生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (2): 182-194.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017014

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国高山植物区系地理格局与环境和 空间因素的关系

沈泽昊1, *(), 杨明正1, 冯建孟2, 李新辉3, 彭培好4, 郑智5   

  1. 1 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
    2 大理大学农学与生命科学学院, 大理 671000
    3 西南林业大学资源与环境学院, 昆明 650224
    4 成都理工大学地球科学学院, 成都 610059
    5 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-08 接受日期:2017-02-09 出版日期:2017-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 沈泽昊 E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41371190)

Geographic patterns of alpine flora in China in relation to environmental and spatial factors

Zehao Shen1, *(), Mingzheng Yang1, Jianmeng Feng2, Xinhui Li3, Peihao Peng4, Zhi Zheng5   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, MOE Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 School of Agronomy and Life Sciences, Dali University, Dali, Yunnan 671000
    3 College of Resources and Environment, Southwestern Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    4 College of Earth Sciences, Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu 610059
    5 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2017-01-08 Accepted:2017-02-09 Online:2017-02-20
  • Contact: Shen Zehao E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn

高山带是具有极端环境和明确边界的植物分布区, 研究高山植物区系地理对于理解空间彼此隔离的极端高寒环境下植物区系的形成与相互联系具有重要意义。本研究整合了中国境内14座主要山地的高山植物区系数据, 用Jaccard指数测度不同区系之间的相似性, 运用相关分析和Mantel检验方法, 重点分析了中国高山种子植物区系地理成分的构成、不同山地之间的相似性及其环境和空间相关因素。结果表明, 中国山地的高山带分布着物种丰富的种子植物区系, 14座主要山地即包含了65科489属3,670种(含340个种下单位), 主要由北温带分布及其亚型、世界分布、旧世界温带分布和东亚分布及其中国-喜马拉雅分布亚型等成分构成, 缺少中国-日本分布类型, 中国特有属的比例较高(5.2%)。14座山地高山植物区系构成的地理分异显示: 北热带和东亚成分自南向北减少, 而北方温带成分增加; 自西向东古地中海成分减少, 北方温带成分增加, 而东亚成分在中部达到最大值; 在属级地理成分构成上, 北方山地和青藏高原周缘山地构成了区系成分近似的两大群组, 台湾高山植物区系与大陆东部北方高山带的区系联系更密切。地理隔离是高山植物区系分异的首要因素, 高山带的面积大小也影响到其区系成分的构成, 而夏季热量是影响中国高山植物区系地理分异的首要气候因子, 显示全球变暖对未来高山植物区系具有潜在的胁迫作用。

关键词: 高山带, 种子植物, 区系成分, 地理分异, 组成相似性, Mantel检验, 空间距离, 地貌, 气候

Alpine areas are global biomes with extreme environments and distinct boundaries. Studies on the geography of alpine flora help us to understand the formation of flora in an extremely cold and segregated environment, as well as the floristic relations between mountains. We integrated alpine flora data from 14 main mountain ranges in China, measured floristic similarities using the Jaccard index, and explored the percentage composition of areal-types of seed plants and the effects of geographical distance and environmental variation on flora similarities using correlation analyses and Mantel tests. Results indicated that Chinese alpine zones harbor a flora characterized by high species richness, with 3,670 species (including 340 subspecies units) belonging to 489 genera and 65 families recorded in the alpine zone of 14 main mountain ranges. These genera are mainly constituted of areal-types of North Temperate distribution and their sub-types, Cosmopolitan, Old World Temperate, East Asia and Sino-Himalayan, while the Sino-Japanese type is absent. Those endemic to China revealed a distinct presence in alpine flora (5.2%). Based on the data from 14 alpine zones, geographical patterns of alpine floristic composition were characterized by a significant latitudinal decrease of tropic and East Asia areal-types, and an increase of northern temperate types. Along the longitudinal gradient, the percentages of Mediterranean types decreased while the northern temperate types increased, and East Asian elements peaked in the middle position. The alpine floras of 14 mountains were significantly correlated in terms of geographical element composition when measured at the genus level, revealing two groups of higher floristic correlations, mountains surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and separated northern mountains, respectively. The alpine flora of Taiwan Island is more closely related with that of the northern mountains rather than that of the mountains found in Southwest China, which have more comparable latitudes. We found that geographic distance was the primary factor for deviation between alpine floras, while the physiognomy of alpine zones also influenced floristic composition, and the maximum temperature of warmest month (MTWM) was a critical climatic factor for geographical deviation of alpine flora composition in China, which suggests the potential stress effects of global warming on alpine flora.

