生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 312-324.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016350

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自然保护区物种多样性保护价值评价方法

郭子良1, 2, 邢韶华1, 崔国发1, *()   

  1. 1 .北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083
    2 .中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所, 北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-11 接受日期:2017-02-07 出版日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 崔国发 E-mail:fa6716@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    林业公益性行业科研专项(201104029)和北京林业大学青年教师科学研究中长期项目(2015ZCQ-BH-02)

A method for assessing species diversity conservation value of nature reserves

Ziliang Guo1, 2, Shaohua Xing1, Guofa Cui1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2 Institute of Wetland Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
  • Received:2016-12-11 Accepted:2017-02-07 Online:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Cui Guofa E-mail:fa6716@163.com

如何客观地确定自然保护区的保护优先性, 为自然保护区的晋级和确定管理类型提供科学依据, 已成为当前亟待解决的问题。本研究通过对已有评价指标和方法的对比、专家咨询、评价指标量化处理, 提出了量化评价自然保护区物种多样性保护价值的方法。此评价方法包括了自然保护区野生植物、野生动物、珍稀濒危野生植物和珍稀濒危野生动物多样性保护价值指数等量化模型。同时我们应用此方法对华北暖温带区域的39个自然保护区和东北温带区域的67个自然保护区的物种多样性保护价值进行了评价。结果表明, 位于华北暖温带区域的河北南大港湿地和辽河源及北京雾灵山, 以及位于东北温带区域的黑龙江镜泊湖、大佳河和翠北湿地等省级自然保护区的物种多样性保护价值较高, 可推荐优先晋级国家级自然保护区。该物种多样性保护价值评价方法能够较好地反映自然保护区之间物种及各类群多样性保护价值的差异, 确定自然保护区保护优先序列。此外自然保护区物种多样性保护价值在不同自然保护地理区和不同类型自然保护区之间存在显著差别。

关键词: 自然保护区, 野生植物, 野生动物, 多样性, 保护价值

In order to provide a scientific basis for upgrading the level of a nature reserve (NR) and selecting the appropriate management type, the conservation priority of NRs should be identified. How to objectively identify conservation priorities has become a key problem. We propose a mathematical method to comprehensively assess species diversity conservation values by comparing existing evaluation indexes and methods, consulting experts and processing indexes quantitatively. This evaluation method includes the following indices: the wild plant diversity conservation value index; wild animal diversity conservation value index; rare and endangered wild plant diversity conservation value index; and the rare and endangered wild animal diversity conservation value index of a NR. Meanwhile, 39 NRs in North China Warm Temperate Region and 67 NRs in Northeast China Temperate Region were selected as case studies to verify methods, based on species diversity data of the NRs. The evaluation results revealed that some provincial NRs could be recommended for an upgrade to national NRs, due to high species diversity conservation values, including the Nandagang Wetland and Liaohe River Source NRs of Hebei, Wuling Mountain NR of Beijing in the North China Warm Temperate Region, the Jingpo Lake, Dajia River, and Cuibei Wetland NRs of Heilongjiang in the Northeast China Temperate Region. The computation method showed a great advantage in comparing species (various groups) diversity conservation values for different NRs and determining the conservation priority sequence. Moreover, there were significant differences in the species diversity conservation value of NR among different natural conservation geographical areas, and types of NRs.

Key words: nature reserve, wild plant, wild animal, diversity, conservation value

表1

野生植物的保护重要性评价指标分级赋值标准"

评价指标
Evaluation index
分级赋值 Assignment
8 4 2 1
濒危性
Endangerment
极危Critically Endangered 濒危Endangered 易危Vulnerable 近危和无危Near Threatened and Least Concern
特有性
Endemism
植物地区特有
Endemic to plant province
植物亚区特有
Endemic to plant subarea
中国特有
Endemic to China
非中国特有
Not endemic to China
保护等级
Conservation level
国家一级保护或特殊保护
First-category national protected or
special protected
国家二级保护
Second-category national
protected
地方重点保护
Provincial key protected
其他
Others

表2

野生动物的保护重要性评价指标分级赋值标准"

