生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (7): 760-765.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018078

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

环境变化对中国野生蜜蜂多样性的影响

刘秀嶶, Douglas Chesters, 武春生, 周青松, 朱朝东*   

  1. 中国科学院动物研究所动物进化与系统学院重点实验室, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-12 接受日期:2018-06-10 出版日期:2018-07-20 发布日期:2018-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 朱朝东
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31772495)

A horizon scan of the impacts of environmental change on wild bees in China

Xiuwei Liu, Douglas Chesters, Chunsheng Wu, Qingsong Zhou, Chaodong Zhu*()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2018-03-12 Accepted:2018-06-10 Online:2018-07-20 Published:2018-09-11
  • Contact: Zhu Chaodong
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

蜜蜂尤其是野生蜜蜂对维持生态系统功能、保证粮食安全等方面具有重要的作用。近年来, 野生蜜蜂的栖息地由于天然林减少, 而现营造的又多为纯林, 以及大面积种植单一经济林而遭到了严重破坏和片断化。已有研究表明纯林、油茶(Camellia oleifera)和橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)经济林中的野生蜜蜂多样性较低。现代农业中新烟碱类杀虫剂、除草剂的大规模使用, 会对蜜蜂个体发育和行为产生不利影响。城市化进程潜在影响了蜜蜂的群落, 如郊区的蜜蜂平均物种丰富度要明显高于中心商业区; 废水、废气和粉尘对蜜蜂的觅食、生长发育等都具有不利影响; CO2等温室气体导致的气候变暖影响了传粉蜜蜂与植物之间的互利共生关系, 造成时间或功能上的不匹配。综上所述, 我国的环境变化可能已导致中国野生传粉蜜蜂多样性的下降和种群的衰退。我国虽是传粉蜜蜂种质资源大国, 但缺乏种类和分布本底以及长期而有效的监测数据, 缺乏对蜜蜂多样性和种群下降机制的研究。因此亟待开展传粉蜜蜂调查、实施长期监测项目, 为之建立研究网络。并通过积累丰富的相关数据, 开展风险预测和评估, 用于管理和缓解传粉蜜蜂下降所带来的经济及非经济影响。

关键词: 生境, 城市化, 气候变化, 环境污染, 传粉蜜蜂

Abstract:

Wild pollinator bees play an important role in ecosystem function and food security. In recent years, natural forests have been lost, while afforestation programs are primarily monoculture plantation, whether commercial or restorative. The net effect for bees has been fragmentation and sometime wholesale loss of habitats. For instance, diversity of wild bees in pure forest, Camellia oleifera and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation was found to be unexpectedly low. The rampant use of neonicotinoid pesticides and herbicide is known to negatively impact development and behavior of bees. Urbanization has dramatically impacted bee communities, with significant changes in species richness between suburban and central business areas. These are likely tied to the effect of effluent, exhaust gas and dust on foraging, growth and development. Climate change from greenhouse gas emissions can disrupt the mutualistic relationship between pollinating bees and plants via rapid phenological shifts. The above environmental changes occurring in China are likely cause wide declines in diversity and decreases in populations. Although China has rich natural heritage for bees, there is a lack of long term monitoring programs for species of pollinator bees and a dearth of data on distributions of bee species. As a result, the drivers of bee community composition and population decline are poorly understood. We emphasize the need to prioritize surveys of pollinating bees, continue ongoing monitoring programs and build wider research networks for the study of wild pollinator bees. These steps will ensure that sufficient data can accumulate for developing a prediction and risk assessment framework to help manage the declines in pollinating bee populations and mitigate the attendant economic and non-economic impacts.

Key words: habitat, urbanization, climate change, environmental pollution, pollinating bees