生物多样性 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 22473.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022473

• 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于取食行为探究北京居民区鸟类的食源特征及多样性

殷鲁秦1,2, 王成1,2,*(), 韩文静1,2   

  1. 1.中国林业科学研究院林业研究所, 北京 100091
    2.国家林业和草原局城市森林研究中心, 北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2022-08-18 接受日期:2022-11-15 出版日期:2023-05-20 发布日期:2023-01-01
  • 通讯作者: * E-mail: wch8361@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(CAFYBB2022SY006)

Food source characteristics and diversity of birds based on feeding behavior in residential areas of Beijing

Luqin Yin1,2, Cheng Wang1,2,*(), Wenjing Han1,2   

  1. 1. Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    2. Urban Forest Research Center, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing 100091
  • Received:2022-08-18 Accepted:2022-11-15 Online:2023-05-20 Published:2023-01-01
  • Contact: * E-mail: wch8361@163.com

摘要:

城市是鸟类的重要栖息地, 城市绿地中占比最大的为居住绿地, 是容纳鸟类的重要生境。对于鸟类生存来说, 食物的种类和数量是关键的限制因子。本研究从鸟类的食物偏好入手, 旨在构建北京居住区鸟类的食源关系, 探究鸟类在居住区中取食的影响因素。研究选取40个居住小区作为调查样地, 于2020年6月至2021年5月每月调查1次, 采用广义线性模型评估鸟类在居住区中取食的影响因素, 并对鸟类的食源多样性指数与多度、分布范围进行线性回归。结果表明: (1)本研究共记录到取食行为的鸟种共14科35种2,242只, 丰富度为春季 > 秋季 > 冬季 > 夏季, 多度为春季 > 冬季 > 秋季 > 夏季, Shannon-Wiener多样性指数为秋季 > 春季 > 冬季 > 夏季。(2)鸟类的食源依次为昆虫(33.87%)、翅果(18.33%)、浆果(9.77%)、球果(8.16%)、草籽(5.17%)等。(3)鸟类对植物的直接利用高达60.4%, 间接利用为39.6%, 食源植物Shannon-Wiener多样性指数为秋季(3.1612) > 冬季(2.9651) > 春季(2.9203) > 夏季(2.1763)。(4)食源树种是影响鸟类在居住区中取食最关键的外界环境因素, 食源越丰富的鸟种, 其种群数量越大, 分布范围越广泛。居住区的食源植物具有类型丰富、种类繁多、从早春到晚秋覆盖全物候的特点, 在规划设计时应多配置北京乡土树种以及金银木(Lonicera maackii)等观果植物, 减少绿篱配置, 倡导低干扰的近自然园林养护管理措施。

关键词: 鸟类食性, 居住区, 食物来源, 食源植物, 鸟类多样性, 北京

Abstract

Aims: Urban areas can provide important habitats for birds. Residential green spaces can play an important role in urban green spaces and may provide valuable resources for urban birds. Food diversity and quantity can be one of the factors that could be limiting bird survival. Therefore, by considering the food preferences of birds, this study aims to determine the relationship between birds and their food sources in Beijing residential areas. Furthermore, this study seeks to determine what factors may influence bird feeding behavior in residential areas.
Methods: Forty residential areas were selected as survey plots and surveyed monthly from June 2020 to May 2021. Shannon-Wiener diversity index was used for evaluating bird diversity, and the distribution was defined as the numbers of residential areas where birds fed. A generalized linear model was used to evaluate the influencing factors of bird feeding in residential areas, and linear regression was performed on the diversity index, abundance and the distribution of bird feeding sources.
Results: (1) The feeding behavior of 2,242 birds (35 species, 14 families) were recorded. We observed that bird richness was at its highest in spring, followed by autumn, winter and summer, then abundance was at its highest in spring, followed by winter, autumn and summer, and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index was at its highest in autumn, followed by spring, winter, summer. (2) A decrease in food sources was observed in the following: insects (33.87%), samara (18.33%), berries (9.77%), cones (8.16%) and grass seeds (5.17%). (3) The direct utilization of plants by birds was 60.4%, while the indirect utilization was 39.6%. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of food source plants decreased in autumn (3.1612), winter (2.9651), spring (2.9203) and summer (2.1763). (4) The species of food source was the most critical environmental factor that determined birds feeding behavior in residential areas. Birds with more abundant food sources had larger populations and wider distribution ranges.
Conclusion: Plant species in residential areas can be highly diverse and can offer a wide range of food sources for multiple species of birds throughout their entire phenology between the early spring and autumn. It is necessary to plant more native tree species and fruiting plants, reduce hedgerows, and advocate near-natural management measures with low disturbance.

Key words: bird diet, residential area, food source, food source plant, bird diversity, Beijing