7): 813-818.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019131
Accepted: 21 August 2019

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Camera-trapping allows scientists to gain new insights into the protection status and threats toward biodiversity. Mammals and birds in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve were monitored using 40 camera traps in 2 independent plots based on grid sampling survey method. A total of 3,199 independent images (out of 14,119 recognizable images) were collected with an extensive survey effort of 14,808 camera-days during April 2017 to December 2018. 61 species within 9 orders and 22 families were recorded and identified, including 26 mammal species belonging to 4 orders and 12 families, and 35 avian species belonging to 5 orders and 10 families. Among the recorded species, Rhinopithecus brelichi and Syrmaticus ellioti are listed as Class I National Protected Wildlife in China. Worth noting, Rhinopithecus brelichi is listed as Endangered (EN) in the IUCN Red List, 9 species listed as Class II, 5 species as Vulnerable (VU), and 8 species as Near Threatened (NT). The relative abundance index (RAI) is widely used to assess the regional species abundance. The five most abundant mammal species with highest RAIs in Fanjingshan Naitonal Nature Reserve were Macaca thibetana (RAI = 28.23), Elaphodus cephalophus (RAI = 15.46), Sus scrofa (RAI = 11.82), Muntiacus reevesi (RAI = 9.05) and Rhinopithecus brelichi (RAI = 7.70). Additionally, the five most abundant avian species with highest RAIs were Myophonus insularis (RAI = 10.33), Tragopan temminckii (RAI = 9.59), Chrysolophus pictus (RAI = 6.96), Syrmaticus ellioti (RAI = 3.71) and Pucrasia macrolopha (RAI = 1.55). During the study, intensive livestock (RAI = 11.14) and human (RAI = 12.90) activities were recorded, which may elucidate the potential threat to the protection of wildlife and their habitat. We recommended that the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau should take more actions in improving the public awareness to protect wildlife, and in promoting the harmonious development of the reserve and local communities.

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On biodiversity conservation by Zhuang traditional culture: A case study in Jingxi City of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Cao Ning, Xue Dayuan
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (7): 728-734.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019076
Accepted: 21 August 2019

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The Zhuang ethnic people have a deep and expansive culture; many aspects of which have been documented through literature and field research, including acidic foods, textile dyeing, toponymy, literature and art, natural worship, folk customs and customary laws, traditional ecological concepts, and traditional medical. Here, we analyzed the protective effects of cultural diversity on biodiversity. The results show that: (1) The cultural diversity of Zhuang ethnic people and local biodiversity are closely interrelated. Rich biodiversity has generated a colorful traditional culture, and the formation and development of traditional culture can directly or indirectly enrich the local biodiversity; (2) The traditional culture and knowledge created of the Zhuang people in the long-term living history has greatly promoted the conservation and sustainable use of local biodiversity, and the protection of biodiversity will further guarantee the inheritance of local traditional culture. This paper also discusses the developing status and threatened factors of traditional knowledge and culture. We propose some suggestions to ensure the continuity of Zhuang traditional culture and use traditional knowledge sustainably: enhancing the protection of traditional knowledge and traditional culture by strengthening publicity and legislation, establishing traditional knowledge databases and developing rural tourism.

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A method for assessing species diversity conservation value of nature reserves
Ziliang Guo,Shaohua Xing,Guofa Cui
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (3): 312-324.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016350
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In order to provide a scientific basis for upgrading the level of a nature reserve (NR) and selecting the appropriate management type, the conservation priority of NRs should be identified. How to objectively identify conservation priorities has become a key problem. We propose a mathematical method to comprehensively assess species diversity conservation values by comparing existing evaluation indexes and methods, consulting experts and processing indexes quantitatively. This evaluation method includes the following indices: the wild plant diversity conservation value index; wild animal diversity conservation value index; rare and endangered wild plant diversity conservation value index; and the rare and endangered wild animal diversity conservation value index of a NR. Meanwhile, 39 NRs in North China Warm Temperate Region and 67 NRs in Northeast China Temperate Region were selected as case studies to verify methods, based on species diversity data of the NRs. The evaluation results revealed that some provincial NRs could be recommended for an upgrade to national NRs, due to high species diversity conservation values, including the Nandagang Wetland and Liaohe River Source NRs of Hebei, Wuling Mountain NR of Beijing in the North China Warm Temperate Region, the Jingpo Lake, Dajia River, and Cuibei Wetland NRs of Heilongjiang in the Northeast China Temperate Region. The computation method showed a great advantage in comparing species (various groups) diversity conservation values for different NRs and determining the conservation priority sequence. Moreover, there were significant differences in the species diversity conservation value of NR among different natural conservation geographical areas, and types of NRs.

