生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (4): 419-432.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018316

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

转基因玉米对田间节肢动物群落多样性的影响

马燕婕1,何浩鹏1,沈文静2,刘标2,*(),薛堃1,2,*()   

  1. 1 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
    2 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-23 接受日期:2019-02-28 出版日期:2019-04-20 发布日期:2019-06-05
  • 通讯作者: 刘标,薛堃
  • 基金资助:
    转基因生物新品种培育重大专项(2016ZX08012005);环保公益性行业科研专项(201509044);中央民族大学一流大学一流学科项目(Yldxxk201819)

Effects of transgenic maize on arthropod diversity

Ma Yanjie1,He Haopeng1,Shen Wenjing2,Liu Biao2,*(),Xue Kun1,2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2018-11-23 Accepted:2019-02-28 Online:2019-04-20 Published:2019-06-05
  • Contact: Liu Biao,Xue Kun

摘要:

通过对转基因耐除草剂(EPSPS)抗虫(Cry1Ab)玉米转化体‘DBN9936’、受体玉米‘DBN318’、常规玉米‘先玉335’和喷施除草剂的转化体‘DBN9936’玉米田中节肢动物种类及数量的调查, 评价转基因玉米对田间节肢动物群落多样性的影响。2015年和2017年我们采用直接观察法、陷阱调查法和剖秆法对田间节肢动物进行调查, 采用聚类分析、物种累积曲线等方法对数据进行分析, 并比较了4个处理玉米田节肢动物群落的Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数、优势集中性指数和群落相似性指数的差异及其随时间变化的规律。调查期间共记录节肢动物20目80科; 转化体玉米‘DBN9936’ (2015: 10.3 ± 2.6头, 2017: 3.3 ± 1.7头)和喷施除草剂的转化体玉米‘DBN9936’ (2015: 6.0 ± 1.5头, 2017: 17.0 ± 0.6头)上鳞翅目昆虫的数量明显低于受体‘DBN318’ (2015: 20.0 ± 3.2头, 2017: 24.0 ± 6.0头)和‘先玉335’ (2015: 21.0 ± 8.9头, 2017: 26.7 ± 2.0头); 物种累积曲线呈典型的抛物线, 各类玉米田间总体物种丰富度差异较小; 玉米生育期节肢动物调查结果累计数量的功能团组成及其丰富度、多样性、均匀度、优势集中性间均无明显的差异, 各类指数随时间变化的动态趋于一致, 群落间相似性程度较高。转基因玉米‘DBN9936’对鳞翅目害虫有明显的抗性, 对非靶标节肢动物无显著的影响, 对田间节肢动物的群落多样性、均匀度、丰富度、优势集中性等没有明显的影响。

关键词: 转基因玉米, 生物多样性, 节肢动物, 多样性指数, 生物安全

Abstract:

The species and numbers of arthropods in fields of transgenic herbicide-tolerant (EPSPS) and insect-resistant (Cry1Ab) maize DBN9936, receptor maize DBN318, conventional maize Xianyu 335, and spraying herbicide transformant DBN9936, were investigated to assess the effect of genetically modified maize on the arthropod communities. Direct observations, pit-fall trapping and longitudinal section methods were used to investigate the field arthropod species in 2015 and 2017. A cluster analysis and species accumulation curves, as well as the Margalef richness index, Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index, Pielou evenness index, dominant concentration index, community similarity index, were calculated and compared. The recorded arthropod species belonged to 20 orders and 80 families. The number of Lepidopteron insects in the fields of herbicide-free transformant DBN9936 (2015: 10.3 ± 2.6, 2017: 3.3 ± 1.7) and transformant DBN9936 spraying herbicides (2015: 6.0 ± 1.5, 2017: 17.0 ± 0.6) were significantly lower than the corresponding parameters of receptor DBN318 (2015: 20.0 ± 3.2, 2017: 24.0 ± 6.0) and Xianyu 335 (2015: 21.0 ± 8.9, 2017: 26.7 ± 2.0). The species accumulation curves show a typical parabola and there was little difference in the overall species richness. There were no significant differences in the total number of arthropods, functional group composition, richness, diversity, evenness and dominant concentration in the maize fields and there was a high similarity between the arthropods communities. The dynamic of the richness index, diversity index, evenness index, dominant concentration index and community similarity index of those arthropods in the maize fields tended to be consistent. Transformant DBN9936 has obvious resistance to Lepidopteron insects and has no significant negative effects on non-target arthropods. The results suggest that the transformant DBN9936 maize has no significant effect on community richness, diversity, evenness and dominance concentration of arthropods in the fields.

Key words: genetically modified maize, biodiversity, arthropods, diversity index, biosafety