评价指标
Evaluation index
分级赋值 Assignment
8 4 2 1
濒危性
Endangerment
极危Critically Endangered 濒危Endangered 易危Vulnerable 近危和无危Near Threatened and Least Concern
特有性*
Endemism
动物地理地区特有
Endemic to animal province
中国特有
Endemic to China
中国主要分布
Distributed mainly
in China
中国次要或边缘分布
Distributed secondary or
marginal in China
保护等级
Conservation level
国家一级保护或特殊保护
First-category national protected
or special protected
国家二级保护
Second-category
national protected
地方重点保护
Provincial key
protected
其他 Others

表3

华北暖温带区域部分自然保护区物种多样性保护价值指数(* 截止到2015年确定的国家级自然保护区)"

自然保护地理区
Natural conservation geographical area
自然保护区
Nature reserve (NR)
省份
Province
NP VP NPT VPT NA VA NAT VAT
森林 Forest
辽西冀北山地落叶阔叶林区
The North Hebei Province and West Liaoning Province Mountains Deciduous Broadleaf Forest Area
努鲁儿虎山 Nuluerhu Mountain NR* 辽宁Liaoning 866 33.91 5 5.66 323 43.55 37 23.58
大黑山 Dahei Mountain NR* 辽宁Liaoning 792 33.48 4 4.90 352 47.91 50 29.87
白狼山 Bailang Mountain NR* 辽宁Liaoning 799 33.02 5 5.66 198 31.76 19 13.71
虹螺山 Hongluo Mountain NR* 辽宁Liaoning 783 32.83 8 7.21 197 31.89 18 14.00
海棠山 Haitang Mountain NR* 辽宁Liaoning 729 31.64 7 7.21 226 37.20 36 24.25
七老图山落叶阔叶林与草原区
Qilaotu Mountains Deciduous Broadleaf Forest and Steppe Area
辽河源 Liaohe River Source NR 河北Hebei 831 34.64 5 6.00 241 39.18 37 24.49
北大山 Beida Mountain NR 河北Hebei 715 32.30 5 6.00 213 36.78 33 23.75
燕山落叶阔叶林区
Yanshan Mountains Deciduous Broadleaf Forest Area
松山 Songshan Mountain NR* 北京Beijing 740 34.07 7 10.39 167 29.10 19 15.10
雾灵山 Wuling Mountain NR 北京Beijing 680 33.33 7 10.20 165 30.02 21 16.97
青龙都山
Dushan Mountain NR, Qinglong
河北Hebei 691 32.3 6 6.63 203 33.27 28 20.49
青龙河 Qinglong River NR* 辽宁Liaoning 730 32.08 4 5.29 193 34.73 27 20.88
喇叭沟门 Labagoumen NR 北京Beijing 622 29.97 4 5.29 152 30.35 24 19.08
六里坪猕猴
Liuliping Rhesus Monkeys NR
河北Hebei 604 29.78 4 5.29 206 36.46 28 22.09
宽城都山 Dushan Mountain NR, Kuancheng 河北Hebei 545 28.37 5 6.00 205 36.73 28 22.63
宽城千鹤山
Qianhe Mountain NR, Kuancheng
河北Hebei 572 28.32 4 5.29 221 41.80 33 28.28
八仙山 Baxian Mountain NR* 天津Tianjin 510 26.85 2 4.00 189 30.38 23 16.00
