生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1128-1133.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021213

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

多倍体植物混合倍性种群的建立机制研究进展

刘勇波()   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院, 国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-25 接受日期:2021-07-20 出版日期:2021-08-20 发布日期:2021-08-16
  • 通讯作者: 刘勇波
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: liuyb@craes.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查与评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

The mechanism of constructing mixed-ploidy populations in polyploid species

Yongbo Liu()   

  1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2021-05-25 Accepted:2021-07-20 Online:2021-08-20 Published:2021-08-16
  • Contact: Yongbo Liu

摘要:

基因组多倍化是物种形成和进化的重要驱动力, 几乎所有植物都经历过至少一次基因组加倍。然而, 由于多倍体植株比二倍体表现出更高的死亡率, 多倍化机制被认为是植物进化的“死胡同”。一些植物物种具有自然混合倍性种群, 即同一物种具有不同倍性, 这为揭示多倍体的进化机制提供了最佳途径。本文从基因组加倍形成多倍体植物开始, 综述了混合倍性种群的形成、建立与维持的研究进展, 探讨了多倍体适应自然环境的种群分化而形成多倍体物种的机制。研究自然混合倍性种群的倍性组成、重复基因的功能分化以及多倍体的生态位分化, 有利于明确混合倍性自然种群的生态适应与维持机理, 以及多倍体植物的进化机制。

关键词: 多倍体植物, 混合倍性, 种群, 基因组加倍, 少数细胞型排斥

Abstract

Background & Aims: Polyploidization, the duplication of entire genomes, is a key driver in the processes of speciation and evolution, and almost all plants experience at least one whole-genome duplication (WGD). Because polyploid species have higher mortality ratio than diploid ones, the mechanism of polyploidization is considered a “dead-end”. However, some plant species exist in nature as mixed ploidy populations. These populations contain species that exist at different polyploidy levels and therefore provide the best opportunities to study the mechanisms of polyploidy evolution.

Progresses: Beginning with the origination of polyploid plants from WGD, I reviewed the progress on the formation, establishment and maintenance of mixed-ploidy populations in polyploid plants. I also discussed the mechanisms of polyploid speciation through the population divergence of polyploid plants adaption in a natural environment.

Prospects: Detection of the ploidy components, divergence of multi-copy genes, and niche differentiation of polyploids facilitate the understanding of ecological adaptation and maintenance of mixed ploidy populations and the evolutionary mechanisms of polyploid plants.

Key words: polyploid plants, mixed ploidy, populations, whole-genome duplication, minority cytotype exclusion