生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (5): 581-611.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.31148

所属专题: 创刊20周年纪念专刊

• 《生物多样性》创刊20年纪念专刊 • 上一篇    下一篇

近十年中国生物入侵研究进展

鞠瑞亭1, 2, 李慧1, 石正人3, 李博1*   

  1. 1复旦大学生物多样性和生态工程教育部重点实验室、长江河口湿地生态系统野外科学观测研究站, 上海 200433
    2上海市园林科学研究所植物保护研究部, 上海 200232
    3台湾大学昆虫学系暨研究所, 台北 10617
  • 收稿日期:2012-07-26 修回日期:2012-08-18 出版日期:2012-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 李博 E-mail:bool@fudan.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目;国家自然科学基金;上海市科委基础研究重点项目;上海市优秀学科带头人计划项目

Progress of biological invasions research in China over the last decade

Ruiting Ju1, 2, Hui Li1, Chengjen Shih3, Bo Li1*   

  1. 1Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary and Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433

    2Department of Plant Protection, Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening Science, Shanghai 200232

    3Department and Institute of Entomology, Taiwan University, Taipei 10617
  • Received:2012-07-26 Revised:2012-08-18 Online:2012-09-20
  • Contact: Bo Li E-mail:bool@fudan.edu.cn

生物入侵已对入侵区的生态环境、社会经济和人类健康造成了严重的威胁, 成为了21世纪五大全球性环境问题之一。本文回顾了2000年以来, 中国生物入侵研究领域尤其是入侵种的多样性与格局、入侵机制及生态学效应、管理与控制等方面所取得的重要进展, 讨论了需进一步加强研究的领域, 以期为进一步拓展该领域研究的广度和深度、为我国的生物入侵预警预防和科学治理提供参考。据初步研究, 中国的入侵种数量已达529种, 其中陆生植物、陆生无脊椎动物和微生物为主要入侵类群; 原产地以北美洲和南美洲为主; 经济发达和气候温暖湿润的东部和南部省份入侵态势明显较西部和北部省份严重; 随着中国经济的进一步发展, 生物入侵问题将可能更加严峻。外来种的成功入侵是其内禀优势、资源机遇和人为干扰共同作用的结果; 其中, 表型可塑性、适应性进化、天敌释放、种间互利或偏利共生和新化感作用等因素对入侵起到了关键作用。生物入侵已对中国土著生态系统的生物多样性和生态系统服务功能造成了严重影响, 打破了生态系统的固有平衡, 危害或威胁到中国的农林牧渔业生产、交通航运、环境、人类健康和公共设施安全。针对生物入侵的管理与控制, 中国加强了包括检测监测、风险分析、生物防治、扩散阻断、根治灭除和生态恢复等技术体系的研究和实施, 并初步控制了一些重要入侵种的扩张。中国生物入侵需要在全境性科学考察、生物入侵的遗传学、基因组学、生态系统影响、全球变化和管理与控制技术创新等领域进一步加强跨领域的交叉合作和系统研究。

As one of the five major global environmental problems, invasive species have posed serious threats to native ecosystems, public health, and regional economies. Although much progress has been made in the field of biological invasions research in China over the last decade, there are still large knowledge gaps. This paper reviews progress in the field of biological invasions research since 2000 as it relates to China, covering the diversity, colonization and immigration patterns of invasive species, mechanisms and ecological effects of biological invasions, and management and control of invasive species. In China, 529 invasive alien species have been identified, which originated primarily from South and North America, and the major taxa included terrestrial plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and microorganisms. We found a higher prevalence of invasive species in the eastern and southern provinces, compared to the western and northern provinces in China. This pattern is likely due to the differences in the level of economic development and environmental suitability between the two regions. Moreover, with further economic development, China may face more serious biological invasions in the future. These invasions of alien species are largely the combined results of the interactions between the intrinsic traits of these species along with resource opportunities and disturbances by human beings. Many mechanisms are responsible for successful invasions of alien species, but phenotypic plasticity, adaptive evolution, enemy release, interspecific mutualism or commensalism, and new allelochemicals may be primary causative factors. Biological invasions in China have caused serious impacts on native ecosystems, including biodiversity and ecosystem services, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, threats to agricultural and forestry production, traffic and shipping, environmental safety, and public facilities. China has also made progress in the detection and monitoring of invasive species, risk analysis, biological control, radical elimination, and ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems. We suggest several issues that need to be addressed in invasive species research in the future, including territory-wide inventories, evolutionary ecology and genomics, direct and indirect ecosystem-level consequences, interactions between major components of global change and biological invasions, and management and control technologies.

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