晋北中山落叶阔叶林与草原区
The North Shanxi Province Mountains Deciduous Broadleaf Forest and Steppe Area
驼梁 Tuoliang NR* 河北Hebei 843 36.77 6 6.63 283 48.15 44 33.41
灵空山 Lingkong Mountain NR* 山西Shanxi 811 34.60 6 7.75 215 39.01 33 25.61
芦芽山 Luya Mountain NR* 山西Shanxi 651 30.97 3 4.90 299 44.38 40 28.21
银河山 Yinhe Mountain NR 河北Hebei 613 30.40 2 4.00 175 32.37 23 19.18
漫山 Manshan Mountain NR 河北Hebei 480 27.18 5 8.00 168 31.72 22 19.18
太行山东麓栽培植被与落叶阔叶林区
The East Taihang Mountains Cultivate Vegetation and Deciduous Broadleaf Forest Area
小五台山 Xiaowutai Mountain NR* 河北Hebei 1,305 46.70 9 14.56 150 33.78 23 25.30
青崖寨 Qingyazhai NR* 河北Hebei 847 42.68 5 23.24 187 32.45 27 19.70
百花山 Baihua Mountain NR* 北京Beijing 821 37.84 11 14.97 172 31.80 14 19.80
摩天岭 Motianling NR 河北Hebei 775 34.31 6 6.63 177 33.78 23 22.09
金华山-横岭子褐马鸡
Jinhua Mountain-Henglingzi Brown Eared-Pheasant NR
河北Hebei 672 31.95 6 6.63 150 32.95 22 24.00
三峰山 Sanfeng Mountain NR 河北Hebei 676 31.84 4 5.29 161 29.36 19 16.73
云蒙山 Yunmeng Mountain NR 北京Beijing 514 27.29 2 4.00 123 26.80 13 16.49
大茂山 Damao Mountain NR 河北Hebei 413 24.49 2 3.46 118 23.09 14 11.31
太行山南段山地落叶阔叶林与湿地区
The South Taihang Mountains Deciduous Broadleaf Forest and Wetland Area
蟒河猕猴
Manghe River Rhesus Monkeys NR*
山西Shanxi 773 35.10 6 8.49 280 41.70 33 25.14
草原草甸 Steppe and Meadow
燕山落叶阔叶林区
Yanshan Mountains Deciduous Broadleaf Forest Area
白草洼 Baicaowa NR 河北Hebei 783 35.01 6 10.00 207 32.74 29 18.97
滦河源草地
Luanhe River Source Steppe NR
河北Hebei 682 31.35 6 8.25 101 24.06 16 14.97
红松洼 Hongsongwa NR* 河北Hebei 517 27.89 3 8.94 267 43.31 42 28.57
御道口 Yudaokou NR 河北Hebei 495 27.33 3 6.93 196 39.32 36 28.35
湿地 Wetland
海河平原栽培植被与湿地区
Haihe Plain Cultivate Vegetation and Wetland Area
曹妃甸湿地和鸟类
Caofeidian Wetland and Bird NR
河北Hebei 217 16.09 0 0 297 52.89 55 39.24
衡水湖 Hengshui Lake NR* 河北Hebei 285 18.63 1 2 339 52.86 58 36.93
南大港湿地 Nandagang Wetland NR 河北Hebei 216 16.03 1 2 276 52.57 53 40.25
古海岸与湿地
Palecoast and Wetland NR*
天津Tianjin 194 15.3 1 2 271 50.57 45 36.82
白洋淀 Baiyangdian NR 河北Hebei 324 19.95 0 0 220 42.93 33 29.73