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Cited: CSCD(3)
Conservation and outlook of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity
Xue Dayuan
Biodiv Sci    2019, 27 (7): 705-707.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019232
Accepted: 16 August 2019

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Establishment of a core collection of Changjiang spring sowing soybean
WANG Li-Xia, LI Ying-Hui, LI Wei, ZHU Li, GUAN Yuan, NING Xue-Cheng, GUAN Rong-Xia, LIU Zhang-Xiong, CHANG Ru-Zhen, QIU Li-Juan
Biodiv Sci    2004, 12 (6): 578-585.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004073
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Sampling strategy is very important for core collection establishment. In this study, different methods to construct a core collection of Changjiang spring sowing soybean were performed based on data of SSR(simple sequence repeat) markers and agronomic traits in order to optimize the sampling strategy for core collection. The results showed that, based on cluster analysis of SSR data, each of the three methods, i.e., random sampling within each group, sampling by genetic similarity coefficient within each group and sampling by genetic similarity coefficient, could be used to construct a soybean core collection. When SSR allelic reserving ratios were maintained at 90% and 80%, the core collections had higher genetic diversity indices of SSR alleles than if maintained at 70%. Core collections could also be constructed by agronomic and other basic data if there was no molecular data; however, SSR allelic reserving ratio might be decreased, which suggested that assessment of genetic diversity by SSR data was not always consistent with assessment by agronomic data. We found that core collections were heterogeneous, either when created with different sampling methods or with the same sampling method in different repeats, because randomicity always existed in selecting individuals. This indicated that the germplasm to form a core collection was variable, so optimal sampling strategies should be chosen to establish core collections based on different data according to practical or scientific objectives. Integrating phenotypic and genotypic data together would be better for improving the representativeness of core collections.
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Cited: CSCD(32)
The current status and conservation of otters on the coastal islands of Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, China
Fei Li, Xi Zheng, Huarong Zhang, Jianhuan Yang, Bosco Pui Lok Chan
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (8): 840-846.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017130
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Otters are rare and threatened in China, but both research and conservation efforts on this specialized group of mammals are largely overlooked. To provide baseline information on the current conservation status of otters in coastal Guangdong Province, we conducted rapid otter surveys using semi-structured interviews, transects, camera-trapping surveys, and a molecular study of the coastal islands of Zhuhai City between September 2016 and March 2017. Data collected suggested a dramatic decline of otter populations and the local extirpation of otters was reported on several islands. The discovery of a remnant population of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) on Hengqin Island provides hopes for the recovery of this species in South China. Nonetheless, the future of Hengqin’s otter is at stake due to the rapid urbanization of suitable habitats for economic development. To ensure its continual survival, critical habitats on Hengqin Island should be strictly protected as soon as possible. Furthermore, systematic, otter-specific surveys should be conducted in other coastal areas of China, to best devise a national otter conservation plan.

