生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 321-331.doi: 10.17520/biods.2014145

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广西大青山次生林的群落特征及主要乔木种群的空间分布格局

农友1, 2, *(), 郑路1, 2, 贾宏炎1, 2, 卢立华1, 2, 黄德卫1, 2, 黄柏华1, 2, 雷丽群1, 2   

  1. 1 (中国林业科学研究院热带林业实验中心, 广西凭祥 532600)
    2 (广西友谊关森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 广西凭祥 532600);
  • 收稿日期:2014-07-10 接受日期:2015-01-26 出版日期:2015-06-09
  • 通讯作者: 农友 E-mail:imnongyou@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    “十二五”农村领域国家科技计划项目(2012BAD22B0105);基于经营班尺度的森林立地分类与评价项目(CAFYBB2012001);中国林科院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项资金项目(CAFYBB2014QA033);广西自然科学基金青年基金项目(2014GXNSFBA118100)

Community characteristics and spatial distribution of dominant tree species in a secondary forest of Daqing Mountains, southwestern Guangxi, China

You Nong1, 2, *, Lu Zheng1, 2, Hongyan Jia1, 2, Lihua Lu1, 2, Dewei Huang1, 2, Bohua Huang1, 2, Liqun Lei1, 2   

  1. 1 Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Pingxiang, Guangxi 532600
    2 Guangxi Youyiguan Forest Ecosystem National Research Station, Pingxiang, Guangxi 532600
  • Received:2014-07-10 Accepted:2015-01-26 Online:2015-06-09
  • Contact: Nong You E-mail:imnongyou@163.com

本文依托广西友谊关森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站在大青山设置的1 ha长期监测样地, 分析了森林群落的物种组成、区系特征及乔木种群的径级结构, 并用点格局分析方法的O-ring统计对主要乔木植物种群的空间分布格局及其空间关联性进行了研究, 旨在深入探讨该区域次生林的物种多样性特点及其维持机制, 分析影响优势树种空间分布格局的可能因素。大青山次生林共调查到植物109种, 其中乔木58种、灌木29种、草本22种, 樟科为样地内物种最丰富的科, 区系组成以泛热带成分为主; 乔木树种的径级结构接近倒“J”形, 主要种群的个体集中分布于中小径级范围(1-5 cm), 林分结构合理, 更新良好。从物种多度、胸高断面积和重要值来看, 大叶栎(Quercus griffithii)和锈毛梭子果(Eberhardtia aurata)是群落中的共优种, 其个体数占总个体数的30.8%, 鸭公树(Neolitsea chuii)、广东琼楠(Beilschmiedia fordii)和尖连蕊茶(Camellia cuspidata)为群落的主要伴生树种。用完全随机模型不排除生境异质性的条件下, 主要种群多数呈聚集分布; 用异质性随机模型排除生境异质性的条件下, 主要种群的聚集程度显著下降, 仅在小尺度上呈聚集分布; 主要树种均在一定尺度上表现为两两间正相关, 且在0-50 m的大部分尺度上显示出相互独立的特点, 没有表现出负相关。

关键词: 空间分布格局, 空间相关性, 物种组成, 次生林, 南亚热带

In order to determine species characteristics and the factors affecting distribution patterns of dominant tree species of secondary forests in Daqing Mountains, we analyzed community composition, DBH size structure, species distribution and spatial correlations using a point pattern analysis of O-ring statistical method. There were a total of 109 species including 58 tree species, 29 shrub species and 22 herb species in a 1 ha plot. The floristic composition was pan-tropical with Quercus griffithii and Eberhardtia aurata as the co-dominant species. These two species accounted for 30.8% of the total number of individuals. Neolitsea chuii, Beilschmiedia fordii and Camellia cuspidate were the secondary tree species of the community. The DBH size structure of the populations showed a reverse J-shaped pattern with a greater number of small diameter (1-5 cm) individuals. Species spatial distribution with environmental heterogeneity was aggregated but decreased significantly with increasing spatial scales. Spatial distribution and heterogeneity were independent at most spatial scales among the main species populations.

Key words: spatial distribution, spatial correlation, species composition, secondary forest, lower subtropical area

表1

大青山1 ha次生林样地群落层次及其多样性"

层次
Stratification
物种丰富度指数
Species richness (S)
Shannon-Wiener指数
Shannon-Wiener index (H′)
Simpson指数
Simpson index (D)
均匀度指数
Evenness index (Jsw)
乔木层 Tree Layer 58 2.95 0.91 0.73
灌木层 Shrub Layer 29 2.25 0.82 0.70
草本层 Herb Layer 22 2.02 0.78 0.65

图1

大青山1 ha次生林样地乔木径级结构"

图2

大青山1 ha次生林样地主要乔木种群径级结构"

表2

大青山1 ha次生林样地主要树种重要值"

种名 Species 个体数 Individuals 胸高断面积 Basal area (cm2) 重要值 Importance value (%)
大叶栎 Quercus griffithii 594 29,800.92 33.59
锈毛梭子果 Eberhardtia aurata 459 26,591.51 28.83
鹿角锥 Castanopsis lamontii 107 44,791.11 21.98
尖连蕊茶 Camellia cuspidata 318 10,046.76 17.69
木姜子 Litsea pungens 75 22,724.85 13.58
鸭公树 Neolitsea chuii 123 16,414.89 13.50
广东琼楠 Beilschmiedia fordii 121 13,834.18 13.34
罗浮锥 Castanopsis faberi 39 27,981.65 13.16
环鳞烟斗柯 Lithocarpus corneus 127 15,114.14 13.02
桂南木莲 Manglietia chingii 75 20,219.74 12.77
柠檬金花茶 Camellia limonia 142 6,196.79 11.00
海南山龙眼 Helicia hainanensis 129 5,881.87 10.28

图3

大青山1 ha次生林样地中主要物种的分布。(a)大叶栎; (b)鹿角锥; (c)木姜子; (d)鸭公树; (e)锈毛梭子果; (f)尖连蕊茶; (g)罗浮锥; (h)广东琼楠。"

表3

生境异质性对主要树种空间分布格局的影响"

种名
Species
尺度 Scale (m)
0-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50
大叶栎 Quercus griffithii a a a a a
广东琼楠 Beilschmiedia fordii a a a a a
尖连蕊茶 Camellia cuspidata a a a a a
鹿角锥 Castanopsis lamontii a a a a a
罗浮锥 Castanopsis faberi a a a a a
木姜子 Litsea pungens a (+) a (0) a a a (+)
锈毛梭子果 Eberhardtia aurata a a a a a
鸭公树 Neolitsea chuii a a a a a

图4

排除生境异质性后主要种群的点格局分析。实线为分析数据的O(r)值, 虚线为包迹线, 表示所模拟的99%置信区间。(a) 大叶栎; (b)广东琼楠; (c)尖连蕊茶; (d)鹿角锥; (e)罗浮锥; (f)木姜子; (g)锈毛梭子果; (h)鸭公树。"

图5

大青山次生林主要种群的种间关系分析。实线为分析数据的O12(r)值, 虚线为包迹线, 表示所模拟的99%置信区间。(a)大叶栎-尖连蕊茶; (b)大叶栎-鹿角锥; (c)大叶栎-锈毛梭子果; (d)鹿角锥-尖连蕊茶; (e)鹿角锥-锈毛梭子果; (f)锈毛梭子果-尖连蕊茶。"

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