生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 294-303.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016252

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青海三江源国家级自然保护区麦秀分区鸟类多样性空间格局及热点区域研究

梁健超1, 丁志锋1, 张春兰1, 胡慧建1, *(), 朵海瑞2, *(), 唐虹3   

  1. 1 .广东省生物资源应用研究所, 广东省动物保护与资源利用重点实验室, 广东省野生动物保护与利用公共实验室, 广州 510260
    2 .北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083
    3 .广东省珠海淇澳-担杆岛省级自然保护区, 珠海 519000
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-07 接受日期:2017-01-26 出版日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 胡慧建,朵海瑞 E-mail:13922339577@139.com;duohr@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31400361)

Bird diversity spatial distribution patterns and hotspots in Maixiu Area of Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve, Qinghai Province

Jianchao Liang1, Zhifeng Ding1, Chunlan Zhang1, Huijian Hu1, *(), Hairui Duo2, *(), Hong Tang3   

  1. 1 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260
    2 School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    3 Guangdong Zhuhai Qi’ao-Dan’gan Island Provincial Nature Reserve, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000
  • Received:2016-09-07 Accepted:2017-01-26 Online:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Hu Huijian,Duo Hairui E-mail:13922339577@139.com;duohr@163.com

生物多样性分布格局与热点区域的评估与确定是生物多样性保护规划的基础。三江源地区位于青藏高原腹地的长江、黄河、澜沧江源头汇水区, 是世界上高原物种最丰富、最集中的区域之一。本文在对三江源国家级自然保护区麦秀分区鸟类资源全面调查的基础上, 利用GAP分析和空间自相关分析对鸟类丰富度的空间分布格局与热点区域进行了探讨, 并对当前功能区划下的保护空缺进行了分析。结果表明: (1)调查期间共记录鸟类89种, 隶属10目29科57属, 其中列入《国家重点保护野生动物名录》的12种, 列入《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约(CITES)》附录I、II 的11种; (2)不同环境梯度间鸟类群落组成差异显著, 低海拔的森林生境物种多样性要明显高于高海拔的草原草甸生境; (3)鸟类丰富度的空间格局表现为从东北部的峡谷林区分别往西北、东南部冰川雪山递减; 濒危保护鸟类的热点区域集中分布在西南部高山草甸, 与全部鸟类的热点区域之间存在明显差异; (4)麦秀分区核心区范围与全部鸟类的多样性热点区域的分布一致, 但未能覆盖濒危保护鸟类的热点区域, 可能不利于濒危鸟类的保护。本研究结果有助于保护区划的修订与完善, 同时亦能为小尺度下生物多样性保护规划的研究提供有益参考。

关键词: 鸟类多样性, 空间格局, 热点区域, 空间自相关, GAP分析, 三江源地区

Assessing and determining patterns and hotspots of biodiversity are the foundation of biodiversity conservation planning. Situated in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and being the source of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lancang rivers, the Sanjiangyuan region is considered to be one of the most abundant and concentrated areas of plateau species worldwide. We conducted bird censuses in the Maixiu Area of Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve in March, May and August of 2014. We examined the spatial patterns and identified bird community hotspots, and the conservation gaps of current zoning. Our results showed that: (1) there were 89 bird species in the Maixiu Area belonging to 10 orders, 29 families and 57 genera, among which 12 species belonged to the List of Key Protected Wild Animals of China and 11 species were listed in appendices I and II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); (2) there were differences in bird community composition among habitat types and along an elevational gradient, and bird diversity in low altitude, forest habitats was higher than that found in high altitude, meadow habitats; (3) bird diversity decreased from forest to glaciers and snowberg, and from northeast to northwest and southeast; hotspots of endangered birds were concentrated in southwestern alpine meadows, which differed from the hotspots of the overall bird community; and (4) the core zone of the reserve matched the hotspots of overall birds well, but failed to match the hotspots of endangered birds, which might be not conducive to their protection. Our results may help to make more effective decisions for biodiversity conservation in this region.

Key words: bird diversity, spatial patterns, hotspots, spatial autocorrelation, GAP analysis, Sanjiangyuan region

图1

研究区位置及调查样线示意图"

表1

不同生境类型鸟类群落多样性"

生境类型
Habitat type
面积
Area (km2)
物种丰富度
Species richness
密度
Density (species/km2)
Shannon-Wiener多样性指数
Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H')
均匀度指数
Evenness index (Jsw)
森林 Forest 126.6 48 0.379 3.134 0.938
灌丛 Bush 653.2 42 0.064 2.925 0.900
草甸草原 Meadow 1,613.2 46 0.028 2.093 0.547
湿地 Wetland 291.4 22 0.075 2.156 0.697

表2

不同生境类型鸟类共有种(对角线上)和群落相似性(对角线下)"

生境类型
Habitat type
森林
Forest
灌丛
Bush
草甸草原
Meadow
湿地
Wetland
森林 Forest - 30 19 8
灌丛 Bush 0.667 - 16 9
草甸草原 Meadow 0.404 0.364 - 15
湿地 Wetland 0.228 0.282 0.442 -

表3

不同海拔梯度鸟类群落多样性"

海拔梯度
Altitude gradient
面积
Area (km2)
物种丰富度
Species richness
密度
Density (species/km2)
Shannon-Wiener多样性指数
Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H')
均匀度指数
Evenness index (Jsw)
< 3,200 m 40.0 51 1.275 3.193 0.812
3,200-3,400 m 109.0 50 0.458 3.251 0.831
3,400-3,600 m 438.8 39 0.088 2.295 0.626
3,600-3,800 m 1,067.0 36 0.034 1.947 0.543
3,800-4,000 m 450.3 15 0.033 2.117 0.782
4,000-4,200 m 298.5 10 0.033 1.464 0.636
> 4,200 m 280.4 8 0.028 0.982 0.472

表4

不同海拔梯度鸟类共有种(对角线上)和群落相似性(对角线下)"

海拔梯度
Altitude gradient
< 3,200 m 3,200-3,400 m 3,400-3,600 m 3,600-3,800 m 3,800-4,000 m 4,000-4,200 m > 4,200 m
< 3,200 m - 32 24 15 6 4 1
3,200-3,400 m 0.634 - 27 18 7 4 2
3,400-3,600 m 0.534 0.607 - 23 12 8 7
3,600-3,800 m 0.344 0.419 0.613 - 12 8 7
3,800-4,000 m 0.181 0.215 0.444 0.471 - 6 4
4,000-4,200 m 0.131 0.134 0.327 0.348 0.480 - 6
> 4,200 m 0.034 0.067 0.298 0.318 0.348 0.334 -

图2

麦秀分区鸟类丰富度空间分布格局。a: 全部鸟类; b: 国家重点保护鸟类; c: CITES附录I, II中的鸟类"

图3

麦秀分区鸟类多样性热点区域。a: 全部鸟类; b: 国家重点保护鸟类; c: CITES附录I, II中的鸟类"

图4

麦秀分区鸟类多样性热点区域与功能区划的对比"

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