生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (3): 288-297.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07307

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

高原深水湖泊抚仙湖大型底栖动物群落结构及多样性

熊飞1, 2, 李文朝2*, 潘继征2   

  1. 1 (江汉大学, 武汉 430056)
    2 (中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008)
  • 出版日期:2008-05-20 发布日期:2008-05-20

Community structure and diversity of macrozoobenthos in Fuxian Lake, a deep plateau lake in Yunnan

Fei Xiong1, 2, Wenchao Li 2*, Jizheng Pan 2   

  1. 1 Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056
    2 Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
  • Online:2008-05-20 Published:2008-05-20

摘要: 云南抚仙湖是我国典型的高原深水湖泊, 20世纪80年代以来, 随着人类活动的加剧, 其水体营养水平不断提高, 生态系统发生了显著变化。为揭示该湖底栖动物的群落特征及其对生态系统变化的响应, 2005年6–7月对大型底栖动物群落进行了调查。在抚仙湖18个断面110个样点中共采集大型底栖动物19属27种, 大型底栖动物出现率为97.3%, 平均密度为855 ind./m2, 平均生物量为58.01 g/m2。在密度组成上软体动物(50.3%)>摇蚊幼虫(32.3%)>寡毛类(17.4%), 优势种为花纹前突摇蚊(Procladius choreus)、长角涵螺(Alocinma longicornis)和方形环棱螺(Bellamya quadrata), 三者共占总密度的51.4%。寡毛类和摇蚊幼虫全湖性分布, 而软体动物主要分布在沿岸区, 各类群优势种均呈聚集分布。底栖动物在沿岸区生物量显著大于湖心区(P<0.01), 但两者之间密度差异不显著(P>0.05); 南区和北区之间的密度(P>0.05)和生物量(P>0.05)差异均不显著。相关分析表明, 表层沉积物总有机碳、底层水体溶解氧是影响底栖动物密度分布的关键理化因子, 而底层水体溶解氧是影响底栖动物生物量分布的关键理化因子。抚仙湖大型底栖动物群落的Pielou均匀度指数、Margalef丰富度指数、Simpson优势度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数及改进的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数分别为0.74、2.88、0.87、2.40和20.84。沿岸区底栖动物多样性明显高于湖心区, 主要是由于沿岸区分布有各种沉水植物, 提高了底栖动物生境的异质性。与1980年调查结果相比, 抚仙湖底栖动物多样性呈上升趋势, 这与水体营养水平不断提高, 沉水植物分布面积扩大有关。

关键词: 刀耕火种, 变化, 结构和多样性, 土壤节肢动物群落, 热带次生林, 西双版纳

Abstract: Fuxian Lake is a representative deep plateau lake located in Yunnan Province, China. As human activities have increased since the 1980s, nutrients in the lake have been gradually rising, thereby changing the lake ecosystem. To describe the lake’s macrozoobenthic community and its response to ecological changes, we surveyed the macrozoobenthic community in Fuxian Lake from June to July in 2005. Twenty seven macrozoobenthic species belonging to 19 genera were collected in 110 sampling sites of 18 sections, and the community’s frequency of occurrence, average density, and average biomass were 97.3%, 855 ind./m2, and 58.01 g/m2, respectively. Mollusca was the dominant taxa in the lake (up to 50.3% of total density), followed by Chironomidae (32.3%), and Oligochaeta (17.4%). Procladius choreus, Alocinma longicornis and Bellamya quadrata were dominant species, accounting for 51.4% of total density. Oligochaeta and Chironomidae were distributed throughout the lake, while Mollusca were mainly found in the near-shore re-gion. All dominant species showed an aggregated distributional pattern. Average macrobenthic biomass was significantly higher in the near-shore region than in the open-water region (P < 0.01), but average density did not differ between the two regions (P > 0.05). There were no differences in average density (P > 0.05) or biomass (P > 0.05) between the southern and northern portion of the lake. Correlation analyses indicated that total organic carbon in the sediment and dissolved oxygen were the key physical-chemical factors influencing macrozoobenthic density, while dissolved oxygen was the key factor influencing macrozoobenthic biomass. Macrozoobenthic diversity measured using Pielou, Margalef, Simpson, Shannon-Wiener, and modified Shannon-Wiener indices were 0.74, 2.88, 0.87, 2.40, and 20.84, respectively. Macrozoobenthic diversity was higher in the near-shore than in the open-water region, likely resulting from various submerged macrophytes in the near-shore region, which increased habitat heterogeneity. Compared to a 1980 survey, macrozooben-thic diversity in Fuxian Lake was higher in 2005, likely a result of increased nutrient levels and enlarged dis-tribution of submerged macrophytes.

Key words: slash and burn, change, structure and divers ity, soil arthropod communities, tropical secondary forest, Xishuangbanna