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Soil microbial diversity observation in China: current situation and future consideration
Xiangzhen Li,Liangdong Guo,Jiabao Li,Minjie Yao
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (11): 1240-1248.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015345
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Soil microbial diversity has not been extensively observed due to technique limitations. With the development of the high-throughput sequencing technique and bioinformatics, much progress has been made in observations of microbial diversity. Currently, international microbiome initiatives have been founded (including the Earth Microbial Project). However, problems in these projects include a lack of dynamic observations, differences in observational methods, and data integration. The soil microbial observation network (SMON) is an important part of the Chinese Biodiversity Monitoring and Research Network (Sino BON). The observational network initially selected field observation sites in forest ecosystems along a temperature and precipitation gradient from south to north, in grassland ecosystems along a precipitation transect from east to west, and in typical wetland and agricultural ecosystems in China. Field ecological observation stations have been established in these selected ecosystems. Key tasks for the SMON are to observe spatial and temporal dynamics of soil microbial communities and functional genes in various ecosystems, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and lichens. Observational data will be published periodically in the format of database, annals, and illustrated handbooks. Key methods used in the SMON are high- throughput sequencing, metagenomics, and bioinformatics. A soil biota database is currently being constructed to store observational data for public inquiry and analysis. Through the efforts of SMON, we plan to explore the driving mechanisms of spatial and temporal variations of soil microbial communities and their functional genes, and understand the relationships between microbial diversity and ecosystem function, in order to predict microbial dynamics under global environmental change scenarios, and to design strategies to protect soil microbial diversity and properly utilize microbial resources.

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Cited: CSCD(4)
Beta-diversity partitioning: methods, applications and perspectives
Xingfeng Si, Yuhao Zhao, Chuanwu Chen, Peng Ren, Di Zeng, Lingbing Wu, Ping Ding
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (5): 464-480.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017024
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Beta diversity describes the variation in species composition among communities within a region and it is determined by two antithetic processes: species turnover (or species replacement), and nestedness (or difference in richness). Beta-diversity partitioning aims to separate these two processes when examining species composition among communities, and to reveal their underlying mechanisms. Since 2010, the partitioning methods were proposed following two dominant frameworks: the BAS method proposed by Andrés Baselga in 2010 (partitioning overall beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components) and the POD method proposed by János Podani and Dénes Schmera in 2011 and José C. Carvalho et al. in 2012 (partitioning overall beta diversity into species replacement and richness difference components). With the continuous debate on the nature of the BAS and POD methods, studies on beta-diversity partitioning have developed rapidly worldwide. We reviewed journal articles in the field of beta-diversity partitioning since 2010. Results showed that the number of publications and citations using the BAS method were greater than those using the POD method (75% vs. 20%). In those publications, most of study sites were located in Europe (45%) and research taxa were dominated by animals (64%). Here, we introduce the history and development of beta-diversity partitioning, potential applications in studying biodiversity distributions across spatial-temporal scales (latitudinal/altitudinal gradients, habitat fragmentation, seasonal and annual dynamics), multiple-faceted diversity (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity), and comparisons among various biological taxa. We point out the following directions in the field of beta-diversity partitioning in the future: (1) the synthesis and comparative analysis of the methods of beta-diversity partitioning; (2) examining patterns of overall beta diversity and its components by incorporating species abundance; and (3) testing the generality of results yielded from beta-diversity partitioning across large scales.

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Elevational pattern of amphibian and reptile diversity in Qinling Range and explanation
Zhi Zheng,Dajie Gong,Chengxiang Sun,Xiaojun Li,Wanjiang Li
Biodiv Sci    2014, 22 (5): 596-607.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14005
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Spatial patterns of species diversity and range size along environmental gradients and their underlying mechanisms have long been controversial issues in biogeography and ecology. The species-area relationship, water-energy dynamic hypothesis and mid-domain effect were used here to explain the elevational patterns of amphibian and reptile species richness and their different faunal components in China’s Qinling Range using multivariate regression models and the variance partitioning algorithm. Our results showed unimodal patterns for the elevational distributions of amphibians, reptiles and their faunal components, but the peaks of the patterns differed among groups. The underlying mechanisms shaping the patterns revealed intensive interactions, while the independent explanatory strengths of the three proposed hypotheses (exclude reptile oriental realm) were relatively weak. The water-energy dynamic hypothesis was the most parsimonious explanation of the observed patterns. The majority of water-energy dynamic explanation belonged to interaction of three hypotheses. The interaction between mid-domain effect and water-energy dynamics was larger for amphibians and that between species-area relationship and water-energy dynamic hypothesis was larger for reptiles. The Steven’s and cross-species methods were used to examine whether species-specific elevational range sizes of amphibians, reptiles and their different faunal components are applicable to Rapoport’s rule. The results showed that reptile range sizes supported Rapoport’s rule at the various elevational gradients, while amphibian range sizes were difficult to support Rapoport’s rule.

