生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 552-567.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015311

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通过红色名录评估研究中国哺乳动物受威胁现状及其原因

蒋志刚1,2,3,*(), 李立立1, 罗振华1,,A;, 汤宋华1, 李春旺1,3, 胡慧建4, 马勇1, 吴毅5, 王应祥6, 周开亚7, 刘少英8, 冯祚建1, 蔡蕾9, 臧春鑫10, 曾岩1,2, 孟智斌1,2, 平晓鸽1, 方红霞1   

  1. 1中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2中华人民共和国濒危物种科学委员会, 北京 100101
    3中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    4广东省生物资源应用研究所暨华南濒危动物研究所, 广州 510260
    5广州大学生命科学学院, 广州 510006
    6中国科学院昆明动物研究所, 昆明 650223
    7南京师范大学生命科学学院, 南京 210046
    8四川林业科学研究院, 成都 610081
    9中华人民共和国环境保护部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035
    10 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-12 接受日期:2016-02-03 出版日期:2016-05-20 发布日期:2018-08-09
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚,罗振华
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部生物多样性专项(Y31Z01)、科技基础性专项(2013FY110300)

Evaluating the status of China’s mammals and analyzing their causes of endangerment through the red list assessment

Zhigang Jiang1,2,3,*(), Lili Li1, Zhenhua Luo1,, Songhua Tang1, Chunwang Li1,3, Huijian Hu4, Yong Ma1, Yi Wu5, Yingxiang Wang6, Kaiya Zhou7, Shaoying Liu8, Zuojian Feng1, Lei Cai9, Chunxin Zang10, Yan Zeng1,2, Zhibin Meng1,2, Xiaoge Ping1, Hongxia Fang1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 Endangered Species Scientific Commission, People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100101
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    4 Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260
    5 School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006
    6 Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    7 School of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046
    8 Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081
    9 Department of Nature and Ecological Conservation, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100035
    10 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2015-11-12 Accepted:2016-02-03 Online:2016-05-20 Published:2018-08-09
  • Contact: Jiang Zhigang,Luo Zhenhua

摘要:

依据中国哺乳类野生种群与生境现状, 我们利用IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Version 3.1), Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and CriteriaGuidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels (Version 4.0), 评价了中国所有已知的673种哺乳动物的濒危状况。本次评估了71种《IUCN濒危物种红色名录(2015)》没有评估的哺乳动物, 还评估了60种《IUCN濒危物种红色名录(2015)》误认为中国没有分布的哺乳动物。发现中国有3种哺乳动物“野外灭绝”, 3种“区域灭绝”。受威胁中国哺乳动物共计178种, 约占评估物种总数的26.4%, 高于IUCN濒危物种红色名录的物种平均受威胁率(21.8%)。中国哺乳动物1/4的特有种属于受威胁物种。受威胁比例最高的目是灵长目、食肉目与鲸偶蹄目。多数省区的受威胁哺乳动物物种占本省区哺乳动物总数的20-30%。中国哺乳动物种类多分布在中国第二级地理阶梯。生活在高海拔地区的哺乳动物虽然种类少, 但是受威胁哺乳动物的种类比例高。过度利用、生境丧失和人类干扰名列受威胁哺乳动物致危因子的前3位。自从1989年《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》实施以来, 一些中国濒危哺乳动物的生存状况得到了改善。然而, 鉴于中国哺乳动物区系的独特性和多样性, 以及中国地形地貌的复杂性, 如何拯救这些濒危物种仍是中国生物多样性保护的一项艰巨任务。

关键词: 哺乳动物, 灭绝, 受威胁, 致危因子, IUCN濒危物种, 红色名录

Abstract:

Based on current population estimates, habitat status, rates of population decline, and projected population trends, we assessed the status of all known 673 mammals in China using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Version 3.1), Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria and Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels (Version 4.0). We evaluated 71 mammal species that were not evaluated by the IUCN Red List (2015) and 60 species that were not considered by the IUCN Red List (2015) to be distributed in China. We discovered that 178 species of mammals were threatened in China, accounting for 26.4% of all mammal species in the country, which was higher than the worldwide average percentage of threatened species (21.8%). Three species were identified as “Extinct in the Wild” while another three species were classified as “Regionally Extinct”. Roughly a quarter of endemic mammal species are threatened in China. The three orders with the highest ratios of threatened to unthreatened species are Primates, Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla. Most of the provinces in the country have rate of threatened species between 20-30%. Most mammals are distributed on the second ring of the geographic ladder of the country, though few mammal species live at high altitudes but more species of them are threatened. Over-exploitation by humans, habitat loss and human interference are the three leading threats to mammals in China. Since the implementation of the Wild Animal Protection Law of People’s Republic of China in 1989, the status of some mammals, including the giant panda and Tibetan antelope, have been improved. Nevertheless, considering the uniqueness and diversity of mammalian fauna, and the complexity of the topography in China, how to rescue threatened species in the country is still a difficult task in front of us.

Key words: mammals, extinct, threatened, threat, IUCN endangered species, red list