生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (8): 993-1002.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020065

• 蝴蝶多样性观测专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆吉木萨尔县蝴蝶群落多样性

徐志峰1,2, 钟问1,2, 张东康1, 胡红英1,2,*()   

  1. 1. 新疆大学生命科学与技术学院, 乌鲁木齐 830046
    2. 新疆生物资源基因工程重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830046
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-02 接受日期:2020-06-22 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-09-29
  • 通讯作者: 胡红英
  • 作者简介:. E-mail: hoohyi- 69@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护重大工程(SDZXWJZJZ1012)

Diversity of butterfly communities in Jimusaer County, Xinjiang

Zhifeng Xu1,2, Wen Zhong1,2, Dongkang Zhang1, Hongying Hu1,2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046
    2 Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Genetic Engineering, Urumqi 830046
  • Received:2020-03-02 Accepted:2020-06-22 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-09-29
  • Contact: Hongying Hu

摘要:

蝴蝶作为指示生物, 被广泛地应用于生物多样性监测及环境质量评估。探究新疆吉木萨尔县蝴蝶群落多样性, 可为当地蝴蝶多样性的保护及环境监测提供基础数据。本研究采用样线法在新疆吉木萨尔县选取山前荒漠、农田、山地草原、山地森林、亚高山草甸5种不同的生境类型, 对蝴蝶种类和群落多样性进行调查。共记录蝴蝶4,401号, 隶属于7科26属38种。其中蛱蝶科有9属12种, 为优势科; 粉蝶科的个体数最多, 占比55.01%; 绢蝶科、凤蝶科和弄蝶科的种类数和个体数最少, 均为单科种, 是该地区的稀有类群。对不同生境蝴蝶群落多样性和相似度分析比较的结果显示: 5种生境中多样性指数从高到低依次为亚高山草甸、山地森林、山地草原、农田及山前荒漠, 其中山地森林和亚高山草甸的相似性系数较高, 达到0.77, 山前荒漠和山地草原的相似性系数最低, 为0.37。蝴蝶物种数及多样性指数随海拔的增加呈上升趋势。蝴蝶群落随月份发生变化, 蝴蝶种类和数量在5月发生、7月达到峰值。蝶类个体数在3年内呈下降趋势。研究结果表明, 蝴蝶物种的组成和多样性与生境类型具有密切联系, 保护生态环境, 维持该地区植物群落的多样性、降低人为干扰程度是保护蝶类多样性的关键。

关键词: 蝴蝶监测, 生境, 多样性, 种群动态, 环境保护

Abstract:

Butterflies are indicator species that are widely used in biodiversity monitoring and environmental quality assessments. Here, we assessed the diversity of the butterfly community in Jimusaer County, Xinjiang, to guide recommendations for the protection of local butterfly diversity and environmental monitoring. We surveyed the species and community diversity of butterflies in five different habitat types, including Piedmont desert, farmland, mountain grassland, mountain forest, and subalpine meadow in Jimusar County, Xinjiang using the line transect sampling method from May to August in 2016-2018. We collected a total of 4,401 individuals belonging to 26 genera, 7 families, and 38 species. Nymphalidae was the dominant family with 9 genera and 12 species. Pieridae had the largest number of individuals, accounting for 55.01% of the total recorded. Pamassiidae, Papilioidae, and Hesperiidae had the fewest number of species and individuals—each family had only one species, which were rarely observed in the study region. By analysing and comparing the diversity and similarity of butterfly communities in different habitats, we found that diversity was greatest in sub-alpine meadows and lowest in Piedmont desert. Mountain forest, mountain grassland, and farmland had intermediate levels of diversity. The similarity coefficient was highest between mountain forests and sub-alpine meadows (0.77) and lowest between Piedmont deserts and mountain grasslands (0.37). Butterfly species richness and diversity increased with elevation. We also found that the number of butterfly species and individuals changed over the course of a year and were highest from May to July. The total number of individuals decreased over the three-year study period. Our results show that butterfly community composition and diversity are closely related to habitat types. Therefore, protecting the ecological environment, maintaining a diversity of plant communities, and reducing the degree of human disturbance in the region are key to conserving butterfly diversity.

Key words: butterfly monitoring, habitat, biodiversity, population dynamics, environmental protection