生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (10): 1255-1265.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020318

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我国自然保护地历史遗留问题的系统解决方案

黄宝荣1, 张丛林1, 邓冉2,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院, 北京 100190
    2 成都理工大学地球科学学院, 成都 610059
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-07 接受日期:2020-10-15 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 邓冉
  • 作者简介:E-mail: 1173793435@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0401);2018年度教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目(18JZD059)

The systemic solution to historical problems in China’s natural protected areas

Baorong Huang1, Conglin Zhang1, Ran Deng2,*()   

  1. 1 Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijng 100190
    2 College of Earth Sciences, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059
  • Received:2020-08-07 Accepted:2020-10-15 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-10-20
  • Contact: Ran Deng

摘要:

近年来, 我国自然保护地内存在的大量的人口密集区域、民生设施、矿业活动、开发建设项目、农牧业生产活动等历史遗留问题在中央环保督察中集中暴露出来。为采取针对性政策措施解决这些遗留问题, 本研究首先将其分为三大类: (1)保护越位与保护空缺并存; (2)生态保护和大量原住居民生计改善间的矛盾突出; (3)保护地内存在大量生产经营活动。在此基础上, 深入剖析了各类遗留问题产生的体制机制原因。为合理化解历史遗留问题导致的一系列矛盾, 提高保护地建设和管理质量, 本文从加强保护地体系的顶层设计、推动相关法律法规的制修订、采取多元化手段解决保护地内土地权属和矿业权问题、建立健全平衡保护与发展关系的体制机制等4个方面提出了历史遗留问题的系统性解决方案。

关键词: 自然保护地, 历史遗留问题, 产生原因, 系统性解决方案

Abstract:

Recently, the Chinese central government identified key problems in their history that has resulted in poor care for naturally protected areas. Some examples of these problems include having densely populated areas, community livelihood facilities, mining activity, and construction projects occurring in these naturally protected areas. In an attempt at finding solutions to these problems, we first classify these problems into three major categories: (1) both of overprotection and protection gap is existing; (2) conflict between conservation efforts and improving the livelihood of residents living near or in protected areas; (3) a great deal of business activity in protected areas. This study then describes an in-depth analysis on the institutional reasons for each category of historical problems. Finally, in order to rationally resolve these problems and improve the quality of protected area construction and management this study proposes the following systematic solutions from four aspects: (1) strengthening the top-level design of planning and construction of China’s protected areas; (2) formulating and revising relevant laws and regulations for protected areas; (3) taking measures to resolve problems dealing with land tenure and mining rights in protected areas; (4) establishing institutional mechanisms to balance both conservation and development of protected areas.

Key words: natural protected area, problems left over by history, institutional reason, system solution