生物多样性 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 22407.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022407

• 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国南海北部近海鲎资源调查及北部湾潮间带中华鲎幼鲎潜在栖息地评估

鲍虞园1, 李银康2,3, 林吴颖4, 周志琴5, 肖晓波6, 颉晓勇2,3,*()   

  1. 1.广东省海洋发展规划研究中心, 广州 510022
    2.中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所广东省渔业生态环境重点实验室, 广州 510300
    3.三亚热带水产研究院, 海南三亚 572019
    4.深圳爱栖自然生态科技有限公司, 广东深圳 518000
    5.海口畓榃湿地研究所, 海口 570000
    6.广西生物多样性研究和保护协会, 南宁 530012
  • 收稿日期:2022-07-16 接受日期:2022-11-10 出版日期:2023-05-20 发布日期:2023-04-20
  • 通讯作者: * E-mail: xyxie@scsfri.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    海南省自然科学基金(322MS154);南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项(GML2019ZD0605);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(2021SD16);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(2021SD18)

The current situation of horseshoe crabs in the offshore waters of northern South China Sea with analysis of the potential habitat distribution of juvenile Tachypleus tridentatus in Beibu Gulf

Yuyuan Bao1, Yinkang Li2,3, Wuying Lin4, Zhiqin Zhou5, Xiaobo Xiao6, Xiaoyong Xie2,3,*()   

  1. 1. Guangdong Ocean Development Planning Research Center, Guangzhou 510022
    2. Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecological Environment of Guangdong Province, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300
    3. Sanya Tropical Fisheries Research Institute, Sanya, Hainan 572019
    4. Shenzhen Aiqi Nature Ecological Technology Co. Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong 518000
    5. Haikou Duotan Wetlands Institute, Haikou 570000
    6. Guangxi Biodiversity Research and Conservation Association, Nanning 530012
  • Received:2022-07-16 Accepted:2022-11-10 Online:2023-05-20 Published:2023-04-20
  • Contact: * E-mail: xyxie@scsfri.ac.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

鲎是珍贵的海洋“活化石”生物, 由于过度捕捞、环境污染和栖息地丧失等原因, 中华鲎(Tachypleus tridentatus)数量呈现“断崖式”下降, 鲎资源和栖息地保护迫在眉睫。本研究对中国南海北部近海海域成鲎和北部湾沿岸潮间带幼鲎进行调查, 并基于幼鲎调查结果, 运用MaxEnt模型对北部湾沿岸中华鲎幼鲎潜在栖息地进行预测。2018年和2019年调查结果显示南海北部海域成鲎资源分布稀疏, 两次调查的99个站点中, 仅在15个站点累计发现18只成年中华鲎, 且主要集中在北部湾海域; 潮间带幼鲎调查显示, 2019年10个调查点幼鲎丰度为0.01-0.33 ind./100 m2, 2020年14个调查点幼鲎丰度为0.01-0.65 ind./100 m2, 其中北部湾海南沿岸海域发现鲎育幼场。根据中华鲎幼鲎潜在栖息地评估结果, 最湿季均温(bio 8)和平均海表温度(mean sea surface temperature, sst)是影响其分布的主要因子。北部湾中国沿岸海域潮间带的幼鲎高适宜区占比达18.39%, 主要为北部湾广西沿岸海域、广东遂溪县沿岸海域和海南新英湾, 这些区域值得重点保护。本研究结果可丰富中华鲎种群本底数据, 为今后鲎资源保护和恢复行动的布局提供科学依据和理论支撑。

关键词: 中华鲎, 北部湾, 资源现状, 最大熵模型, 栖息地

Abstract

Aims: The horseshoe crab population in the areas surrounding China have declined dramatically due to overfishing, environmental pollution, and habitat loss. In 2019, Tachypleus tridentatus was listed in the IUCN Red List as Endangered category. However, the current literature on horseshoe crabs within China is inadequate, adversely affecting the conservation of the species. This paper aims to assess the current situation of horseshoe crabs in the offshore waters of the northern South China Sea and determine the potential distribution of the T. tridentatus in the Beibu Gulf.
Methods: In 2018 and 2019, trawl sampling was used in the adult horseshoe crab survey in the northern coastal waters of the South China Sea, with a total of 99 sampling sites. For the investigation of juvenile T. tridentatus population in the intertidal zones, 10 and 14 investigation points were set up in 2019 and 2020 respectively. Using our survey results, a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model was used to analyze the potential habitat of juvenile T. tridentatus along the Beibu Gulf.
Results: In the survey, 18 horseshoe crabs were found at only 15 of the 99 sites. Among them, 9 horseshoe crabs were found at 7 sites in 2018 and 9 at 8 sites in 2019. The abundance of juvenile T. tridentatus in the Beibu Gulf was determined to be 0.01-0.33 ind./100 m2 in 2019 and 0.01-0.65 ind./100 m2 in 2020. According to the results of the MaxEnt model, 18.39% of the intertidal zone along the Beibu Gulf coast is highly suitable for juvenile horseshoe crabs.
Conclusions: Adult horseshoe crabs in the offshore waters of northern South China Sea are sparsely distributed and mainly concentrated in the Beibu Gulf. Of the areas along the coast of Guangxi in the Beibu Gulf, Suixi County in Guangdong and Xinying Bay in Hainan are the most highly suitable areas for juvenile horseshoe crab. Therefore, we should focus on strengthening the protection of these areas.

Key words: Tachypleus tridentatus, Beibu Gulf, current resource status, maximum entropy model, habitat