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Cited: Baidu(2) CSCD(7)
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Biodiv Sci   
Red list assessment and conservation status of gymnosperms from China
Yong Yang, Bing Liu, Dennis M. Njenga
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (7): 758-764.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017145
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Based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Version 3.1), we assessed native gymnosperm species and infraspecific taxa found in China between March of 2010 and December of 2012. Results indicated that 37 species were critically endangered (CR), 35 species were endangered (EN), 76 species were vulnerable (VU), 87 species were of least concern (LC), and 16 species were data deficient (DD). Up to 59% of the 251 native species of gymnosperms found in China were classified as threatened. Threatening factors impacting gymnosperm species in China were ascribed into seven categories, among which habitat degradation, restricted distribution, and over exploitation were listed as the top three threats. According to results of red list assessments and conservation practices of gymnosperms in China, we propose that conservation of endangered gymnosperm species should have a targeted program. Otherwise, over-protection could result in additional threats to endangered species.

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Cited: Baidu(2) CSCD(1)
Location determination of ecologically vulnerable regions in China
Junhui Liu,Changxin Zou,Jixi Gao,Su Ma,Wenjie Wang,Kun Wu,Yang Liu
Biodiv Sci    2015, 23 (6): 725-732.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015147
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Ecologically vulnerable regions in China are not only the most serious areas of environmental degradation, but also the most poverty-stricken regions. However, these regions are still undefined. Three typical factors including land desertification, soil erosion and rocky desertification were selected to establish an evaluation model of eco-environmental sensitivity by using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. We conducted a comprehensive research on eco-environmental sensitivity to reveal its spatial features in a quantitative way in China, and redefine the location of ecologically vulnerable regions integrated with the existing relevant government documents and the previous research. Results are demonstrated as follows: the extremely sensitive areas are distributed in northwestern, southwestern, southeastern parts of China and loess hilly regions; the highly sensitive areas are located in the Altai Mountains, the Tianshan Mountains, the southern part of Yinshan Mountains, the Horqin Sandy Land, the Hulun Buir Sandy Land, the western part of Chang Tang Plateau, the Hengduan Mountains and the hilly mountains regions in Southeast China. A total of 18 ecological vulnerable regions in China were defined, comprising a total area of 2.4 million km2. The name, type, area, spatial distribution and the main ecological problems of each region were characterized. The spatial distribution map of ecologically vulnerable regions in China can be used as a base map for the redline delimitation of national ecological protection.

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Cited: CSCD(5)
Ten-years period of grass and small woody plant dynamics in a 5-ha evergreen forest plot in Baishanzu, Zhejiang Province
Yunxia Huang,Xuan Xu,Lixiang Zhang,Yue Song,Zhengrong Luo
Biodiv Sci    2016, 24 (12): 1353-1363.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016095
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Forest dynamics are directly driven by multiple factors, including changes in understory grasses and small woody plants. Yet the dynamics of these small woody plants and grasses as well as underlying ecological forces are still not fully understood, particularly in evergreen forests. Here, we analyzed ten year (from 2003 to 2013) shifts in species importance values, diversity, habitat associations, and distributions of understory small woody plants and grasses (including herbs, herbal lianas and woody plants with diameter at breast height (DBH) < 1 cm) in a 5-ha subtropical forest plot in Baishanzu, Zhejiang, China. Results showed that the number of individuals decreased by 28.7% overall, 76.9% in herbal lianas, and 14.4% in seedlings or saplings of tree species. Species richness of shrubs and grasses decreased notably, while evenness decreased in small woody plant communities and increased in herb communities. Except for Lithocarpus brevicaudatus, Symplocos phyllocalyx, Stauntonia conspicua, Rubus fujianensis, whose importance values increased conversely, correlations between changes of importance values during the ten-years period and initial importance values were positive among erective shrub species and negative among species of other life forms. Shifts in species-habitat associations were complex, as the number of species with significant habitat-associations decreased during the ten year period, except for the increasing richness of species with positive gully associations. Only species diversity in steep slope habitats did not decrease significantly. These findings suggest the small woody plants and grasses of the Baishanzu evergreen forest have not yet reached climax status, and were developing to the climax over 2003 to 2013. Internal community-level processes, such as intraspecific and interspecific competitions, should be dominant factors that drive the forest dynamics.