Key words: alpine zone, seed plant, floristic elements, geographic differentiation, composition similarity, Mantel test, spatial distance, physiognomy, climate

图1

本研究选择的中国14座山地的高山带分布地点"

表1

所分析的14座高山的基本特征"

山名
Mt. name
省份
Province
最高峰
Summit
(m)
纬度范围
Latitudinal
rang
树线海拔Alpine
Elev. (m)
林线树种下限
Lower limit
(m)
高山林线树种
Alpine treeline species
高山带面积
Alpine area
(ha)
天山 Mt. Tianshan[1] 新疆 Xinjiang 7,439 42°18'-44°15' 2,800 1,800 雪岭云杉 Picea schrenkiana 832,930.0
阿尔金山 Mt. Arjin[2] 新疆 Xinjiang 6,973 37°55'-39°35' 3,500 3,137.6
祁连山 Mt. Qilian[3] 青海 Qinghai 5,808 37°16'-39°19' 3,600 2,600 祁连圆柏 Sabina przewalskii 16,345.1
贺兰山 Mt. Helan[4] 宁夏 Ningxia 3,556 38°07'-39°30' 3,200 2,600 青海云杉 P. erassifolia 755.5
长白山 Mt. Changbai[5] 吉林 Jilin 2,750 41°42'-42°51' 2,100 1,800 岳桦 Betula ermanii 9,063.4
五台山 Mt. Wutai[6] 河北 Hebei 3,061 38°50'-39°05' 2,800 2,300 华北落叶松 Larix principis-rupprechtii 923.7
太白山 Mt. Taibai[7] 陕西 Shaanxi 3,767 33°49'-34°08' 3,400 2,800 太白红杉 L. chinensis 2,678.7
摩天岭 Mt. Motianling[8] 甘肃 Gansu 3,837 32°39'-32°49' 3,450 2,900 秦岭冷杉 Abies chensiensis 5,698.9
贡嘎山 Mt. Gongga[9] 四川 Sichuan 7,556 29°20'-30°20' 3,800 2,700 峨眉冷杉 A. fabri 68,413.9
高黎贡山 Mt. Gaoligong[10] 云南 Yunnan 5,128 24°40'-28°30' 4,000 3,000 急尖长苞冷杉 A. georgei var. smithii 93,695.2
玉龙雪山 Mt. Yulong[11] 云南 Yunnan 5,596 27°10'-27°15' 3,900 3,200 长苞冷杉 A. georgei 5,628.1
轿子雪山 Mt. Jiaozi [12] 云南 Yunnan 4,247 26°00'-26°10' 4,000 3,200 急尖长苞冷杉 A. georgei var. smithii 294.3
台湾山脉 Mts. Taiwan[13] 台湾 Taiwan 3,998 22°36'-24°26' >3,998 3,000 台湾冷杉 A. kawakamii 3,277.2
珠峰 Mt. Zhumulangma# 西藏 Tibet 8,848 27°48'-29°19' 4,300 3,600 糙皮桦 B. albo-sinensis var. septentrionalis 231,943.0

图2

中国14座山地的高山植物区系地理成分构成。T1: 世界分布型; T2-7: 热带分布型; T8-11: 北温带分布型; T12-13: 古地中海分布型; T14: 东亚分布型; T14SH: 中国-喜马拉雅分布型; T15: 中国特有分布型。"

表2

14座主要山地高山种子植物区系地理成分构成相似性与空间距离、环境差异联系的Mantel检验及偏Mantel检验"

距离矩阵 Distance matrices R P
环境距离 Environmental distance 0.5506 0.002
环境距离|地理距离 Environmental distance | Geographic distance 0.3543 0.008
形态差异 Physiognomic difference 0.5455 0.002
形态差异|地理距离 Physiognomic difference | Geographic distance 0.3532 0.017
最热月最高温差异 MTWM difference 0.2131 0.046
最热月最高温差异|地理距离 MTWM difference | Geographic distance 0.2014 0.061
地理距离 Geographic distance 0.6006 0.001
地理距离|环境差异 Geographic distance | Environmental distance 0.4401 0.004
地理距离|形态差异 Geographic | Physiognomic distance 0.4451 0.003
地理距离|最热月最高温差异 Geographic | MTWM distance 0.5979 0.001

图3

不同区系地理成分百分比的经、纬度格局"

图4

14座山地高山种子植物区系属的地理分布区类型百分比构成的相似性格局"

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