生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (6): 577-589.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.2010.577

所属专题: 外来物种入侵:机制、影响与防控

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

天然杂交与遗传渐渗对植物入侵性的影响

卢宝荣*; 夏辉; 汪魏; 杨箫   

  1. 复旦大学生命科学学院生态与进化生物学系, 教育部生物多样性与生态工程重点实验室, 上海 200433
  • 收稿日期:2010-06-07 出版日期:2010-11-20 发布日期:2011-01-31
  • 通讯作者: 卢宝荣

Impacts of natural hybridization and introgression on biological invasion of plant species

Bao-Rong Lu*; Hui Xia; Wei Wang; Xiao Yang   

  1. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433
  • Received:2010-06-07 Online:2010-11-20 Published:2011-01-31
  • Contact: Bao-Rong Lu

摘要:

生物入侵给全球生态环境与社会经济都带来了严重危害, 对其入侵机制的研究非常重要。生物入侵是一个适应性进化的过程, 天然杂交与遗传渐渗可以改变外来物种对环境的适应性并提高其入侵能力, 使其进化成为入侵种。因此了解杂交–渐渗在促进生物入侵过程中的遗传作用, 将有助于我们采取有效措施来控制生物入侵及其危害。本文从杂交–渐渗对生物适应性进化和物种形成影响的角度, 阐明外来种如何通过杂交–渐渗在新的生境中改变其适应性、生存竞争能力和入侵能力。杂交–渐渗可以导致物种发生多倍体水平和同倍体水平的进化, 虽然二者的进化过程不尽相同, 但均能使杂种群体在遗传上产生较大变化, 进而影响杂种群体的适合度, 这一过程可能促使外来种在新的生境中的成功入侵进而转变为入侵种。随着转基因生物技术的迅速发展, 大量转基因作物进入环境释放和商品化种植, 具有特定功能的转基因可能通过杂交–渐渗进入野生近缘种群体, 也可能使之成为入侵性强的农田杂草, 带来难以预测的生态后果。总之, 生物入侵是一个复杂的进化和生态过程, 利用杂交–渐渗的理论来解释植物的入侵性, 仅从一个方面反映了入侵生物学的研究, 杂交–渐渗与其他理论的结合, 将从更深的层次来解释外来种的入侵机制。

Abstract:

Biological invasions have caused tremendous ecological and socio-economic damages worldwide. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for their effective management. Biological invasion is a process of adaptive evolution in which hybridization and introgression play an important role in promoting invasive species by changing their invasiveness. Therefore, understanding how the genetic mechanisms of hybridization and introgression influence biological invasion will facilitate effective control of invasive species. The escape of transgenes with special functions into populations of wild relatives through hybridization and introgression may change the invasiveness and weediness of the wild relatives, causing undesired environmental problems. This paper introduces the role of hybridization and introgression in adaptive evolution and speciation, and discusses how an alien species can change its adaptability, competitive ability, and invasiveness in new habitats through introgressive hybridization. Hybridization and introgression can cause polyploid and homoploid evolution of plant species, thereby influencing the fitness of new species and promoting the formation of an invasive species in new habitats. At the same time, with the rapid development of transgenic technologies, transgenic crops are being extensively released into the environment for commercial production. Biological invasion is a complicated evolutionary and ecological process, and future research should investigate the roles of hybridization and introgression in biological invasions in the context of the myriad factors that influence the process.