生物多样性 ›› 2003, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (1): 63-69.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2003009

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

关于生态系统服务功能的几个科学问题

郭中伟, 甘雅玲*   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所,北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:2002-04-27 修回日期:2002-11-13 出版日期:2003-01-20 发布日期:2003-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 甘雅玲

Some scientific questions for ecosystem services

GUO Zhong-Wei,GAN Ya-Ling*   

  1. Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080
  • Received:2002-04-27 Revised:2002-11-13 Online:2003-01-20 Published:2003-01-20
  • Contact: GAN Ya-Ling

摘要: 生态系统服务和产生这些服务的自然资本对于地球生命保障系统是至关重要的。它们直接或间接为人类提供了利益,并因而成为这个星球整个经济价值的一部分。本文讨论了关于生态系统服务功能研究的4个科学问题:即生态系统服务功能的精确定性、定量和定位,生态系统服务功能的空间转移,生态系统服务功能与生态安全,以及生态系统服务功能的持续利用。生态系统结构的空间异质性导致生态系统服务功能出现了空间上的异质性,因此生态系统服务功能的精确定性、定量和定位就十分重要了。生态系统服务功能的空间转移是指一些服务功能可能会通过某些途径,在空间上转移到系统之外的具备适当外部条件的地区并产生效能。这种特性使得生态系统服务功能可以在比其栖息地大得多的范围内产生经济价值。生态系统服务功能为人类提供了生存保障,它们的能力取决于生态系统中的生态资本存量;而生态资本存量的多少反映了一个国家可持续发展能力的大小。一个生态系统的生态资本存量与该系统的结构和功能密切相关,因此,生态系统服务功能受威胁状态就引发了生态安全问题。在许多区域,生态资源已经成为稀缺资源。为了持续利用生态资源,应该鼓励当地居民以经营生态系统服务为主要手段来发展经济,实现生态系统服务管理产业化。这4个关于生态系统服务功能的科学问题是相互关联的。讨论它们的目的是在于探索深入研究生态系统服务功能的切入点。

关键词: 滇金丝猴, 地理分布, 种群数量, 生态, 保护

AbstractEcosystem services and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth′s life supporting system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. Four scientific quastions about the functions of ecosystem services are discussed in this paper. They are: 1) study of the integration, amount and spatial location of functions of ecosystem services; 2) the spatial transfer of functions of ecosystem services; 3) the relationship between ecosystem service and ecological security; and 4) the sustainable use of ecosystem services. The heterogeneity in the structure of ecosystem's results in heterogeneity of their functions. Consequentially, there is spatial heterogeneity in the functions of ecosystem services. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the functions of ecosystem services by qualitative, quantitative and spatial means. Some functions of ecosystem services can be transferred spatially by various methods, and produce benefits at areas far removed from their habitats and range of suitable conditions. This phenomenon is called spatial transfer of ecosystem services. Thus, characteristic ecosystem services can bring economic values to a region of larger area than that covered by the ecosystem′s habitats. Ecosystem services provide supporting system for humans, and their strengths depend on ecological capital stock. Ecological capital stock illustrates the capability of sustainable development of a country. Ecological capital stock of an ecosystem relies in turn on the function and the structure of the ecosystem. Endangerment of ecosystem service raises a question for ecological security. In many regions ecological resources are rare. To use ecological resources sustainably, local communities should be urged to develop their economies by means of managing ecosystem services, i.e., to industrialize the management of ecosystem services. These four scientific questions for ecosystem services are related to each other. The aim of discussing them is to focus study on ecosystem services in the future.

Key words: Rhinopithecus bieti, geographical distribution, population size, ecology, conservation