生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 554-563.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.10049

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地理距离和地形差异对两个大型森林动态样地β多样性的影响

卢品1,2, 金毅2, 陈建华1, 李铭红1,*, 于明坚2,*()   

  1. 1 浙江师范大学生态研究所, 浙江金华 321004
    2 浙江大学生命科学学院, 杭州 310058
  • 收稿日期:2013-02-24 接受日期:2013-04-26 出版日期:2013-09-20 发布日期:2013-10-08
  • 通讯作者: 李铭红,于明坚
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金对外交流项目(31061160188);国家科技支撑计划(2008BAC39B02)

Influence of geographical distance and topographic difference on β diversity in two large-scale forest dynamics plots

Pin Lu1,2, Yi Jin2, Jianhua Chen1, Minghong Li1,*, Mingjian Yu2,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Ecology, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004
    2 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
  • Received:2013-02-24 Accepted:2013-04-26 Online:2013-09-20 Published:2013-10-08
  • Contact: Li Minghong,Yu Mingjian

摘要:

β多样性度量群落物种组成随环境梯度的变化程度。为了了解地理距离和地形差异在连续空间中对β多样性的影响, 本文比较研究了地形复杂的我国古田山24 ha亚热带常绿阔叶林样地和地形平坦的巴拿马Barro Colorado Island(BCI)50 ha热带森林样地植物群落的β多样性及其形成机制, 在不同取样粒度(grain)上分析了地理距离和地形差异对β多样性的影响。我们采用1-Chao-Jaccard指数作为β多样性的度量指标, 然后用Mantel和Partial Mantel等检验来分析地理距离、地形以及5种地形因子单独对β多样性的影响。结果表明, 两个样地中群落的β多样性均具有粒度依赖性: 粒度越大, β多样性越小; 同时, 两样地β多样性均受到距离和地形的显著影响, 且随着粒度的增大, 群落β多样性与距离的相关性呈相似的单调递增趋势。另外, 地形对较复杂的古田山样地各粒度上植物群落β多样性的影响均较大, 且主要由海拔和凹凸度两个因素造成; 而地形对较平坦的BCI样地植物群落β多样性的影响则较小。本研究结果提示, 生态位过程和扩散过程都是形成β多样性的重要机制。

关键词: 亚热带常绿阔叶林, 热带森林, 古田山, Barro Colorado岛, 地形因子, 生态位过程, 扩散过程

Abstract

β diversity quantifies the extent of community compositional shift in a heterogeneous environment. To understand how β diversity is influenced by geographical distance and topographic variation in continuous space, we compared β diversity in two large-scale forest dynamics plots (FDPs). One of these is a 24 ha plot exhibiting complex topography in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Gutianshan (GTS), China. The other is a 50 ha plot of comparatively simple topography present in a lowland tropical moist forest on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in Panama. We investigated the influence of geographical distance and topographic difference on β diversity at four levels of grain. We adopted the 1-Chao-Jaccard index as a measure of β diversity, and performed tests such as Mantel and Partial Mantel tests to disentangle the effects of geographical distance, topographic variation and five topographical variables on β diversity. The results showed that in both plots β diversity was grain size dependent, decreasing as grain size increased. In both plots β diversity was significantly affected by geographical distance and topographic difference. Furthermore, the influence of geographical distance on β diversity showed a monotonic increase in both FDPs with increase in grain size. The effect of topography on β diversity was consistently larger in GTS than in BCI, and was manifested in GTS mainly through altitude and convexity at each grain size. Our results suggest the importance of both niche and dispersal processes in shaping β diversity patterns.

Key words: β diversity, subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, Gutianshan, tropical forest, Barro Colorado Island, topography, niche process, dispersal process