生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (4): 388-399.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019007

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

金钟藤入侵群落的种间联结及生态位特征

江焕1,张辉1,龙文兴1,*(),方燕山2,符明期2,朱孔新3   

  1. 1 海南大学林学院, 海口 570228
    2 海南省黎母山省级自然保护区管理局, 海南琼中 572900
    3 海南省霸王岭林业局, 海南昌江 572700
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-08 接受日期:2019-03-11 出版日期:2019-04-20 发布日期:2019-06-05
  • 通讯作者: 龙文兴
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(3166016331870508);海南省自然科学基金(3120642016CXTD003D);海南大学青年教师基金(hdkyxj201704);海南省普通高等学校研究生创新科研课题(Hys201765)

Interspecific associations and niche characteristics of communities invaded by Decalobanthus boisianus

Jiang Huan1,Zhang Hui1,Long Wenxing1,*(),Fang Yanshan2,Fu Mingqi2,Zhu Kongxin3   

  1. 1 College of Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228
    2 Administration of Limushan Natural Reserve, Qiongzhong, Hainan 572900
    3 Forestry Bureau of Bawangling, Changjiang, Hainan 572700
  • Received:2019-01-08 Accepted:2019-03-11 Online:2019-04-20 Published:2019-06-05
  • Contact: Long Wenxing

摘要:

金钟藤(Decalobanthus boisianus)是林业有害植物, 其暴发生长和扩散对森林生态系统造成了严重破坏。本文以海南岛48个金钟藤典型分布群落为研究对象, 用方差比率法和贡献定律法探究群落的稳定性; 用χ 2统计量、联结系数(AC)、共同出现百分率(PC)、Ochiai指数和Dice指数分析金钟藤与伴生物种的种间联结关系; 用生态位宽度、生态位相似性系数和生态位重叠指数研究群落中各物种的生态位特征, 以期为金钟藤生物防治的植物物种筛选提供借鉴。结果表明: (1)金钟藤所在48个群落共有156种伴生植物, 其中大戟科、茜草科、桑科、无患子科和樟科植物占优势; (2)群落中优势物种呈正联结关系, 植物种类累积倒数百分比与累积相对频度交点坐标为(44.53, 55.47), 远离稳定交点坐标(20, 80), 说明群落处于不稳定状态; (3)金钟藤与芳槁润楠(Machilus suaveolens)、黄椿木姜子(Litsea variabilis)、岭南山竹子(Garcinia oblongifolia)、显脉杜英(Elaeocarpus dubius)、鸭脚木(Schefflera octophylla)和银柴(Aporusa dioica)都紧密关联, 说明金钟藤与这些物种的资源利用方式较相似; (4)金钟藤的生态位宽度最大, 与伴生物种间的生态位重叠度较高, 但伴生物种间的生态位重叠度较低。金钟藤的入侵导致群落处于不稳定状态, 并与伴生物种间存在激烈的竞争关系。因此, 建议在金钟藤已入侵的群落中大量栽种芳槁润楠、黄椿木姜子、显脉杜英、鸭脚木和银柴, 以遏制其蔓延; 大量栽种翻白叶树(Pterospermum heterophyllum)、海南菜豆树(Radermachera hainanensis)、九节(Psychotria rubra)和肉实树(Sarcosperma laurinum)用于金钟藤入侵群落的植被恢复。

关键词: 金钟藤, 伴生物种, 群落稳定性, 种间联结, 生态位

Abstract:

Decalobanthus boisianus is a noxious weed that has seriously damaged tropical forest ecosystems on Hainan Island due to its rapid dispersal and growth abilities. We investigated 48 communities invaded by D. boisianus and explored the interspecific associations between the community species using χ 2tests, association coefficient (AC), percentage of co-occurrence (PC), and the Ochiai and Dice indices. We assessed community stability using the variance ratio (VR) and contribution law method, and examined niche width, niche similarity and niche overlap of D. boisianus and companion species. Results showed that there were 156 companion species in the D. boisianus communities, belonging to Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Moraceae, Sapindaceae and Lauraceae. There were positive associations between dominant species. The coordinate (44.53, 55.47) between the inverse accumulative percentage of species and their accumulative relative frequency was far from the stability point (20, 80). This indicates that these communities are in an unstable state. Machilus suaveolens, Litsea variabilis, Garcinia oblongifolia, Elaeocarpus dubius, Schefflera octophylla and Aporusa dioica were closely associated with D. boisianus, indicating that these species have similar resource requirements. Decalobanthus boisianus had the highest niche width which overlapped greatly with companion species. The niches among companion species seldomly overlapped. Our results suggest that the invasion of D. boisianus led to an unstable community with intense competition between companion species and D. boisianus. Our findings can be helpful in species selection for biologically controlling to D. boisianus in tropical areas.

Key words: Decalobanthus boisianus, companion species, community stability, interspecific association, niche