生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (4): 345-354.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017034

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物种共存理论研究进展

储诚进1,*(), 王酉石1, 刘宇1, 蒋林2, 何芳良1,3   

  1. 1 中山大学-阿尔伯塔大学生物多样性保护联合实验室, 中山大学有害生物控制与资源利用国家重点实验室, 中山大学生命科学学院, 广州 510275)
    2 School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA 30332)
    3 Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2H1);
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-12 接受日期:2017-04-01 出版日期:2017-04-20 发布日期:2017-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 储诚进
  • 基金资助:
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(31622014, 31570426, 31670531)

Advances in species coexistence theory

Chengjin Chu1,*(), Youshi Wang1, Yu Liu1, Lin Jiang2, Fangliang He1,3   

  1. 1 SYSU-Alberta Joint Laboratory for Biodiversity Conservation, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2 School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA 30332
    3 Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2H1
  • Received:2017-02-12 Accepted:2017-04-01 Online:2017-04-20 Published:2017-04-20
  • Contact: Chu Chengjin

摘要:

群落内的多物种如何共存是群落生态学的核心研究内容之一。经典的物种共存理论强调物种之间的生态位分化, 注重具体共存机制的研究。这种以具体共存机制为研究对象的方法一定程度上促进了当代物种共存理论框架的形成。在当代物种共存理论框架下, 物种间的差异被划分为两类综合性的抽象差异——生态位差异和平均适合度差异, 前者促进物种共存, 对应稳定化机制; 后者导致竞争排除, 对应均等化机制。本文在简要回顾经典物种共存理论的基础上, 介绍了当代物种共存理论的框架(包括理论的形成和定义)、基于该理论的部分实验验证工作及其在一些重要生态学问题中的应用。当代物种共存理论不仅揭示了群落内物种是如何共存的这一基本理论问题, 更重要的是在全球变化的背景下该理论对生物多样性的保护和管理具有重要的应用价值。期望本文的介绍有助于国内生态学和生物多样性工作者了解当代物种共存理论, 并将其应用于群落构建和生物多样性维持机制等方面的研究。

关键词: 生态位, 稳定化机制, 均等化机制, 生态位差异, 平均适合度差异

Abstract:

How species coexist locally is a fundamental question in community ecology. Classical coexistence theory underscores the importance of niche differentiation between species and focuses on specific coexistence mechanisms. Studies on these specific coexistence mechanisms have profoundly contributed to understanding species coexistence at the local scale and inspired ecologists to create a more general contemporary coexistence theory. Under the contemporary coexistence theory, species differences are categorized into two groups: niche differences and average fitness differences. Niche differences serve as stabilizing mechanisms that promote species coexistence, whereas average fitness differences are related to equalizing mechanisms that drive competitive exclusion. In this paper we provide a detailed review of contemporary coexistence theory, including its definition and theoretical models, empirical tests of these models and their applications to biodiversity studies. Coexistence theory has applications in a number of other areas including biodiversity conservation and management in a changing world beyond the basic concept of how communities are structured. We show how contemporary coexistence theory has advanced the niche-based classic coexistence theory, helping us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of community assembly and biodiversity maintenance.

Key words: niche, stabilizing mechanisms, equalizing mechanisms, niche differences, average fitness differences