图1

东北温带区域和华北暖温带区域部分自然保护区野生植物多样性保护价值指数(a)和珍稀濒危野生植物多样性保护价值指数(b)分布图"

图2

东北温带区域和华北暖温带区域部分自然保护区野生动物多样性保护价值指数(a)和珍稀濒危野生动物多样性保护价值指数(b)分布图"

表4

东北温带区域部分自然保护区物种多样性保护价值指数(* 截止到2015年确定的国家级自然保护区)"

自然保护地理区
Natural conservation geographical area
自然保护区
Nature reserve (NR)
省份
Province
NP VP NPT VPT NA VA NAT VAT
森林 Forest
大兴安岭北段落叶针叶林区
The North Daxing’an Mountains Deciduous Coniferous Forest Area
岭峰 Lingfeng NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 612 28.20 7 7.48 250 38.92 41 24.41
中央站黑嘴松鸡 Zhongyangzhan Black-billed Capercaillie NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 588 27.69 11 8.72 324 49.26 61 35.33
汗马 Khan Ma NR* 内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 526 26.34 6 6.63 265 42.98 49 29.87
盘中 Panzhong NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 414 23.11 5 6.32 238 39.34 43 26.38
北极村 Beijicun NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 414 22.87 4 5.29 226 41.63 51 31.56
大兴安岭南段森林草原区
The South Daxing’an Mountains Forest and Steppe Area
乌兰坝 Wulanba NR* 内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 824 32.57 5 6.32 296 47.30 50 32.80
青山 Qingshan Mountain NR* 内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 528 25.57 2 3.46 221 41.30 41 29.93
小兴安岭北部针阔混交林区
The North Xiaoxing’an Mountains Coniferous and Broadleaf Mixed Forest Area
胜山 Shengshan Mountain NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 726 30.63 12 9.17 282 44.65 51 31.56
友好 Youhao NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 634 28.91 11 8.94 285 46.68 45 33.47
小兴安岭南部针阔混交林区
The South Xiaoxing’an Mountains Coniferous and Broadleaf Mixed Forest Area
平顶山 Pingding Mountain NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 724 31.26 12 9.17 253 40.36 39 27.13
太平沟 Taipinggou NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 654 29.17 10 8.72 249 41.22 43 28.07
茅兰沟 Maolangou NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 626 28.69 11 8.94 268 47.02 48 35.94
朗乡 Langxiang NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 502 25.87 10 8.72 261 44.33 44 32.06
乌马河紫貂
Wuma River Sable NR
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 482 25.50 10 8.49 281 45.65 51 32.68
丰林 Fenglin NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 501 25.00 6 6.32 283 46.94 48 35.04
凉水 Liangshui NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 447 24.56 9 8.49 306 50.16 58 37.31
碧水中华秋沙鸭
Bishui Chinese Merganser NR
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 439 24.31 9 8.49 266 44.63 40 31.69
辽河平原栽培植被与草原草甸区 Liaohe Plain Cultivate Vegetation and Steppe Area 章古台 Zhanggutai NR* 辽宁 Liaoning 492 25.57 5 6.00 237 37.78 30 20.59
张广才岭-完达山针阔混交林区 Zhangguangcai Mountains-Wanda Mountains Coniferous and Broadleaf Mixed Forest Area 大峡谷 Daxiagu NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 861 35.26 15 14.00 284 45.71 43 32.43
黄泥河 Huangni River NR* 吉林 Jilin 711 32.17 12 12.17 208 37.09 32 24.98
小北湖 Xiaobei Lake NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 592 30.92 7 10.77 327 51.43 57 37.68
七星砬子东北虎
Qixinglazi Siberian Tiger NR
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 679 29.75 11 8.94 306 47.69 53 34.53
曙光 Shuguang NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 543 29.09 13 13.42 237 38.73 34 25.14
长白山阔叶红松林区
Changbai Mountains Broadleaf Korean Pine Forest Area
长白山 Changbai Mountain NR * 吉林 Jilin 1,312 45.19 26 19.49 309 48.86 52 35.10
松花江三湖
Songhua River Three Lake NR*
吉林 Jilin 1,236 42.81 20 18.55 331 57.11 62 44.54
穆棱东北红豆杉
Muling Japanese Yew NR*
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 805 33.12 13 10.95 203 36.19 33 24.17
珲春东北虎
Hunchun Siberian Tiger NR*
吉林 Jilin 663 32.28 12 15.10 279 44.81 44 31.11
凤凰山 Fenghuang Mountain NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 607 30.46 13 13.27 310 50.18 53 36.99
汪清 Wangqing NR* 吉林 Jilin 538 29.98 14 14.56 233 39.55 35 25.85
牡丹峰 Mudanfeng NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 627 29.85 10 11.31 241 39.89 38 28.00
老爷岭东北虎
Laoyeling Siberian Tiger NR*
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 550 27.75 12 10.77 238 40.34 38 28.07
龙岗山针阔混交林区
Longgang Mountains Coniferous and Broadleaf Mixed Forest Area
老秃顶子 Laotudingzi NR* 辽宁 Liaoning 972 38.65 17 16.37 221 37.12 33 24.49
哈泥 Hani NR* 吉林 Jilin 689 32.11 13 13.42 257 40.72 38 26.23
