生物多样性 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (7): 22213.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022213

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国各省植物园中多孔菌种类、分布和组成

武英达1,2, 满孝武1, 员瑗1,*(), 戴玉成1,*()   

  1. 1.北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院微生物研究所, 北京 100083
    2.中国消防救援学院森林草原火灾风险防控应急管理部重点实验室, 北京 102202
  • 收稿日期:2022-04-21 接受日期:2022-05-23 出版日期:2022-07-20 发布日期:2022-06-21
  • 通讯作者: 员瑗,戴玉成
  • 作者简介:yuchengdai@bjfu.edu.cn
    *E-mail: yuanyuan1018@bjfu.edu.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(32000010);国家自然科学基金(U1802231)

Species diversity, distribution and composition of polypores occurring in botanical gardens in China

Wu Yingda1,2, Man Xiaowu1, Yuan Yuan1,*(), Dai Yucheng1,*()   

  1. 1. Institute of Microbiology, School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2. Key Laboratory of Forest and Grassland Fire Risk Prevention, Ministry of Emergency Management, China Fire and Rescue Institute, Beijing 102202
  • Received:2022-04-21 Accepted:2022-05-23 Online:2022-07-20 Published:2022-06-21
  • Contact: Yuan Yuan,Dai Yucheng

摘要:

多孔菌是木材腐朽菌中最关键的真菌类群, 是森林生态系统的重要组成部分。为了明确植物园对植物上真菌资源的保护状况, 在2010-2021年间, 作者对全国31个省(自治区、直辖市)的31个代表性植物园中木本植物上的多孔菌进行了系统调查、标本采集和种类鉴定, 记录多孔菌164种, 隶属于担子菌门伞菌纲6目23科79属。其中, 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园、儋州热带植物园和广西药用植物园多孔菌种类最多, 分别有90种、46种和37种; 兰州植物园、西宁植物园和乌鲁木齐植物园物种数量最少, 分别有4种、3种和2种。在植物园中, 分布最多的物种是云芝栓孔菌(Trametes versicolor)、白囊耙齿菌(Irpex lacteus)和黑管孔菌(Bjerkandera adusta), 分别生长在24、18和18个植物园中, 而软多孢孔菌(Abundisporus mollissimus)等32种多孔菌只发现于中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园中。在164种多孔菌中, 常见种、偶见种和稀有种分别有114、40和10种。生长在植物园中的多孔菌仅占全国所有森林生态系统多孔菌总数的16%, 而植物园中发现的稀有种仅占全国稀有种总数的3.1%。在10种稀有多孔菌中, 有6种发现于中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园的天然林中, 其中4种稀有多孔菌发现于植物园内的人工林中, 占植物园所有多孔菌的2.4%, 占全国稀有多孔菌的1.3%。所调查植物园多孔菌包括了热带、亚热带、温带、北半球广布和寒温带成分, 分别包括50、45、38、20和11种, 占本研究多孔菌总数的30.5%、27.4%、23.2%、12.2%和6.7%。目前中国植物园保存了我国60%的植物种类, 包括85%的珍稀濒危植物, 但对生长在植物园中的多孔菌资源保护作用有限。因此, 对稀有多孔菌的保育仍需聚焦在森林生态系统的保护上。

关键词: 植物园, 多孔菌, 多样性, 稀有种, 保育

Abstract

Aims: Polypores are an important group of wood-decaying fungi with important ecological functions. Previous studies on the diversity and floristic composition of polypores were mostly in natural forests. Studies on the species, distribution and floristic composition of polypores in botanical gardens were largely unknown. This study systematically investigated the species, distribution and floristic composition of polypores in 31 botanical gardens in China, aiming to clarify whether the botanical gardens can effectively protect polypores while protecting plants.
Methods: In this study, investigations on polypores in 31 botanical gardens from 31 Chinese provinces were carried out during 2010-2021. On the basis of species identification, we analyzed the species diversity, composition and distribution of polypores in botanical gardens and forest ecosystems.
Results: A total of 164 polypore species was found based on the specimens collected from these gardens, and identified to 79 genera, 23 families and 6 orders. Among the 31 gardens, the species-richest gardens are Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XTGB) in Yunnan, Danzhou Tropical Botanical Garden in Hainan and Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant in Guangxi, and 90, 46 and 37 polypores were found, respectively; While the most species-poorest gardens are Lanzhou Botanical Garden in Gansu Province, Xining Botanical Garden in Qinghai Province and Urumqi Botanical Garden in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, where only 4, 3 and 2 polypores were found, respectively. Among the 164 polypores, the three most common species Trametes versicolor, Irpex lacteus and Bjerkandera adusta were found in 24, 18 and 18 botanical gardens, respectively. Other 32 species, like Abundisporus mollissimus, were found in a single botanical garden only. Among the 164 polypores, the common species, occasional species and rare species are respectively 114, 40 and 10. The polypore and rare species in the investigated gardens account for 16% and 3.1% of the total Chinese polypores and the rare ones, respectively. Among the ten rare species, six were found in natural forests in XTBG, four were only found in plantations, and they account for 2.4% of total polypores found in the gardens and 1.3% of total rare Chinese polypores, respectively. Tropical, subtropical, temperate, widely distributed in North Hemisphere and boreal elements were discovered in the garden polypores, and corresponding species are 50, 45, 38, 20 and 11, and they account for 30.5%, 27.4%, 23.2%, 12.2% and 6.7% of the total garden polypores, respectively.
Conclusion: Botanical gardens have less function for conservation of polypores, particularly for rare species. The majority polypores growing in botanical garden in our investigations are the common species. Nature reserves, national park or forest parks are the most important areas for conservation of polypores, especially the rare species.

Key words: botanical garden, polypore, diversity, rare species, conservation