生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (5): 486-497.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018068

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中国熊蜂多样性、人工利用与保护策略

黄家兴, 安建东*()   

  1. 中国农业科学院蜜蜂研究所, 农业部授粉昆虫生物学重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-05 接受日期:2018-04-10 出版日期:2018-05-20 发布日期:2018-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 安建东
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(30672500, U1603108)和中国农业科学院科技创新工程(CAAS-ASTIP-2015-IAR)

Species diversity, pollination application and strategy for conservation of the bumblebees of China

Jiaxing Huang, Jiandong An*()   

  1. Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory for Insect-Pollinator Biology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2018-03-05 Accepted:2018-04-10 Online:2018-05-20 Published:2018-09-11
  • Contact: An Jiandong
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

熊蜂是众多野生植物和农作物的重要传粉者, 在维持自然和农业生态系统平衡中发挥着十分重要的作用。中国地形多样、植被丰富, 是全球熊蜂多样性的热点地区, 但过去缺乏系统调查研究, 中国熊蜂多样性现状及其利用特性不详。本文介绍了近20年在中国熊蜂资源系统调查及其人工利用方面取得的主要研究结果: (1) 2002-2017年采集熊蜂标本5万余号, 先后揭示了一系列疑难类群的分类地位, 确认中国已知熊蜂125种, 占全球熊蜂已知物种总数的50%, 表明中国是全球熊蜂物种资源最丰富的国家; (2)首次报道了中国熊蜂物种名录, 其中22种为中国特有种。我国青藏高原东部向黄土高原、秦岭山地和四川盆地过渡的地带, 是全球熊蜂多样性分布中心; (3) 1998-2017年, 明亮熊蜂(Bombus lucorum)、密林熊蜂(B. patagiatus)、红光熊蜂(B. ignitus)、火红熊蜂(B. pyrosoma)、重黄熊蜂(B. picipes)和兰州熊蜂(B. lantschouensis) 6种本土熊蜂先后被驯养成功, 其中密林熊蜂和兰州熊蜂的繁殖性状优良, 已应用于我国设施作物传粉服务。同时, 我们从栖息地、食物资源、外来物种、农药使用等方面提出了保护中国熊蜂资源的策略, 以期为野生传粉昆虫特别是熊蜂资源的保护与可持续利用提供参考资料。

关键词: 传粉者, 熊蜂, 野外调查, 繁育筛选, 传粉, 保护

Abstract:

Bumblebees are important pollinators of many wild flowers and crops and play a significant role in maintaining natural and agricultural ecosystems. The varied geomorphology and vegetation of China makes it the greatest hotspot of bumblebee diversity in the world. However, the bumblebee fauna of China has been insufficiently studied. Here, we report the results of systematic field surveys and the application of bumblebees to pollination over the last two decades in China. The results showed the following: (1) More than 50,000 bumblebee specimens were collected during 2002-2017. The taxonomic status of some difficult taxa was revealed by integrating morphology with DNA barcoding. A total of 125 bumblebee species have been identified, which represents 50% of the total number of bumblebee species worldwide. (2) We report the first compiled list of the bumblebee species of China, which includes 22 species that are endemic to China. The transitional zone from the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to the Loess Plateau, the Qinling Mountains, and the Sichuan Basin is the centre of bumblebee diversity worldwide. (3) Six native bumblebee species, including Bombus lucorum, B. patagiatus, B. ignitus, B. pyrosoma, B. picipes and B. lantschouensis from Northern China, were selected for rearing between 1998-2017. Furthermore, B. patagiatus and B. lantschouensis, which had traits that favoured domestication, are now used as pollinators of crops in greenhouses within China. We propose a multi-pronged strategy to conserve the native bumblebees of China, which includes protecting their habitats and food resources and controlling invasive alien species and pesticide use. We hope that this study will help inform the conservation and the sustainable use of wild pollinators across the globe, but especially bumblebees of China.

Key words: pollinator, bumblebee, field survey, rearing selection, pollination, conservation