生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1134-1145.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020476

• 综述 • 上一篇    

陆栖哺乳动物的地理隔离研究进展

刘璐1, 迟瑶1, 吴朝宁1, 钱天陆1, 王结臣1,2,*()   

  1. 1.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 自然资源部国土卫星遥感应用重点实验室, 江苏省地理信息技术重点实验室, 南京 210023
    2.江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心, 南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-24 接受日期:2021-06-21 出版日期:2021-08-20 发布日期:2021-08-06
  • 通讯作者: 王结臣
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: wangjiechen@nju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41871294)

Research progress on the geographical isolation of terrestrial mammals

Lu Liu1, Yao Chi1, Zhaoning Wu1, Tianlu Qian1, Jiechen Wang1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Land Satellite Remote Sensing Applications of Ministry of Natural Resources, School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023
    2 Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023
  • Received:2020-12-24 Accepted:2021-06-21 Online:2021-08-20 Published:2021-08-06
  • Contact: Jiechen Wang

摘要:

地理隔离是驱动物种分布格局形成的主要因素之一。本文回顾和总结了近几十年来地理隔离影响陆栖哺乳动物空间分布的研究成果, 从自然因素和人为因素两方面就地理隔离对物种分布的影响研究进展进行了综述。自然因素包括山脉、水体、沙漠和其他极端环境、气候变化等, 这些要素通常是在陆栖哺乳动物的缓慢演化进程中发挥作用; 人为因素侧重于因人类活动参与导致的物种分布变化, 包括景观结构变化、交通设施建设等, 在短短几百年甚至几十年内, 可以使物种分布特征发生显著变化。地理隔离对陆栖哺乳动物分布的作用是普遍而相对的, 长期存在且处于动态变化中。多种地理隔离因素之间的尺度效应不同, 哺乳动物在适应地理隔离的过程中表现出了生物个体和种群的响应过程。最后, 建议今后重点开展以下几方面的研究: (1)基于历史动物地理学与生态动物地理学, 深入研究地理隔离与动物地理边界形成的原因; (2)微观尺度下, 借助分子生物学和各种组学技术探讨地理隔离对物种遗传和适应机制的影响; (3)借鉴其他动物类群的研究经验, 加强对我国陆生哺乳动物的跟踪监测; (4)以数据驱动为导向, 将动物地理学与数据科学相结合, 以更好地分析动物分布的变迁史。

关键词: 陆栖哺乳动物, 地理隔离, 空间分布, 人类活动

Abstract

Background & Aim: Geographical isolation is one of the main factors that drives the formation of species distribution patterns. This paper reviews the research done in recent decades on the effects of geographical isolation on the spatial distribution of terrestrial mammals, and explores the influence of different factors on the species distribution. Progresses: Both natural factors (e.g., mountain ranges, bodies of water, deserts, extreme environments, and climate change) and human factors (e.g., landscape structure changes, transportation facilities, and construction) can affect the distribution of terrestrial mammals. Natural factors usually play a role in the long-term evolution of terrestrial mammals. However, in recent centuries or even decades, species distribution characteristics have significantly changed due to human impacts. The effect of geographical isolation on terrestrial mammals is common in nature, and is a dynamic change where the scale effects vary for different kinds of geographical isolation. Regardless, mammals have responded to these forms of geographical isolation at individual and population levels. While human activities have greater impacts on the spatial distribution pattern of terrestrial mammals, efforts have been made to improve the living conditions of wildlife.Prospects: We propose the following suggestions for future research: (1) a deeper study on the contribution of geographical isolation to zoogeographical boundary formation; (2) a deeper study on the effects of geographical isolation on the genetic and adaptive mechanisms of species at the micro scale through the use molecular biology and various omics techniques; (3) learning from research done on other animal groups in an effort to strengthen the tracking and monitoring of terrestrial mammals in China; (4) a better analysis on the evolutionary history of animal distribution by combining zoogeography with data science.

Key words: terrestrial mammals, geographical isolation, spatial distribution, human activities