生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 150-159.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020061

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基于爱知生物多样性目标11的我国自然保护地管理有效性评估进展与分析

冯斌1,2,3, 李迪强1,2,*(), 张于光1,2, 薛亚东1,2   

  1. 1.中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091
    2.国家林业和草原局生物多样性保护重点实验室, 北京 100091
    3.广西中医药研究院中药资源研究所, 南宁 530022
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-27 接受日期:2020-08-31 出版日期:2021-02-20 发布日期:2020-12-21
  • 通讯作者: 李迪强
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: lidq@caf.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    十二五国家科技支撑计划(2013BAC09B02)

Progress and analysis on the management effectiveness evaluation of protected area based on Aichi Biodiversity Target 11th in China

Bin Feng1,2,3, Diqiang Li1,2,*(), Yuguang Zhang1,2, Yadong Xue1,2   

  1. 1 Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    2 Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Conservation, State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing 100091
    3 Institute of Chinese Medicine Resources, Guangxi Institute of Chinese Medicine & Pharmaceutical Science, Nanning 530022
  • Received:2020-02-27 Accepted:2020-08-31 Online:2021-02-20 Published:2020-12-21
  • Contact: Diqiang Li

摘要:

本文基于我国相关政府部门、国际机构、科研机构和文献关于我国自然保护地管理有效性评估数据, 梳理和分析了我国针对爱知生物多样性目标11的自然保护地管理有效性评估的进展情况。结果显示, 我国已按时完成了爱知生物多样性目标11中2015年之前对60%以上自然保护地管理有效性评估的指标; 目前已开展管理有效性评估的自然保护地面积达136.19万km2, 占我国自然保护地面积(186.60万km2)的72.99%; 我国自然保护地管理有效性受多方关注。本研究调查数据与世界自然保护地数据库、自然保护地管理有效性全球数据库的数据差异较大; 我国自然保护地管理有效性评估工具多样, 各类型自然保护地管理有效性评估工作进展差异显著, 管理有效性评估标准化和连续性有待提高。最后, 提出了如下建议: 加强自然保护地整体性和连通性; 参考世界自然保护区委员会的评估框架和世界自然保护联盟自然保护地绿色名录标准, 按照国家公园、自然保护区和自然公园分类制定管理有效性评估规范并将评估制度化; 有效利用评估结果促进我国自然保护地建设的标准化、科学化并建立激励机制等。

关键词: 自然保护地, 管理有效性, 爱知生物多样性目标, 生物多样性公约

Abstract

Aims: Effective management in protected areas is an important prerequisite for achieving the goal of protected areas. One of the key indicators for achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 was for the Convention on Biological Diversity party to accomplish 60% and higher area of protected area before 2015. However, according to the Fifth National Report on China’s Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2014, there “lacked sufficient data” indicating progress of management effectiveness for protected areas as determined by Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. Discussing the performance of China’s Aichi Biodiversity Targets on the eve of the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity will be beneficial to showcase China’s biodiversity conservation achievements and provide a basis for scientific decision-making on the development of this protected area.
Methods: Based on the data from relevant Chinese government departments, international organizations, research institutions and literature on the effective management of protected areas in China, this study summarized and analyzed the progress of management effectiveness of protected areas as determined by Aichi Biodiversity Target 11.
Results: The results show, as indicated by Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 that management effectiveness evaluation of 60% and higher of China’s protected areas before 2015 was achieved. Currently, the protected areas under management effectiveness evaluation has reached 1.3619 million km2, accounting for 72.99% of China’s protected areas (1.8660 million km2). Management effectiveness of China’s protected areas attracted attention from multi-groups. The data of this study are quite different from the data from the World Database on Protected Areas and the Global Database on Protected Area Management Effectiveness. There are various tools to evaluate the management effectiveness of protected areas in China. There are significant differences in the amount of progress made in management effectiveness depending on the protected area. Standardization and persistency of management effectiveness in protected areas need to be improved.
Conclusions and Suggestions: Based on our results, we propose the the following management practices: (1) strengthening connectivity and integrity of protected areas; (2) referring to the evaluation framework of World Commission of Protected Areas and the Green List Standard of Protected Areas of International Union for Conservation of Nature when making decisions; (3) to institutionalize the classified criterion of management effectiveness evaluations according to different types of protected area (such as national park, nature reserve and natural park), to facilitate the standardized and scientific construction, and to establish incentive mechanisms within China’s protected areas by effectively using of the results from the management effectiveness evaluation.

Key words: protected area, management effectiveness, Aichi Biodiversity Targets, Convention on Biological Diversity