生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (10): 1192-1201.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020063

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

邛崃山系水鹿的冬季食性

张全建1,2, 杨彪3, 付强4, 王磊4, 龚旭1,2, 张远彬1,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院、水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 成都 610041
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3 西华师范大学西南野生动植物资源保护教育部重点实验室, 四川南充 637002
    4 四川鞍子河省级自然保护区管理处, 四川崇州 611230
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-27 接受日期:2020-05-09 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 张远彬
  • 作者简介:E-mail: zhangyb@imde.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    四川省重大科技专项课题(2018SZDZX0035);四川鞍子河保护区偶蹄目种群及生态学专项调查

The winter diet of sambar (Rusa unicolor) in the Qionglai Mountains

Quanjian Zhang1,2, Biao Yang3, Qiang Fu4, Lei Wang4, Xu Gong1,2, Yuanbin Zhang1,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resource Conservation, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637002
    4 Management Office of Anzihe Provincial Nature Reserve, Chongzhou, Sichuan 611230
  • Received:2020-02-27 Accepted:2020-05-09 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-10-20
  • Contact: Yuanbin Zhang

摘要:

水鹿(Rusa unicolor)为珍稀濒危动物, 属国家II级重点保护野生动物, 其食物匮乏季的食性研究对其保护至关重要。本文以四川邛崃山系鞍子河保护地的水鹿为研究对象, 采用高通量测序(high-throughput sequencing, HTS)技术对其冬季18份有效粪便样品中的摄食植物进行了分析。结果表明: (1)水鹿摄食植物有50科94属; (2)水鹿冬季偏好食物为悬钩子属(Rubus)、山茱萸属(Cornus)、青荚叶属(Helwingia)、马蓝属(Strobilanthes)、荚蒾属(Viburnum)、清风藤属(Sabia)、旌节花属(Stachyurus)、菝葜属(Smilax)、槭属(Acer)和绣球属(Hydrangea)植物, 且蔷薇科悬钩子属植物为最重要的食物来源; (3)水鹿在冬季摄食植物多样性高、食物生态位宽; (4)水鹿具有强的环境适应性和资源利用能力, 在冬季会通过摄食更多的植物类型和适当调整生态位而适应环境变化。本研究结论将有利于水鹿及其同域生活的偶蹄目动物的管理策略制定。

关键词: 水鹿, 相对读长丰度, 植物多样性指数, 生态位, 高通量测序, 食性

Abstract

Rusa unicolor, a rare and endangered species, is listed as Class II National Key Protected Species. The study of its feeding habits in the food shortage season is very important for its protection. In this study, 18 valid fecal samples of R. unicolor in Anzihe protected area of the Qionglai Mountains in Sichuan were analyzed for its feeding plants by HTS (high-throughput sequencing). The results showed that: (1) The feeding plants of R. unicolor belonged to 50 families, 94 genera. (2) The preferred plant types of R. unicolor consisted of Rubus, Cornus, Helwingia, Strobilanthes, Viburnum, Sabia, Stachyurus, Smilax, Acer and Hydrangea. Among these, the Rubus (Rosaceae) is the predominant food source for R. unicolor. (3) Rusa unicolor feeds on diverse plants and has a wide food niche in winter. (4) Rusa unicolor has strong environmental adaptability and resource utilization ability, which feeds on more plant types and adjusts its niche appropriately in winter to adapt to the environmental changes. The results of this study will be helpful for the development of evidence-based management strategies for R. unicolor and its sympatric artiodactyls.

Key words: Rusa unicolor, relative read abundance, plant diversity index, niche, high-throughput sequencing, diet