生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 249-259.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11240

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

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植物入侵对食物网的影响及其途径

王思凯, 盛强, 储忝江, 李博, 陈家宽, 吴纪华*()   

  1. 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 上海 200433
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-05 接受日期:2013-02-25 出版日期:2013-05-20 发布日期:2013-06-05
  • 通讯作者: 吴纪华
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2013CB430404);科技部支撑计划(2010BAK69B14);上海市科学技术委员会(10dz1200700)

Impact of invasive plants on food webs and pathways

Sikai Wang, Qiang Sheng, Tianjiang Chu, Bo Li, Jiakuan Chen, Jihua Wu*()   

  1. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433
  • Received:2012-12-05 Accepted:2013-02-25 Online:2013-05-20 Published:2013-06-05
  • Contact: Wu Jihua

摘要:

生态系统中的物质和能量主要沿食物链在食物网中流通, 诸多研究表明入侵植物对生态系统功能的影响是通过改变当地原有的食物网结构而实现的, 因此外来植物入侵对食物网的影响受到人们越来越多的关注。本文分析了植物入侵引起食物网变化的原因以及改变食物网的途径, 探讨了土著食物网特点对群落可入侵性的影响, 得出以下结论: (1)食物网的变化主要是由于入侵植物引起的消费者基础食物资源或者周围环境条件的变化造成的; (2)入侵植物通过3种途径影响食物网: 一是入侵植物具有较好的可利用性, 能够直接被土著草食者取食, 通过上行效应按照原有的路径进入土著食物网; 二是当入侵植物的可利用性较差时, 入侵植物所固定的能量通过引入新的消费者或者转变流通路径形成新的食物网结构; 三是入侵植物通过非营养作用造成食物网中各级消费者的种群密度和行为活动等发生变化, 进而影响土著生物群落和食物网结构; (3)食物网的大小及其连通性可能影响外来植物的入侵成功率。在今后的研究中, 为深入揭示生物入侵对食物网的影响, 在短期控制实验的基础上应加强长时间尺度的动态研究, 对于食物网变化的定量描述对象也需要进一步加以明确。此外, 食物网对入侵植物生态修复的响应以及食物网变化对入侵植物的反馈作用等也具有重要的研究价值。

关键词: 食物网, 营养作用, 非营养作用, 植物入侵, 影响途径

Abstract

In natural ecosystems, energy mainly flows along food chains in food webs. Numerous studies have shown that plant invasions influence ecosystem functions through altering food webs. In recent decades, more attention has been paid to the effects of alien plants on local food webs. In this review, we analyze the influence of exotic plants on food webs and pathways, and explore the impacts of local food web characteristics on community invasibility. Invasive plants alter food webs mainly by changing basal resources and environment conditions in different ways. First, they are consumed by native herbivores due to their high availability, and are therefore incorporated into the native food web. Second, if they show low availability to native herbivores, a new food web is generated through introduction of new consumers or by changing the energy pathway. Third, environmental changes induced by plant invasions may alter population density and feeding behavior of various species at different trophic levels, thus alien plants will affect the communities and food web structures along non-trophic pathways. The influence of the local food web on plant invasions depends on web size and trophic connections. Issues that deserve attention in future studies are raised and discussed. Future research should extend from short-term experiments to long-term monitoring. More quantitative researches to define the responses of food web parameters are needed. In addition, recovering of food web structure and species interaction in restored habitats is an important issue requiring future research.

Key words: food web, trophic effect, non-trophic effect, invasive plant, influence pathway