Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (3): 304-314.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017331

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“Science, art and responsibility”: The scientific and social function changes of a 500-year history of botanical gardens. II. Intension of sciences

Hongwen Huang*()   

  1. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2017-12-19 Accepted:2018-02-05 Online:2018-05-05
  • Huang Hongwen
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

The advance trajectory of scientific research in the world botanical gardens over past 500 years is not only a microcosm of the whole history of biological sciences, but also reveal the unremitting pursuit of mankind exploration and utilization of plant resources for development of economy and society. From the 16th-17th centuries, botanical garden’s main studies on medicinal plants and drug discovery, to the 18th-20th centuries’ founding plant taxonomy and then branching to various botanical disciplines, to nowadays’ plant molecular biology and genomics, metabolomics and so on, scientific research connotation of botanical gardens have been mainstream process during these centuries when not only laid the foundation of plant taxonomy in the 18th century, but also made indelible contributions to many biological discoveries and establishment of theoretical system since the 18th century. Meanwhile, since the 16th century, the introduction and domestication of crop plants across continents, regions and countries have profoundly changed the world economic and social structure and affected the rise and fall of many countries. The botanical gardens have played a pilot and leading role for introduction and spread of crop plants over the past 500 years. This paper attempts to review historical track of intension of sciences of botanical gardens in recent 500 years for revealing future trend of the research fields relating to plant macro and micro biology and era of big data in today’s botanical gardens in order to provide reference of valuable thinking for scientific research in botanical gardens of China.

Key words: plant taxonomy, plant biology, plant introduction and spread, ex situ conservation, cultivated plants

Table 1

Important plant introductions during the post-Columbian period"

Main plant introductions in the 15th-17th centuries
Year into Europe
Year into China
辣椒 Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens 1493 1591前 Before 1591
玉米 Zea mays 1494 1520-1550
花生 Arachis hypogaea 1494 1520
木薯 Manihot esculenta 1550前Before 1550 1820
陆地棉 Gossypium hirsutum 1750 1865
Phaseolus vulgaris, P. lunatus, P. coccineus 1500 1563前 Before 1563
菠萝 Ananas comosus 1502 1558前 Before 1558
红薯 Impomaea batatas 1526前Before 1526 1570-1580
鳄梨 Persaea americana 1519前 Before 1519 1918
向日葵 Helianthus annuus 1568 1573-1620
番茄 Lycopersicon esculentum 1512 1617前 Before 1617
烟草 Nicotiana tabacum 1550前 Before 1550 1624
土豆 Solanum tuberosum 1565-1570 1650前 Before 1650
南瓜 Cucurbita spp. 1570 1538前 Before 1538
番荔枝 Annona cherimolia 1751-1797 1614
可可 Theobroma cacao 1528 1922
洋姜 Helianthus tuberosus 1607 18世纪末 End of 18th century
西番莲 Passiflora caerulea 1610 1724
Main plant introductions by colonial botanical
gardens in 18th-19th centuries
Name of botanical gardens (time established)
Camellia sinensis 印度豪拉植物园(1787
Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (1787)
橡胶 Hevea brasilensis 1876年英国邱园引种后传到印尼茂物植物园、新加坡植物园
Kew gardens introduced in 1876, then re-introduced to Bogor Botanical Garden of Indonisia and Singapore Botanical Garden.
木薯 Manihotes culenta 毛里求斯庞普勒穆斯植物园(1767)
Pamplemousses Botanical Garden, Mauritius (1767)
咖啡 Coffea arabica 印度豪拉植物园(1787)
Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (1787)
面包树 Artocar pusaltilis 圣文森特植物园(1764) St. Vincent Botanic Garden (1764)
喹啉 Cinchona officinalis, C. pubescens 印尼茂物植物园(1817) Bogor Botanic Garden (1817)
肉豆蔻 Myristica fragrans 圣文森特植物园(1764) St. Vincent Botanic Garden (1764)
竹芋 Maranta arundinacea 圣文森特植物园(1764) St.Vincent Botanic Garden (1764)
海岛棉 Gossypium barbadense 圣文森特植物园(1764) St. Vincent Botanic Garden (1764)
西谷椰子 Metroxylon sagu 印度豪拉植物园(1787) Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (1787)
椰枣 Phoenix dactylifera 印度豪拉植物园(1787) Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (1787)
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