通化石湖 Tonghua Shihu NR 吉林 Jilin 593 31.80 15 17.55 219 34.99 35 20.98
辽东半岛落叶阔叶林与湿地区 Liaodong Peninsula Deciduous Broadleaf Forest and Wetland Area 白石砬子 Baishilazi NR* 辽宁 Liaoning 971 37.54 14 13.42 171 30.59 23 17.66
仙人洞 Xianrendong NR* 辽宁 Liaoning 729 33.05 9 12.49 331 42.63 41 22.00
草原草甸
Steppe and Meadow
大兴安岭南段森林草原区
The South Daxing’an Mountains Forest and Steppe Area
阿鲁科尔沁 Ar Horqin NR* 内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 261 17.66 1 2.00 184 40.55 37 29.73
湿地 Wetland
大兴安岭北段落叶针叶林区
The North Daxing’an Mountains Deciduous Coniferous Forest Area
绰纳河 Chuona River NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 443 24.74 10 8.49 301 49.98 57 38.37
多布库尔 Duobukuer NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 406 22.69 6 6.93 297 49.40 54 37.63
双河 Shuanghe NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 394 22.38 5 6.00 221 39.24 45 27.78
小兴安岭北部针阔混交林区
The North Xiaoxing’an Mountains Coniferous and Broadleaf Mixed Forest Area
库尔滨河 Kuerbin River NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 424 23.92 7 7.48 271 46.90 50 34.64
大沾河湿地
Dazhan River Wetland NR*
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 713 30.35 11 8.94 265 46.50 51 34.87
公别拉河 Gongbiela River NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 631 28.64 9 8.25 253 46.11 46 34.53
红星湿地 Hongxing Wetland NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 342 21.35 5 6.32 259 44.87 45 33.17
翠北湿地 Cuibei Wetland NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 850 32.95 13 9.59 217 41.95 41 31.05
山口 Shankou NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 421 22.96 5 6.00 207 39.27 37 28.07
小兴安岭南部针阔混交林区
The South Xiaoxing’an Mountains Coniferous and Broadleaf Mixed Area
乌伊岭 Wuyiling NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 707 30.32 12 8.94 311 48.11 54 34.93
细鳞河 Xilin River NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 511 26.12 7 7.48 285 46.31 51 33.41
新青白头鹤
Xinqing Hooded Crane NR*
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 730 30.40 10 8.49 291 46.18 51 32.86
松嫩平原外围蒙古栎、草原草甸区 The Periphery of Songnen Plain Quercus mongolica and Steppe Area 波罗湖 Boluo Lake NR* 吉林 Jilin 187 14.73 1 2.00 169 40.51 29 30.46
松嫩平原栽培植被与草原草甸区
Songnen Plain Cultivate Vegetation and Steppe Area
莫莫格 Momoge NR* 吉林 Jilin 332 20.07 2 3.46 334 52.88 53 38.11
扎龙 Zhalong NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 436 23.07 4 4.90 314 52.32 50 38.83
乌裕尔河 Wuyuer River NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 431 22.56 1 2.00 314 52.28 50 38.83
查干湖 Chagan Lake NR* 吉林 Jilin 402 22.20 2 3.46 273 51.32 46 39.09
明水 Mingshui NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 452 23.19 3 4.47 271 45.61 37 31.43
辽河平原栽培植被与草原草甸区
Liaohe Plain Cultivate Vegetation and Steppe Area
辽河口 Liaohe River Estuary NR* 辽宁 Liaoning 124 12.45 1 2.00 302 52.37 47 38.26
穆棱-三江平原湿地、草甸区
Muling-Sanjiang Plain Wetland and Meadow Area
兴凯湖 Xingkai Lake NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 670 29.50 10 8.25 283 50.05 57 38.11
黑瞎子岛
Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island NR
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 453 24.06 8 7.21 274 48.15 48 35.38
东方红湿地
Dongfanghong Wetland NR*
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 683 30.00 11 8.72 274 46.11 47 33.29
三环泡 Sanhuanpao NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 402 22.34 5 5.29 258 45.78 36 31.75
三江 Sanjiang NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 470 24.52 6 6.32 215 44.34 44 34.70
珍宝岛 Zhenbao Island NR* 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 385 22.65 7 7.21 228 42.10 37 30.79
张广才岭-完达山针阔混交林区 Zhangguangcai Mountain-Wanda Mountains Coniferous and Broadleaf Mixed Forest Area 大佳河 Dajia River NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 486 25.08 6 6.63 322 55.49 63 43.77
雁鸣湖 Yanming Lake NR* 吉林 Jilin 819 34.83 14 14.70 324 50.40 53 35.72
镜泊湖 Jingpo Lake NR 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 754 32.77 14 13.56 289 49.96 52 38.47
长白山阔叶红松林区
Changbai Mountains Broadleaf Korean Pine Forest Area
龙湾 Longwan NR* 吉林 Jilin 412 25.55 9 12.17 235 39.65 36 26.31
辽东半岛落叶阔叶林与湿地区 Liaodong Peninsula Deciduous Broadleaf Forest and Wetland Area 蛇岛老铁山
Snake Island-Laotie Mountain NR*
辽宁 Liaoning 560 28.34 4 7.75 331 51.27 59 36.33
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