生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (4): 433-438.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019035

• 研究简报 • 上一篇    下一篇

土著昆虫素毒蛾在本地植物芦苇与入侵植物互花米草上的生活史

余文生, 郭耀霖, 江佳佳, 孙可可, 鞠瑞亭()   

  1. 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 长江河口湿地生态系统野外科学观测研究站, 崇明生态研究院, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-16 接受日期:2019-03-26 出版日期:2019-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 鞠瑞亭 E-mail:jurt@fudan.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31670544);上海市科委重点项目(18DZ1206507)

Comparison of the life history of a native insect Laelia coenosa with a native plant Phragmites australis and an invasive plant Spartina alterniflora

Yu Wensheng, Guo Yaolin, Jiang Jiajia, Sun Keke, Ju Ruiting()   

  1. Institute of Biodiversity Science, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, and Institute of Eco-Chongming (IEC), Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2019-02-16 Accepted:2019-03-26 Online:2019-04-20
  • Contact: Ju Ruiting E-mail:jurt@fudan.edu.cn

互花米草(Spartina alterniflora)入侵盐沼生态系统导致了土著广食性昆虫素毒蛾(Laelia coenosa)发生宿主转移。但是, 目前对素毒蛾在互花米草和芦苇(Phragmites australis)上的生活史规律的比较尚未见报道, 而此信息对评价素毒蛾能否持续利用互花米草具有重要的参考价值。为了明确素毒蛾在其原始宿主芦苇和外来新宿主互花米草上的生活史动态, 我们在上海崇明长江口盐沼湿地中, 对素毒蛾在芦苇和互花米草生境中的发生情况进行了系统调查。结果显示, 虽然素毒蛾在芦苇和互花米草上均一年发生3代, 并都以幼虫越冬, 但在互花米草生境中, 越冬代幼虫开始越冬的时间要比芦苇中晚20 d左右, 其他世代中的多个虫态在互花米草上持续出现的时间也比芦苇上延迟了约10 d。这些结果表明, 互花米草入侵后素毒蛾在外来植物上出现的持续时间虽然发生了延长, 但其年世代数未变化。我们推测素毒蛾在互花米草和芦苇上生长发育规律的差异可能受生境的资源可利用性及两种植物的营养与防御水平调控。

关键词: 适合度, 生物入侵, 生物学特性, 生态陷阱, 植食作用

The invasion of Spartina alterniflora into saltmarsh ecosystems has resulted in a host transfer of a native generalist insect, Laelia coenosa. Currently, the life history of L. coenosa on S. alterniflora is unclear, although this information is of great importance for evaluating if the native insect can permanently use S. alterniflora. To compare the differences in life history dynamics of L. coenosa between its native host plant Phragmites australis and the invasive host plant S. alterniflora, we investigated the insect occurrence on the two plant habitats in a saltmarsh of the Yangtze River estuary in Chongming, Shanghai. We found that the insect occurred in three generations and overwintered as larvae on both S. alterniflora and P. australis. The larvae started overwintering about 20 days later on the invasive plant than on the native plant, and emerging duration of the insect at most stages of other generations was also approximately 10 days later on the invasive than on native plant. These results suggest that following S. alterniflora invasion the duration of the moth’s appearance on the invasive plant is prolonged however the number of annual generations does not change. We speculate that the differences in growth and development of L. coenosa between S. alterniflora and P. australis may be related to resource availability between plant habitats and the nutritional and defensive levels between plant species.

Key words: fitness, biological invasion, biological characteristics, ecological trap, herbivory

图1

素毒蛾各生活史阶段形态图。a: 卵; b: 幼虫; c: 含蛹的茧; d: 成虫。"

图2

位于上海崇明岛长江口湿地的调查地点"

表1

素毒蛾在芦苇和互花米草上的生活史。● 卵; - 幼虫; ▲ 蛹; + 成虫; (-) 越冬幼虫。A: 上旬; M: 中旬; P: 下旬。"

世代
Generation
生境
Habitat
type
4月
April
5月
May
6月
June
7月
July
8月
August
9月
Septemper
10月
October
11月
November
12月至次年3月
December to March
A M P A M P A M P A M P A M P A M P A M P A M P A M P
越冬代
Over-
wintering
芦苇
Phragmites australis
(-) (-) - - - -
+ +
互花米草
Spartina alterniflora
(-) (-) - - - - -
+ + +
第1代
The 1st
芦苇
Phragmites australis
- - - - -
+ + +
互花米草
Spartina alterniflora
- - - - - -
+ + +
第2代
The 2nd
芦苇
Phragmites australis
- - - - - -
+ + +
互花米草
Spartina alterniflora
- - - - - -
+ + + +
第3代(越冬)
The 3rd (Over-
wintering)
芦苇
Phragmites australis
- (-) (-) (-) (-) (-) (-) (-)
互花米草
Spartina alterniflora
- - - (-) (-) (-) (-) (-)
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