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On the connotation and extension of species concept used by the Conventionon International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
Zhigang Jiang
Biodiv Sci    2017, 25 (1): 88-90.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016375
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Cited: CSCD(1)
Rapid development of biodiversity informatics in China
Keping Ma
Biodiv Sci    2014, 22 (3): 251-252.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14107
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Cited: Baidu(2) CSCD(5)
Wildlife diversity after Wenchuan Earthquake: a case from Guangguangshan Valley of Longxi-Hongkou National Nature Reserve, Southwest China
Zhishu Xiao,Li Hu,Xiang Wang,Tao Shang,Dahai Zhu,Zhilong Zhao,Xiaoqun Huang
Biodiv Sci    2014, 22 (6): 794-797.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14029
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Cited: Baidu(3) CSCD(3)
Fish species diversity and community pattern in coral reefs of the Xisha Islands, South China Sea
Xuehui Wang, Feiyan Du, Zhaojin Lin, Dianrong Sun, Yongsong Qiu, Shuolin Huang
Biodiv Sci    2011, 19 (4): 463-469.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.07267
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We assessed fish communities using bottom gillnet surveys in 7 coral reefs (Beijiao Reef, Hua-guang Reef, Jinyin Island, Dongdao Island, Langhua Reef, Yuzhuo Reef and Yongxing Island) of the Xisha Islands in May, 2003 and analyzed species composition and diversity, dominant species, and community pat-tern using the software Primer. A total of 146 fish species belonging to 31 families and 10 orders were col-lected during the survey. Fishes in the coral reefs were dominated by the typical tropical species, including members of the families Scaridae, Chaetodontidae and Lutjanidae. According to the Index of Relative Im-portance (IRI), the six most dominant fish species were Myripristis murdjan, Lutjanus kasmira, Paracaesio sordidus, Caesio diagramma, Axinurus thynnoides and Hexanchus griseus, respectively. Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') ranged from 1.91 to 3.33 among reefs, with an average of 2.81. Overall, diversity indi-ces for the Xisha Islands were higher than those found in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, all of which are found at a higher latitude. The spatial pattern of fish communities was analyzed using hierarchical clustering and non-metric multidimensional scaling. Two major groups based on fish assem-blages were indentified, with group I located in the Yongle Islands and Group II in the Xuande Islands. ANOSIM and RELATE tests showed significant differences (R=0.685, P=0.029<0.05) in fish assemblages between these groups and the community pattern were quite stable (R=0.958, P=0.003<0.01).
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Cited: Baidu(6) CSCD(7)
How does species diversity change? Spatio-temporal patterns and scales
ZHOU Hong-Zhang, YU Xiao-Dong, LUO Tian-Hong, HE Jun-Jian
Biodiv Sci    2000, 08 (3): 325-336.   DOI: 10.17520/biods.2000047
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It is an important part of biodiversity research to discover the patterns of species diversity over space and time in different scales and to find the mechanisms that control thepattern forming. These are also considered to be the main goals of studies on species diversity , which lay special emphasis on how the number of species changes and how great the species diverse with different biological attributes. This paper discusses at first the spatial patterns of species diversity , especially the modes of“species-area”from different aspects. The factors like latitudinal changes and habitat heterogeneity are considered to see how they affect the pattern forming of species diversity. Secondly , the paper′s discussion is concentrated on the patterns of species diversity over time. In the long- term evolution of all organisms , the process of total species- diversity increase would be interrupted by a series of mass extinctions that occur periodically. The recent progresses show that the patterns of species diversity between any two mass extinctions would be determined by the initial status immediately after the former mass extinction. On short- time scales , e.g. ecological succession in a community , circannual rhythms and seasonality , some special patterns have been found in species- diversity changes. In addition , the results of some researches demonstrated that more species tended to live on a host if they had coevolved for a longer time.
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Cited: CSCD(27)

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