生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 260-268.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09206

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城市化对昆虫多样性的影响

叶水送1, 2, 方燕1, 李恺1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 华东师范大学生命科学学院, 上海 200062
    2 上海市城市化生态过程与生态恢复重点实验室, 上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2012-10-31 接受日期:2013-04-26 出版日期:2013-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 李恺 E-mail:kaili@admin.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    上海市科技攻关项目(09DZ1200901);上海市自然科学基金(10ZR1408500)

Impacts of urbanization process on insect diversity

Shuisong Ye1, 2, Yan Fang1, Kai Li1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062
    2 Shanghai Key Laboratory for Ecology of Urbanization Process and Eco-Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062
  • Received:2012-10-31 Accepted:2013-04-26 Online:2013-05-20
  • Contact: Li Kai E-mail:kaili@admin.ecnu.edu.cn

自20世纪以来, 城市化在世界范围内迅猛发展, 已有一半以上的人口居住在城市中。通过对当前国内外有关城市化对昆虫多样性影响的研究分析, 城市化主要对昆虫的丰富度、空间分布、灭绝、食性及生态系统服务功能5个方面产生影响。城市化导致了大多数本地昆虫种群衰退, 在空间分布上, 沿郊区-城市中心梯度(rural-city center gradient, RCG), 本地昆虫的丰富度下降明显, 部分本地昆虫甚至在城市化进程中灭绝。城市化造成大多数专食性昆虫种群数量下降, 广食性昆虫如蚜虫、蟑螂、白蚁等的种群数量略有上升。与捕食性昆虫相比, 植食性、寄生性、腐食性和访花性昆虫对城市化的负面响应更为明显, 因此降低了城市昆虫的生态系统服务功能。城市地区, 昆虫种群数量下降主要与城市化所带来的环境污染(大气污染、水体污染、光污染及热污染)、生境破碎化、道路硬化、人工建筑增加和入侵物种引入有关。随着城市化进程的不断发展, 对城市昆虫的保护需要从科学研究、生境恢复及公众环保知识普及等方面做起。

关键词: 城市化, 昆虫多样性, 污染, 生境修复, 破碎化, 生物入侵

Rapid worldwide urbanization during the last century has led to more than half the world’s population living in urban regions. Studies of how urbanization affects insect diversity have focused on the following: insect abundance, distribution, extinction, food habits and ecosystem services. Native insect populations have declined greatly in urban areas, where studies of their spatial distribution have revealed that abundance decreases along what is termed the rural-city center gradient (RCG), many native insects even extinct with urbanization process. Most specialist insect communities have declined in abundance due to urbanization, while some generalist species, such as aphids, cockroaches and termites, have increased slightly in abundance. It is also the case that herbivorous, parasitic, saprophagous and flower-visiting insects are much more negatively influenced by urbanization than predator insects. This has a significant effect on the ecosystem services of insects. The decline of many insects due to urbanization can be attributed to environmental pollution (including air pollution, water pollution, light pollution, and heat pollution), habitat fragmentation, road hardening, clustering of buildings, and occurrence of introduced invasive species. As urbanization continues, measures should be taken to protect insects in urban areas. This will entail improving basic scientific research on the problem, construction of suitable habitats, and informing the general public of the benefits of environmental protection.

Key words: urbanization, insect diversity, pollution, habitat modification, fragmentation, biological invasion

表1

不同类型的城市污染对昆虫多样性的影响"

污染类型
Pollution type
主要污染物
Main pollutant
致污水平
Polluted level
主要受污类群
Main polluted taxon
主要文献
References
空气污染
Air pollution
SO2、O3 种群
Population
鳞翅目
Lepidoptera
Dohmen et al., 1984; Dohmen, 1985; Gate et al., 1995
热污染
Heat pollution
工厂废水余热
Afterheat of waste water from industries
种群
Population
双翅目、鳞翅目
Diptera and Lepidoptera
Cregg & Dix, 2001; Willmer & Unwin, 1981
水体污染
Water pollution
重金属、杀虫剂、除草剂
Heavy metal, pesticide, weedicide
种群、分子及基因层次
Population, molecule, and gene
蜉蝣目、蜻蜓目、广翅目等
Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Megaloptera
Harris et al., 1987; Jones & Clark, 1987
光污染
Light pollution
城市灯光
Urban lighting
种群
Population
鞘翅目、鳞翅目
Coleoptera and Lepidoptera
Longcore & Rich, 2004; Parendes & Jones, 2000
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