生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 815-823.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015024

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湖南大围山杜鹃灌丛的群落组成及结构特征

李家湘1,2,3, 张旭2, 谢宗强1,*(), 卢从发4, 涂向阳5, 寻院6   

  1. 1 (中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093)
    2 (中南林业科技大学林学院, 长沙 410004)
    3 (中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
    4 (浏阳市林业局, 湖南浏阳 410300)
    5 (湖南大围山国家森林公园, 湖南浏阳 410309)
    6 (湖南大围山自然保护区管理所, 湖南浏阳 410309)
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-25 接受日期:2015-08-29 出版日期:2015-11-20 发布日期:2015-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 谢宗强
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项——应对气候变化的碳收支认证及相关问题(XDA05050302)、中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室开放课题(2014kf02)和湖南省教育厅优秀青年项目(14B194)

Community composition and structure of Rhododendron simsii shrubland in the Dawei Mountain, Hunan Province

Jiaxiang Li1,2,3, Xu Zhang2, Zongqiang Xie1,*(), Congfa Lu4, Xiangyang Tu5, Yuan Xun6   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 College of Forestry, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    4 Liuyang Forestry Bureau, Liuyang, Hunan 410300
    5 Dawei Mountain National Forest Park, Liuyang, Hunan 410309
    6 Administration Bureau of Dawei Mountain Nature Reserve, Liuyang, Hunan 410309
  • Received:2015-01-25 Accepted:2015-08-29 Online:2015-11-20 Published:2015-12-02
  • Contact: Xie Zongqiang

摘要:

灌丛是陆地生态系统中最重要的自然植被类型之一, 在植被演替、生物多样性保护和维持生态平衡等方面具有重要作用。本文基于2012年的样地资料, 对湖南大围山杜鹃(Rhododendron simsii)灌丛的物种组成和群落结构进行了分析。结果表明: 群落内共有维管束植物58种, 隶属于36科50属, 其中木本植物19种, 草本植物39种, 缺乏木质藤本; 区系以温带性质为主, 兼受热带亚热带区系的强烈影响; 群落外貌矮平, 灌木层个体集中在1-2 m高度级; 植被分类上, 该群落归属于山地中生落叶阔叶灌丛, 隶属于温性落叶阔叶灌丛群系组; 生活型以地面芽和高位芽植物为主, 反映了亚热带中山山顶温凉湿润的气候特点; 群落各层次优势种明显, 具有较高的稳定性和均匀性; 高度级和基径级分析表明群落内中等大小个体具有保守的生活史策略, 优势种杜鹃为远期衰退种群。综合分析结果表明, 该杜鹃灌丛尚处于群落演替的中期或前中期, 最终将演替为亚热带中山常绿落叶阔叶混交林或常绿阔叶林。

关键词: 中山山地灌丛, 温性落叶阔叶灌丛, 衰退种群, 演替前期, 亚热带

Abstract

As one of the most important natural vegetation types of terrestrial ecosystems, shrublands play an important role in vegetation succession, biodiversity conservation and ecological balance. Based on the data collected in six Rhododendron simsii shrubland permanent plots established in the Dawei Mountain Nature Reserve in Liuyang, Hunan Province, China in 2012, we analyzed species composition and community structure. The results were as follows: There were 36 families, 50 genera and 58 vascular plant species including 19 woody species and 39 herbaceous species in the community without woody vine species. Floristic composition was dominated by the temperate elements and affected strongly by tropical and subtropical flora. The physiognomy was short and the vertical structure of the community was distinct with obvious shrub and herb layers. Most individuals of shrub species were concentrated in the 1-2 m height class. The shrubland was a type of the montane mesophilius deciduous broad-leaved thickets, belonging to the temperate deciduous broad-leaved thicket formation group. The life-form spectrum reflected the cold climatic conditions due to the high percentage of phaenerophytes and hemicryptophytes in the community. There were obvious dominant species in the community that had a high stability and uniformity. The analysis of height and base area classes of the shrub layer indicated mid-size individuals had conservative life strategies in this community, and R. simsii was a future declining population. Generally, the results suggest that R. simsii shrubland is at an early or middle successional stage and will develop into a subtropical montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest or evergreen broad-leaved forest.

Key words: montane shrubland, temperate deciduous broad-leaved shrubland, declining population, early successional stage, subtropics